Analysis of Improved Production Practices in Small holder Natural Rubber Plantation for Sustainable Natural Rubber Industry in Nigeria

  • Giroh Yuniyus Dengle Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria
  • Evelyn Musa Research Outreach Department, Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria, PMB1049, Benin City, Nigeria
  • Sunday Francis Yustus Department of Vocational Education Federal College of Education PMB Yola Nigeria
Keywords: Natural rubber, improved practices, industry, production function, Nigeria


The decline in natural rubber production was a consequence of combined effects of the civil war and the oil boom era. Successive governments in the country responded through various policies and programme to address the poor performance of the natural rubber industry. The success of the industry will largely depend on small holder rubber farmers adopting the improved production practices. This study was therefore conducted to examine the Improved Production Practices in Small holder Natural Rubber Plantations for Sustainable Natural Rubber Industry in Nigeria. The specific objectives  were to  describe  the socio- economic characteristics of respondents; identify improved production  practices  adopted for  natural rubber  production  and examine factors influencing  production .  Data were collected on 296 small scale rubber farmers and analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Results revealed  that respondents are  relatively old  with   the   mean age of  48 years  with  mean family size of 5 people and are smallholder farmers with   mean farm size of  1.7 hectares and with mean   experience of  16  years.  Analysis on improved practices among respondents showed that 72.64% adopted tapping equipment maintenance, slashing of plantation (57.43%), fire traces (65.88%) while 37% of the respondents adopted alternate daily tapping. Furthermore,   share arrangement was dominant mode of engagement for latex exploitation among respondents (57.09%). Exotic clones and NIG800/NIG900 series were used as the major planting materials while rubber +cassava, rubber +yam and rubber + plantain were the major rubber based cropping systems adopted by respondents. Cobb-Douglas production function analysis indicated that coefficient of multiple determination (R2) of 0.6303implied that   63.03% of the variations in output of the respondents were explained by the variables in the model. Farm size, improved planting materials, labour and supervision were factors influencing adoption of improved production among respondents


(1) Abolagba, E. O, Aigbekaen, E.O and Omokhafe, K.O. (2003). Farm Gate Marketing of Natural Rubber in the South East Rubber Growing zone of Nigeria. Nigeria Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development 6.40- 48.

(2) Abolagba, E.O., C.N Onyekwere., B.N. Agbonkpolor and H.Y Umar (2010). Determinants of Agricultural Exports. Journal of Human Ecology. 29. (3), 181 – 184

(3) AbMalek, K. and Basir, K.M. (2002). High Damping of Natural Rubber Bearings in Earthquake Protection of Buildings. Malaysian Rubber Technology Developments. 2(1), 2 – 7

(4) Aigbekaen, E.O, Imarhiagbe, E.O and Omokhafe, K.O. (2000).Adoption of some recommended Agronomic practices of natural rubber in Nigeria, Journal of Agriculture Forestry& Fisheries 1 &2: 51-56

(5) Agwu, A.E. (2006), Enhancing natural rubber production( Hevea brasiliensis) production through extension service delivery in South west agricultural zone in Nigeria. Agricultural Sciences. 5 (2), 7 -16.

(6) Chew, T.A. (2001), Share Contracts in Malaysian Rubber Smallholdings. Land Economics . 67.(1), 85 – 98.

(7) Cena ,R. L.(2011). Money-making potentials of rubber.

(8) Retrieved September 30, 2011, from

(9) Dawson, N. Martin, A. and Camfield, L. (2019) Can agricultural intensification help attain Sustainable Development Goals? Evidence from Africa and Asia, Third World Quarterly, 40:5, 926-946, DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2019.1568190

(10) Delabarre, M.A& Serier, J.B. (2000). Rubber: The Tropical Agriculturalist. CTA Macmillan Education Ltd London, pp. 4 –11

(11) Emokaro, C.O and Erhabor, P.O. (2006). A comparative Analysis of Input use and Profitability among Cassava farmers in the three Agro ecological Zones of Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Sustainable Tropical Agricultural Research .19, 15- 22

(12) Esekhade, T.U, Ugwa, I.K and Aigbekaen, E.O. (1996): Suitability and Economic viability of intercropping in rubber on acid sandy soils of southern Nigeria. India Journal of Natural Rubber Research 9:36 – 39

(13) Fox, J., J. C. Castella, and A. D. Ziegler. (2011): Swidden, rubber and carbon: Can REDDþwork for people and the environment in montane mainland Southeast Asia? CCAFS Working Paper No. 9. Denmark, Copenhagen: CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS).

(14) Ike, P.C (2010), Access and Loan Repayment in the Delta State Agricultural Loan Scheme. Farm Management Association of Nigeria (FAMAN) Journal 11(1), 53 – 61.

(15) Mesike, S.C., O.E.D. Owie and R.N. Okoh (2009). Resource – Use Efficiency and Return to Scale in Smallholders Rubber Farming System in Edo State, Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 28(3). 183 –186.

(16) Mesike, S.C., G.A. Sagay and R.N. Okoh (2010). Optimum Replacement period for Rubber plantation in Nigeria.Quarterly International Journal of Agriculture 49(3). 257– 270.

(17) Mesike C. S. and Esekhade T. U.(2014): Rainfall variability and rubber production in Nigeria . African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology8(1): 54-57

(18) Mustapha, N. H.N(2011), Technical Efficiency for Rubber Smallholders under RISDA’s Supervisory System using Stochastic Frontier Analysis. Journal of Sustainability Science and Management 6(1), 156 – 168.

(19) Njukeng, J.N., P.M. Muenyi., B.K. Ngane and E.E. Ehabe ( 2011). Ethephon Stimulation and Yield Response of Some Hevea Clones in the Humid Forests of South West Cameroon. International Journal of Agronomy 2011: 1- 5.

(20) Omokhafe, K.O. and Nasiru, I. (2004). Polygene inheritance for latex yield in Hevea brasiliensis: Muell Arg. Plant Genetic Resource newsletter. 140, 48- 50

(21) Omo-Ikerodah, E. E., K. O. Omokhafe, F. A. Akpobome, and M. U. Mokwunye. (2009): An overview of the potentials of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) engineering for the production of valuable proteins. African Journal of Biotechnology 8(25):7303–7307.

(22) Orimoloye, J.R.(2011). Characterization and Evaluation of Selected Soils of Southern Nigeria for Rubber Production. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

(23) Otene, F. G., Obinne, C.P.O and P.O. Egwumah, (2011). Evaluation of the Utilization Level of Improved Rubber Mangement Pratices among Farm Settlers in Edo and Delta States. Journal of Agricultural Science 2(1). 53 – 60.

(24) Phommexay, P., C. Satasook, P. Bates, M. Pearch, and S. Bumrungsri (2011): The impact of rubber plantations on the diversity and activity of understorey insectivorous bats in Southern Thailand. Biodiversity Conservation 20:1441–1456.

(25) Presidential Committee on Rubber Production, Utilization and Export. An Implementation plan submitted to the Honourable Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development, March, 2006, 67p.

(26) Rodrigo, V. H. L., S. M. M. Iqbal, and L. S. S. Pathiratna. 2004. Intercropping—A way to maximise the land productivity and to obtain economic stability. Bull. Rubber Res. Inst. Sri Lanka 45:55–59.

(27) Rodrigo, V.H.L., Thenakoon, S., and Stirling, C.M.(2001a): Priorities and objectives of smallholder growers and the contribution of intercropping to livelihood strategies : a case study from Sri- Lanka. Outlook on Agriculture 30(4): 261 – 266.

(28) Rodrigo, V.H.L., Stirling, C.M., Naranpanawa, R.M.A. K. B and Herath, P.H. M.U.(2001b): Intercropping of immature rubber in Sri- Lanka: present status and financial analysis of intercrops planted at three densities of banana. Agro forestry Systems 51(1): 35 – 48.

(29) Rubber based farming systems development for increasing smallholders’ income in Indonesia

(30) of 24/8/2007

(31) Sasi, B(2011). Shortage of labourers a threat to Rubber sector in India.

(32) Retrieved July 1,2011 from: the of labourers a threat to rubber in india.html

(33) Schroth, G., Moraes, V.H. F and da Mota, M.S.S.(2004). Increasing the profitability of traditional, planted rubber agro forest at the Tapajo’s river, Brazilian Amazon. Journal Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 102. 319 –339.

(34) Spore (2007). Natural Rubber Springs Back. A Bimonthly Bulletin of the Technical Centre for Tropical Agriculture ( CTA) , Pp 11– 12.

(35) Suyanto, S., Tomich, T.P and Otsuka, K.(2001). Land demand and Land Management Efficiency: The Case of Smallholder Rubber Production in Customary Areas of Sumatra. Journal of Agro forestry Systems. 50 (2). 145 – 160.

(36) Tapan Kumar Nath , Makoto Inoue & Mangala De Zoysa (2013): Small-Scale Rubber Planting for Enhancement of People's Livelihoods: A Comparative Study in Three South Asian Countries. Society & Natural Resources: An International Journal, 26:9, 1066-1081, DOI: 10.1080/08941920.2013.779342

(37) Vijayakumar,K.R;Eric, G., Thomas, K.U., Sumamadji, W.X., Rodrigo, L.,Thanh, D.K.,Sopchoka, P.,Karunaichamy, K and Said, M.M.D (2009). Revised International Notation for Latex Harvest Technology. The International Rubber Research Development Board (IRRDB) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Pp 5- 7.

(38) Umar, H. Y, Okore, N.E, Toryila, M., Asemota, B. and Okore, I.K(2017) : Evaluation of the Impact of Climatic Factors on Latex Yield of Hevea Brasiliensis International Journal of Research Studies in Agricultural Sciences 3( 5): 28-33

(39) Umar, H. Y., D. Y. Giroh, N. B. Agbonkpolor, and C. S. Mesike. 2011. An overview of world natural rubber production and consumption: An implication for economic empowerment and poverty alleviation in Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology . 33:53–59.
How to Cite
Yuniyus Dengle, G., Musa, E., & Yustus, S. F. (2020). Analysis of Improved Production Practices in Small holder Natural Rubber Plantation for Sustainable Natural Rubber Industry in Nigeria. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(2), 01-15.