European Journal of Applied Sciences <p><em>European Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) </em> is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all aspects of applied sciences and natural sciences.</p> <p>A wide range of topics in applied and natural sciences are covered, which includes but not limited to the Agriculture, Fisheries, Architecture and design, Divinity, Education, Engineering and technology, Environmental studies and forestry, Family and consumer science, Atmospheric sciences, Oceanography, Human physical performance and recreation, Journalism, Media studies and communication, Business, Law, Library and museum studies, Military sciences, Public administration, Public policy, Social work, Transportation.</p> <p>The journal aims is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary electronic material.</p> en-US (Christopher James) (Olivia Adam) Thu, 12 Jan 2023 17:20:19 +0000 OJS 60 Stochastic Modelling of Spatial Variability of Petrophysical Properties of Zingo Field Niger Delta Basin Nigeria <p><strong>This research is focused on the, stochastic modeling of spatial variability of petrophysical properties in reservoir sands in thirteen oil wells of Zingo Field, Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria. Petrophysical properties of the reservoirs sands was generated using well logs, Archie’s equation with Pickett plot and Timur (1968) version of Wyllie and Rose empirical equation. Fault sticks and pillar gridding were used to delineate structural features and generate top surfaces as interpreted horizons on the seismic sections. Results from the stochastic modeling shows that the reservoirs exhibit very good qualities with 17% and 15% volume of shale, 27% and 26% total porosity, 458mD and 565mD permeability for reservoirs C5000 and C6000 respectively. Reservoir C5000 main structures are dipping NE-SW and consists of interpreted major NW-SE fault and other faults trending NE-SW. The research shows that an understanding and properly capturing the reservoir geometry, quality and distribution is important in estimating in place hydrocarbon volumes.</strong></p> T. Y. Agbagie, R. U. Ideozu, F. I. Chiazor Copyright (c) 2023 T. Y. Agbagie, R. U. Ideozu, F. I. Chiazor Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Understanding the So Called “Anomalous Thermal Strengthening” of Elastic Precursor Decay Tests <p><strong>Some time ago a Russian shock physics group performed planar impact tests on thin metal targets (1mm or less) at different temperatures. They were able to observe the elastic precursor wave amplitudes at different target thicknesses and for different target temperatures. They concluded from the test results that the elastic precursor wave decay rate was <u>lower</u> for higher test temperatures, or as they phrased it, dynamic strength increases with temperature. Such a behavior is counter intuitive, as we are used to believe from our experience with quasistatic viscoplastic response, that strength should decrease with temperature. Accordingly, these results of the Russian group were referred to by them as "<u>Anomalous Thermal Strengthening</u>". Our purpose here is to reproduce such test results using a hydrocode. To this end we do the following: 1) we change the way our hydrocode computes dynamic viscoplastic response, from the usually used <u>radial return</u> approach to the more appropriate <u>overstress approach</u>; 2) we compute a planar impact example and reproduce an elastic precursor decay behavior; 3) we show how the quasistatic part of the response can be separated from dynamic part; and 4) we make the quasistatic and the dynamic response parts depend separately on temperature, and in this way we’re able to reproduce the elastic precursor wave increase with temperature, as observed in the above mentioned tests.</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Yehuda Partom Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Constructing and Evaluating the Features of Novelty Yarn Made from Denim Cut Waste <p><strong>By turning the apparel industry denim cut waste into mélange yarn, the study aims to help the sector get toward zero waste. It is crucial to create already-available manufacturing techniques that are more environmentally friendly. Being conscious of environmental issues, it is a rapidly expanding section of the fashion industry. The major issue facing the enormous denim business is caused by vast amounts of secondhand waste, unsalable stock, and denim waste that needs to be treated from scratch. In order to prepare cotton for the production of recycled cotton yarns, recycled cotton fiber was first extracted from denim cut waste using mechanical procedures (sorting &amp; opening - extraction of fiber, sliver development, drawing, roving, spinning). The fiber was dyed without going through the dyeing process, and recycled cotton was used to create the yarn. The yarn underwent tests to determine its strength (153 lb./lea, TPI 17, count 8 Ne), applicability as a raw material for clothing, and more. According to other findings, it is a high-quality complete yarn because mélange yarn, for various ratios, Because there is no blending of two different fibers, 100% cotton yarn has produced the best results. This method of recovering denim cut waste in the textile manufacturing sector today is efficient and sustainable.</strong></p> MD ALIMUR REZA Copyright (c) 2023 MD ALIMUR REZA Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Giant Asteroid or Nuclear Winter - A 2023 Menu <p>.</p> Michael Gurevitz Copyright (c) 2023 Michael Gurevitz Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Clothing thermal insulation of infant in stroller relating to evaluation of thermal environment of infant <p>The clothing thermal insulation for individual clothing ensembles of infant and strollers has been clarified. However, the clothing thermal insulation for the combination of them has not been measured at all. The purpose of this study is to examine the typical values of human factors such as the clothing area factor and clothing thermal insulation of an infant in a stroller. As typical clothing ensembles, seasonal combinations of infant clothing with a stroller were selected. The stroller was treated as part of the infant’s clothing. The clothing area factors were measured by using the photographic method. The clothing thermal insulations were measured by using an infant’s thermal manikin. The typical clothing area factor of an infant in a stroller is 3.67 for summer clothing, 3.75 for mid-season clothing, and 4.19 for winter clothing. The typical clothing thermal insulation of an infant in a stroller is 1.23 clo for summer, 1.39 clo for mid-season, and 1.97 clo for winter. The stroller was shown to significantly affect the body heat balance between the infant and the thermal environment.</p> Yoshihito Kurazumi Copyright (c) 2023 Yoshihito Kurazumi Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Monitoring the Variability of the Pollutant Level in Urban Water Front during Dry and Wet Seasons <p><strong>The variability of the physicochemical properties of River water during the dry season (DS) and rainy season (RS) were carried out using Bonny Water Front Creek (BWFC) as case study. The levels of physicochemical properties including: pH, temperature (T), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, salinity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and mercury (Hg), vanadium (V), magnesium (Mg), cadmium (Cd), and nickel (Ni) were analyzed. Water samples were collected along the coastal line in the direction of flow of the water at intervals of 10m from the pollution source up to 100 meters on the water surface with the aid of boat moving from the upstream to downstream in the direction of water flow. The experimental results showed the average concentration of pH (7.52), EC (22355.00µs/cm), T(30.14OC), turbidity (11.64NTU), Salinity (18.91mg/l), B0D(18.07mg/l), COD (55.10mg/l), DO (4.29mg/l), TDS (16.26mg/l), The pH values were within acceptable range, EC, turbidity, TDS, and salinity were above WHO acceptable limit of 1000s/cm, 5NTU, 24-28, N/S, respectively. Also, BOD and COD concentration equally indicated that the Creeks were polluted. Similarly, the concentrations of some heavy metals in the creeks during both seasons were higher than limits given by World Health Organization for river water. Therefore, suggesting for continuous assessment and remedial techniques or treatment process must be applied to ascertain pollutant levels in the creeks to inhabit aquatic life.</strong></p> Adekunle ATTA, Tuebi Benson Tegu, Tuebi Benson Tegu, Raymond Alex Ekemube, Sure Olusegun Ebenezer Copyright (c) 2023 Adekunle ATTA, Tuebi Benson Tegu, Tuebi Benson Tegu, Raymond Alex Ekemube, Sure Olusegun Ebenezer Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Efficacy of Selected Medicinal Plants of Kaya Kauma and Kaya Tsolokero Against Bacterial Diseases <p><strong>An ethnobotanical study was carried out in the sacred Kaya forests of Kauma and Tsolokero in Kilifi County in Kenya. Ethnobotanical data on useful and medicinal plants was collected. Communities living around these two forests basically depend on the diversity of flora for their livelihoods. The local herbalists use indigenous trees and shrubs to treat a variety of diseases. These skills have been passed down through generations. In this study, a survey was carried out in twenty-six villages around Kaya Kauma (18) and Kaya Tsolokero (8). The population was interviewed for knowledge on medicinal plants. More emphasis was put on the Traditional herbal practitioners (THPs) possess more information on herbal plants, their preparation and prescription for ailments they reportedly treat. Preliminary reports indicated that most commonly treated ailments were caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses in that order. Based on this, Eleven (11) medicinal plants recommended for bacteria-related ailments were selected and tested in the laboratory to validate their efficacy against <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. Suspensions of <em>S. aureus</em> and <em>E.coli</em> were prepared form 24h fresh colonies and diluted to x10<sup>-7</sup> cfu/ml where 100µl of each were plated to dry on 9cm plates filled with King B media. A protocol adopted from the THPs was used to prepare medicinal plant formulations from the selected plants. The plant materials were subjected to soaking, boiling or roasting as recommended and finally formulated in SDW at 1:1 (Wt/Vol). About 40µl of the plant formulations diluted at x10<sup>-1</sup>, x10<sup>-2</sup> and x10<sup>-3</sup> and SDW as control treatment were loaded on sterile paper plugs, allowed to air dry in a laminar flow before placing them equi-distantly at 4 cm radius on the inoculated King B media plates. More than (64%) of tested plants suppressed the growth of either <em>S. aureus</em> or <em>E.coli</em> while 4 (&gt;30%) suppressed both test bacteria. In total, 91 medicinal plants were mentioned by communities in Kaya Kauma (48) and Tsolokero (43). THPs from the two forest commonly treated ailments caused by bacteria, fungi and viruses in that order. The bioassay tests in this study validated the potency of more than 75% of the recommended medicinal plants that treated bacterial infections. Concentrations used in the study were far below what is recommended by THPs which raises concerns of possibilities of over prescriptions. There is need therefore to regularize and standardize products from this fast-growing industry.</strong></p> Jolly Rajat, Joyce Mnyazi Jefwa, Joseph Mghalu Mwafaida Copyright (c) 2023 Jolly Rajat Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Poverty Elevation by Islamic Finance <p><strong>This paper discuss the Islamic finance and its role to resolve poverty problems ,the different tools and models of Islamic finance will provide enriching of finance phenomena that emerge new era and changeable behavior, The paper also investigate &nbsp;the nature of traditional financing system that build upon the rate of interest model which only distributed &nbsp;the fund to high income groups. The paper focuses for these Islamic tools that diversification finance for,&nbsp; new methods of finance. Through mobilization of rural saving for poor people by providing financing for several potential areas including finance for agricultural inputs, agro-based industries ,milk plants, woolen mills, farm machinery assembly &amp; rural structure projects. there by empirical investigation on the effect of Islamic finance as an alternative financial model to solve poverty alleviation problems have accomplished within the discussion, to result in showing why Islamic financial models are better as approach and practice than conventional one, , Islamic models can be implemented at the non-Moslem societies also.</strong></p> Al Siddig Talha M. Rahma Copyright (c) 2023 Al Siddig Talha M. Rahma Thu, 12 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Core–Shell and Core–Multi-shell Configurations of the Polyhedra According to the Separation of Faces, and their Interlayer Polytopes <p><strong>In this paper, again inspired by Critchlow, and Grünbaum &amp; Shephard, I apply the 2.5D cubic schema of polyhedra according to the separation of faces and rhombic schema of faces that I have earlier developed to suggest core–shell and core–multi-shell geometries, using Class II of {2,3,4} symmetry as an exemplary case. These might find application in a variety of fields, particularly in nanoarchitecture. The morphology of polyhedra by symmetry class and inclusion of a null element &nbsp;recognize that each of the 8 Primary Polyhedra (s) of each class consists of facial polytopes (s) that include 0-dimensional (0-D) vertices (1-gons), and 1-D edges (2-gons), as well as 2-D polygons (n-gons), where only those s that are normal to the axes of symmetry are considered principial. Core–shell configurations are developed for pairs of s that share an edge of the cubic schema, by locating the smaller &nbsp;within the larger , where both are concentric, of unit edge length, and share coaxial negative (−ve), neutral (ntrl), and positive (+ve) axes; in Class II, these consist of facial, edge, and verticial axes of the cube, respectively. Restricting the pairings to those of the shared edges of the cubic schema that is abstracted from the separation of faces reduces the possible cases in each class from 56 to 12, while ensuring their compatibility. The interlayer formed between inner and outer s can then be partitioned into radial prismatic (), pyramidal (), and truncated pyramidal frustum () (cupola) elements of (0, α | β, or 2) frequency/orientation according to the rhombic schema of faces (Fig. 1), where 0 refers to the ;&nbsp; α | β in the −ve and +ve cases refer to facial rotation (truncation), α&nbsp; being the facial &nbsp;of frequency <em>n</em> of the polar (&nbsp;or ), β being that of the quasi-regular (), and in the ntrl case, α | β refer to the –&nbsp;orientations of ntrl s; and 2 referring to the 2<em>n</em> double frequency case. Inner vertices project to outer vertices, ntrl edges, or <em>n</em>-gons to form 0-s, ntrl 2-s, or <em>n</em>-s, respectively; inner ntrl edges project to outer ntrl edges or squares to form 2-s or 2-s, respectively; and inner <em>n</em>-gons project to outer <em>n</em>-gons or 2<em>n</em>-gons to form <em>n</em>-s or <em>n</em>-s, respectively, while 2<em>n</em>-gons project to 2<em>n</em>-gons to form <em>n</em>-s. These are all radial, on the main symmetry axes, and together fill the interlayer space. The heights of these elements can be derived from the inradii of the concentric PPs, and importantly, show constant increase by gender and axis of the cubic schema. Core-–multi-shell configurations are developed by abstracting 4 or 3 consecutive sequences of s from the cubic schema, thus utilising the core &nbsp;and/or outer , respectively, and similarly aligning them coaxially and concentrically; each of the 3 or 2 interlayers thus formed being completely filled by the corresponding , , &amp; &nbsp;elements. The architectures developed might find application to nanoarchitecture, molecular engineering, biochemistry, protein folding, biomedical scaffolds, catalysts, water filters, crystallography, metamaterials, and deployable space structures, quantum theory, and the structure of empirical space.&nbsp;</strong></p> Robert C. Meurant Copyright (c) 2023 Robert C. Meurant Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Archive Documents as Technical and Cultural Instruments <p><strong>The object of this analysis is acts and documents produced through activities connected to the management of university building patrimony. Their evaluation as functional instruments - both from the context in which they originate and the conservative phase in which they are destined to when they are no longer effective - passes across some examples extracted from the literature related to archives. Some citations are utilized as a pretext to reflect on what could be defined as the features, or even properties, of the material preserved.</strong></p> Silvano Tozzo Copyright (c) 2023 Silvano Tozzo Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modeling of Dynamic Necking in Bars <p>Necking of thin bodies (bars, plates) loaded in tension is one form of strain localization in ductile materials that may lead to failure. The phenomenon of necking has been studied extensively, initially for quasistatic loading and then for dynamic loading. Nevertheless, many issues concerning necking are still unclear. Among these are: 1) is necking a random or deterministic process; 2) how does the specimen choose the final neck location; 3) to what extent do perturbations (material or geometrical) influence the neck forming process; and 4) how do various parameters (material, geometrical, loading) influence the final neck location. Here we address these issues using computer simulations with a hydrocode. Among other things we find that: 1) neck formation is a semi deterministic process. Changing one of the parameters monotonously usually moves the final neck location monotonously as well, but there are exceptions; 2) final neck location is sensitive to the radial velocity of the end boundaries, and as this boundary condition is not fully controlled in tests, this may be the reason why neck formation is sometimes regarded as random; and 3) neck formation is insensitive to very small perturbations, but may be influenced by larger perturbations.</p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Yehuda Partom Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Control of Ultra-deep Strike-slip Fault Reservoir and Hydrocarbon Migration: A Case Study of HD Block in Tarim Basin <p><strong>The reservoirs in the HD area, Tarim Basin, are strictly controlled by the distribution of faults. On the basis of the latest high-precision three-dimensional seismic data as well as an understanding of the strike-slip fault theoretical model, the structural styles, assembly of major and secondary faults, movement history and relationship between fault activity and hydrocarbon accumulation are determined in the forms of seismic related section illustration and planar appearance. The study shows that the NE-oriented strike-slip faults of the Ordovician was activated from the middle Caledonian period and that the northern part displayed stronger activity than the southern part. This fault belt is the major fault in the study area and serves as the first-order oil source fault. The south-north thrust fault started to move in the early Hercynian and intersected with the main strike-slip faults. Considering the distribution of thrust, this fault acts as the secondary oil source fault. The hydrocarbons in the Ordovician reservoir are predominantly transferred by vertical in situ migration through SSFs and thrust faults. These faults cut deep into the source layer and played a major role in hydrocarbon migration. The NW-trending secondary SSF in the central part of the study area was formed in the middle and late Caledonian. The fault mainly controls the distribution of the reservoir and contributes little to hydrocarbon transfer. Therefore, the hydrocarbon potential around this fault is unfavorable.</strong></p> Xiangwen Li Copyright (c) 2023 Xiangwen Li Sun, 22 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Morphology of the Regular & Semi-Regular Polyhedra and Tessellations According to the Separation of Facial Polytopes <p>In previous work, inspired by Critchlow, and by Grünbaum &amp; Shephard, I proposed an integral 2.5D cubic schema of the regular and semi-regular polyhedra and polygonal tessellations of the plane for each class of symmetry, which could be differentiated into an upper and lower layer of 4 polytopes each, and characterized by corresponding pairs, so that upper polytope always corresponds to lower. I explored the motif of paired two-step sequences of first alternating facial separation and morphological transformation, and second facial morphological transformation and separation, which in the 2D consideration of the 2.5D schema are disposed about the vertical axis, as characterized by the correspondence between the &nbsp;of the lower and upper squares (diamonds or rhombi).</p> <p>Following intensive research, I here focus on a deeper pattern of morphological transformation of the primary prototypes that is characterized by the separation of one gendered set of the negative (−ve), neutral (ntrl), or positive (+ve) facial polytopes along the Y, Z, &amp; X axes of the cubic schema. As one set of faces separates, the other two sets morph/ project if polar/neutral, through nullregular or quasi-regulardouble facial levels (0α|β2) of the rhombic schema or its reflection. Each facial set separates just once: d=01. The cubic schema reveals significant three-fold symmetry by gender. The separation of faces provides an adequate schema for the morphology of the three classes of the regular and semi-regular polyhedra of {2,3,3}, {2,3,4}, and {2,3,5} symmetry, and two classes of polygonal tessellations (tilings) of {2,3,6} and {2,4,4} symmetry.</p> Robert C. Meurant Copyright (c) 2023 Robert C. Meurant Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Build of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>This undergraduate research project describes the construction, autonomous control, and exploration of potential uses of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum (TWIP) in uncontrolled environments [1]. Initially, the non-functioning physical design is two repurposed wheelchair wheels and motors mounted to a chassis that holds two batteries to power the robot. The goal was to continue with the legacy design, augment the build to the point where the robot is programmable, and potentially add sensors for further applications. Another goal was to learn how to design a safe circuit to power the robot and its controllers. Another objective was to learn about the fundamentals of programming an autonomous robot. This paper describes the experimental research progress and findings. The robot is currently programmable with an Arduino Mega 2560, which controls the wheels with two separate motor controllers. It has a limited footprint and has the potential to carry substantial payloads, which promises to be beneficial in uncontrolled workspaces. The initial research has the robot capable of being programmed to go in a straight line and currently has an MPU 6050 accelerometer and gyro attached to the Arduino, delivers state data used to make accurate turns and sense whether the robot has accelerated too quickly and may be in danger of becoming unbalanced.</strong></p> Sherine Antoun, Blake Kohlbrecher Copyright (c) 2023 Sherine Antoun, Blake Kohlbrecher Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Forastero Cocoa from Côte d'Ivoire <p><strong>In Côte d'Ivoire, <em>forastero</em> cocoa is used by traditional healers to treat metabolic and chronic diseases like diabetes. This study aims to assess the toxicity of extracts from <em>forastero</em> cocoa. Serial extraction was performed from cocoa powder using ethanol, distilled water and hexane. The phytochemical screening of aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts and crude cocoa powder was carried out using appropriate specific reagents. Acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies were performed in rats according to OECD guidelines 423 and 408. The phytochemical screening reveals the presence of polyterpenes, polyphenols, alkaloids and saponosides in the aqueous, hydroethanolic extracts and crude cocoa powder. Regarding acute toxicity, the LD<sub>50</sub> value is higher than 5000 mg/kg body weight. In subchronic toxicity, results show that for all the doses there is a significant increase in the weight of male and female rats. Furthermore, no signs of intoxication or mortality were observed during 90 days. Analysis of hematological and biochemical parameters reveals that there is no significant change in blood parameters values and liver, kidneys and heart serum markers. On the whole, the results show that extracts from <em>forastero</em> cocoa are not toxic.</strong></p> Estelle-Clémence KOUAME, KRA Adou Koffi Mathieu, KOUASSI Konan Armand Marcelin, GNAHOUE Goueh, DJAMAN Allico Joseph Copyright (c) 2023 Estelle-Clémence KOUAME, KRA Adou Koffi Mathieu, KOUASSI Konan Armand Marcelin, GNAHOUE Goueh, DJAMAN Allico Joseph Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Spreading Effect of Enhanced Blast in Explosives and Propellants <p><strong>We performed tests on one of our propellants to determine its TNT equivalence. In such tests we detonate a charge of explosive at one end of a propellant cylindrical sample. We use two types of diagnostics: 1) to determine the propellant energy release rate, we wrap it with a thin aluminum shell, and measure the radial velocity of the shell along the propellant sample with velocity interferometers (PDV); and 2) we use commercial blast gauges at a distance of about 10m from the test sample, to determine the blast effect of the propellant (after deducting the blast effect of the driving explosive). We expected the two types of diagnostics to agree with one another, but this has not been the case. From the velocity gauges we see that only the part of the propellant which is near the explosive has fully reacted, and that the extent of this part depends on the size and configuration of the driving explosive. But from the blast diagnostics it seems, <u>that as if the whole propellant has reacted. </u>We’ve seen some sporadic indications in the literature to such an enhanced blast effect from propellants [1-5]. We refer here to such an enhanced blast effect as a spreading effect. We claim, that when a reacting propellant (or explosive) is spread out in space (without changing its total energy release upon reacting), the blast effect at a given distance is enhanced substantially compared to the same energy yield without spreading. In our tests, the relative amount of reacted propellant decreases substantially with distance from the initiating explosive, but because it does not react in a continuous fashion, there is a spreading effect, that enhances the level of air blast substantially. To demonstrate the action of the spreading effect, we make 1D simulations of outgoing detonations of an HB (H=HMX, B=Binder) <u>explosive</u> in spherical symmetry. For different runs we dilute the explosive with the binder to various extents, from W=1 (pure explosive) to W=0.01 (1% explosive). For each such formulation we compute the detonation parameters using our in-house chemical equilibrium code (not presented here). For each formulation we adjust the explosive radius so that the total detonation energy stays the same. For all runs we monitor the rigid boundary reflected pressure (p<sub>r</sub>) of the created blast wave in air, at a radial distance of 12m. We get that as W decreases below 0.5, the total amount of HMX decreases below 6% of the amount for pure HMX, but p<sub>r</sub> <u>increases</u> by about 12% relative to that of pure HMX. We attribute this enhanced blast effect to the spreading of the explosive, while keeping the amount of energy released unchanged (spreading effect).</strong></p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Yehuda Partom Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Mechanism of Action of (Fluoro) Quinolones: An Overview <p><strong>Quinolones are used to treat bacterial infections. Given their good tolerance and demonstrated activity, fluoroquinolones are widely prescribed. This wide use has unfortunately led to bacterial resistance increase. Many efforts have been made to develop new fluoroquinolone antibiotics. However, new and more effective derivatives need to be investigated. This is an overview of studies done these last decades, on fluoroquinolone synthesis, their characterization and their mechanism of actions.</strong></p> Blaise DACKOUO Copyright (c) 2023 Blaise DACKOUO Fri, 20 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice on Biomedical Waste Management Among Healthcare Workers at Approved Covid Testing Sites in Jamaica <p><strong>For most developing countries the onset of the Covid -19 pandemic increased the need for testing and subsequently, an increased in approved testing sites. Most sites during the height of the pandemic, handled large quantities of biomedical waste.&nbsp;Like all other biomedical wastes, those generated from the testing of Covid-19 patients,&nbsp;pose a significant risk for infection and injury when they are improperly handled. Such infections can easily spread among healthcare personnel, patients, visitors, and the wider society.&nbsp;&nbsp;This research aimed at highlighting the importance of proper biological waste&nbsp;management (BWM) and investigating the knowledge, attitude, and practice of healthcare workers as it relates BWM at approved covid testing site in Jamaica. Healthcare workers at these testing sites are first contact with infected patients and the resultant biomedical waste generated during the testing process, as such&nbsp;their knowledge, attitude, and practices with regards to appropriate BWM is crucial in understanding areas of potential spread of the deadly infection. A cross-sectional study was carried out in which a valid three step self-reporting questionnaire was designed through a review of literature and was distributed among 60 randomly selected healthcare workers at approved sites across the island. The findings revealed that most (86.7%) HW had excellent knowledge of proper biomedical waste management. In relation to their attitude, most of the respondents (91.7%) indicated that the guidelines were necessary for their own safety as well as for others. With respect to practices, majority (98.3%) of the HWs indicated that they were compliant with the established standards for biomedical waste management. Overall, training appears to be the major determinant of knowledge, attitude, and practice among the participants.</strong></p> Fabian Pitkin Copyright (c) 2023 Fabian Pitkin Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 G-D’s Physics Points at the “End of Time”: “Perfected Geulah State” of the Universe!? <p><strong>Twenty-First Century Theoretical Physics is undergoing a profound “Paradigmatic-Shift” from the Old “Material-Causal” Paradigm of 29<sup>th</sup> Century’s General Relativity Theory (GRT) &amp; Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the New “G-D’s Physics” (“Computational Unified Field Theory”, CUFT)! This profound “Paradigmatic-Shift” ensues from the preceding “Paradigmatic Crisis” of the Old Paradigm – signified by the “theoretical inconsistency” between its two “pillars”, e.g., GRT &amp; QM, and its inability to account for the accelerated expansion of the physical universe, assumed to be “caused” by an “undetectable” purely hypothetical “Dark-Matter” concept (assumed to comprise up to 95% of all matter, but which failed to be detected experimentally for the past two decades)?! In contrast, the New “G-D’s Physics” Scientific Paradigm discovered a singular higher-ordered “Universal Computational/Consciousness Principle” (UCP) which simultaneously computes all exhaustive spatial pixels (in the universe) at the incredible rate of “c<sup>2</sup>/h” = 1.36<sup>-50 </sup>(sec’), which creates an extremely rapid series of “Universal Frames” (UF’s) comprising the entire physical universe at every “minimal time-point”! Based on “G-D’s Physics” discovery of the UCP and associated “Universal Computational Formula” which completely unifies (for the first time in Physics) between the four basic physical features of “space” and “energy”, “mass” and “time”, it provides us with an alternative explanation for the origin- sustenance- (“dissolution”)- and “development” of the entire physical universe: towards an “Ultimate Perfected Guelah State” of the universe! In the current article, direct empirical validation of two (unique) “Critical Predictions” of this New “G-D’s Physics” Scientific Paradigm is outlined which therefore provides science with an alternative (satisfactory) explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe based on this singular UCP’s “Collective Human Consciousness Focus Hypothesis” Postulate, and points at the feasibility of a new (exciting) conception of the UCP’s “steering” of the universe towards an “End of Time: Perfected Geulah State”, in which Science (and Humanity) will recognize the “Singularity”, ”All-Goodness”, “Morality”, ”Peace” and “Harmony” characterizing this singular UCP, as well as Humanity’s “Perfected Geulah” State!&nbsp;</strong></p> Jehonathan Bentovish Copyright (c) 2023 Jehonathan Bentovish Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Empirical Validation of “G-D’s Physics’” “UNCIARE Critical Prediction” Discards “Dark-Matter” as “Superfluous”! <p><strong>Despite numerous experimental efforts to “detect” the presence of “Dark-Matter” (DM) over the past two decade (assumed to comprise up to 95% of all the mass in the universe), no direct experimental evidence of DM has been found to date. But, without the existence of “dark-matter” the accelerated rate of the universe’s expansion cannot be explained? Fortunately, a new alternative “G-D’s Physics” (previously termed: the “Computational Unified Field Theory”) was discovered that offers an alternative explanation for the accelerated expansion of the universe – while discarding “dark-matter” as “superfluous” (i.e., non-existent”). Based on direct empirical validation of two unique “Critical Predictions” of the “G-D’s Physics”, as more valid than the corresponding predictions of both General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) the” G-D’s Physics” is accepted as the new satisfactory Physics Paradigm for 21<sup>st</sup> century Theoretical Physics; Specifically, empirical validation of the “G-D’s Physics” “Universe’s Non-Continuous Increase in its Accelerated Rate of Expansion (UNCIARE) “Critical Prediction” as evidenced by the “Astronomical-Cosmological Gap in the Universe’s Accelerated Rate of Expansion” (ACGUARE) negates the possibility of the existence of “dark-matter”. The (purely hypothetical) existence of DM is further negated based on the G-D’s Physics “Computational Duality Principle” Theoretical Postulate, which points at the G-D’s Physics singular higher-ordered “Universal Computational Principle” (UCP) that simultaneously computes every exhaustive spatial pixel in the universe at the incredible rate of “c<sup>2</sup>/h” = 1.36<sup>-50 </sup>(sec’)! The new G-D’s Physics Paradigm is also shown to resolve the apparent “theoretical inconsistency” between GRT &amp; QM and completely unify between the four basic physical features of “space”,” time”, “energy” &amp; “mass”, based on a newly discovered “Universal Computational Formula” (UCP).</strong></p> Jehonathan Bentovish Copyright (c) 2023 Jehonathan Bentovish Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 G-D’s Physics”: On the True Nature, Elegance & Purpose of the Universe! <p>Twenty-first century Theoretical Physics has undergone a major “Paradigmatic-Shift” from the Old “Material-Causal” Paradigm of GRT &amp; QM to the New “G-D’s Physics” Scientific Paradigm pointing at the existence of a singular higher-ordered “Universal Computational/Consciousness Principle” (UCP) that simultaneously computes all exhaustive spatial pixels in the universe at the incredible rate of “c<sup>2</sup>/h” = 1.36<sup>-50 </sup>sec’(!), thereby producing an extremely rapid series of “Universal-Frames” (UF’s) of the whole physical universe at any “minimal time point”! Two unique “Critical Predictions” of this New “G-D’s Physics” Paradigm have been empirically validated as “more valid” than the corresponding predictions of both GRT &amp; QM, thereby establishing it as the New Scientific Paradigm for 21<sup>st</sup> Century Physics! Indeed, this New “G-D’s Physics” Scientific Paradigm was shown successful not only in being able to unify between GRT &amp; QM but also (for the first time in Physics) between the four basic physical features of “space”, “energy”, “mass” and “time” based on this singular higher UCP! Accordingly, “G-D’s Physics” postulation of the UCP’s “Ten Hierarchical Computational Dimensions” (THCD’s) that have “preplanned” the whole creation and development of the entire physical universe from “inanimate” matter through “animate”: plants, animals and human-beings – leading up to “Ultimate Perfected Geualh Goal State”, e.g., in which Humanity (and Science) recognize the singularity of this UCP and its “intrinsic-sublime” characteristics of “Morality”, “All-Goodness”, “Peace” and “Harmony” etc., thereby brining Humanity to its current (beginning of) this Ultimate Perfected Geulah State!</p> Jehonathan Bentovish Copyright (c) 2023 Jehonathan Bentovish Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 G-D’s Physics’ New “Geulah-Driven, Human Consciousness Focus” (GDHCF) Model of the Universe! <p>Twentieth century's Old "Material-Causal" Paradigm underlying both General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) has reached a state of a "Paradigmatic-Crisis" signified by the apparent "theoretical inconsistency" between GRT &amp; QM as well as its principle inability to account for up to 90% of all the mass and energy in the universe, e.g., assumed to comprise purely hypothetical "dark-matter" and "dark-energy" concepts and explain the universe's accelerated rate of expansion – but which could not be detected empirically (for the two past decades)?” A New promising “G-D’s Physics” (“Computational Unified Field Theory”, CUFT) “A-Causal Computation” Paradigm has been discovered based on the discovery of a singular higher-ordered “Universal Computational Principle” (UCP) that simultaneously computes all exhaustive spatial pixels in the universe at the incredible rate of “c<sup>2</sup>/h” = 1.36<sup>-50 </sup>(sec’) which produces an extremely rapid series of “Universal Frames (UF’s) comprising the entire physical universe at every “minimal time-point”! The New “G-D’s Physics” Scientific Paradigm is empirically validated in this article as more valid than the Old “Material-Causal” Paradigm based on verification of two unique “G-D’s Physics’ “Critical Predictions”: a) Universe’s Non-Continuous Increase in its Accelerated Rate of Expansion (UNCIARE); b) “Proton-Radius Puzzle” findings supporting “G-D’s Physics” UCP’s computation of relatively “more massive” particles (such as the Muon) as more “spatially-consistent” than relatively “less-massive” particles (such as the electron). Based on these empirical validations the New “G-D’s Physics” Paradigm negates the Old “Material-Causal” Paradigm’s GRT’s “Big-Bang” Model and offers an alternative (novel) “G-D’s Physics’ ‘Geulah-Driven’, Human Consciousness Focus (GDHCF) Model of the Universe’s origination, sustenance and development of the entire physical universe towards the UCP’s Ultimate “Geulah Perfected Goal State” of the universe in which Humanity (and Science) recognize the singularity of this UCP and its associated characteristics of “Morality”, “All-Goodness” “Peace” and “Harmony”! &nbsp;</p> Jehonathan Bentovish Copyright (c) 2023 Jehonathan Bentovish Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Embracing “G-D’s Physics” as the New Twenty-First Century Valid Scientific Paradigm! <p>Twenty-First Century Theoretical Physics is undergoing a major “Paradigmatic-Shift” from the Old “Material-Causal” Paradigm of (20<sup>th</sup> century’s) General Relativity Theory (GRT) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the New “G-D’s Physics” (“Computational Unified Field Theory”, CUFT) based on a “G-D’s Physics” proven capacity to resolve the “theoretical inconsistency” between GRT &amp; QM and offer an alternative satisfactory explanation for the accelerated rate of the universe’s expansion. Specifically, the empirical validations of “G-D’s Physics;” two unique “Critical Predictions” regarding the “Universe’s Non-Continuous Increase in its Accelerated Rate of Expansion” (UNCIARE) and “Proton-Radius Puzzle” associated findings, as “more valid” than the corresponding predictions of GRT &amp; QM establish “G-D’s Physics as the New Scientific Paradigm for 21<sup>st</sup> century Theoretical Physics! It is also shown to completely unify between GRT &amp; QM based on the discovery of a singular higher-ordered “Universal Computational Principle” (UCP) that simultaneously computes all exhaustive spatial pixels in the universe at the incredible rate of “c<sup>2</sup>/h” = 1.36<sup>-50</sup> sec’! leading to the discovery of a “Universal Computational Formula” (UCF) that unifies (for the first time in Physics) between the four basic physical features of “space”, “energy”, “mass” and “time”. Finally, the profound theoretical postulates of “G-D’s Physics” New Scientific Paradigm also point at this UCP’s “pre-planning” and “steering” of the entire physical universe towards an “Ultimate Perfected Geulah Goal State” of the universe in which Humanity (and Science) will recognize the singularity of this UCP and live according to its primary characteristics of “All-Goodness”, ”Morality”, “Peace” and “Harmony”, e.g., which is signified by Science’s “embracing” of “G-D’s Physics” as the New 21<sup>st</sup> Century Scientific Paradigm!</p> Jehonathan Bentovish Copyright (c) 2023 Jehonathan Bentovish Fri, 27 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of Brazilian Pediatric Risk of Severity Model for Illness (Brprism) Compared to Pediatric Index of Mortality and Pediatric Risk of Mortality 2 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The best prognosis score with which to evaluate high-risk patients upon admission into pediatric intensive care is not well established in resource-limited settings. The objective of study was to formulate a risk-of-illness severity model for pediatric mortality to be applied upon PICU admission in resource-limited settings. <strong>Methods:</strong> Our study was designed to develop an illness severity index and a prognostic model for critically ill children. A prospective, observational multicenter pilot study, performed between February 1995 and October 1999, evaluated the variables, methodology and statistical techniques for the development of a model. A single-center prospective cohort study, performed between November 1999 and October 2004, collected information from consecutive admissions into the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at a high-complexity university, teaching, and reference hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. <strong>Results:</strong> In the pilot study, 1,459 patients (a PICU mortality rate of 16%) were included, and in the second study, 1,033 patients (a PICU mortality rate of 13.9% and a hospital mortality rate of 6.9% after PICU discharge) were included. We used multivariable regression to determine two probabilistic models; the first addressed survival and the overall probability of death (hospital plus PICU deaths), and the second was conditional (i.e., PICU death). An illness severity index stratified these probabilities into three risk strata: low-, medium- and high-risk patients. In the final step, the new death probabilities were estimated using a Bayesian adjustment. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The model estimates three probabilities (survival, death in the PICU and death in the hospital after PICU discharge) stratified into three risk categories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study using a Bayesian adjustment to determine a prognosis and illness severity, and it should enable us to make therapeutic adjustments and provide appropriate counseling for high-risk patients in resource-limited settings.</p> C. M. F. Mangia, M. D. Toledo, R. Rossi , E. Y. Nakano, A. Carneluti, B. I. Kopelman, W. B. Carvalho, M. C. Andrade Copyright (c) 2023 C. M. F. Mangia, M. D. Toledo, R. Rossi , E. Y. Nakano, A. Carneluti, B. I. Kopelman, W. B. Carvalho, M. C. Andrade Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Repeatibility and Reproducibility (RR) of Bioelectric Impedance Vectors in Brazilian Children with Normal Body Mass <p><strong>Background: </strong>Bioelectrical analysis measures two bioelectrical vectors: resistance (R) and reactance (Xc). Resistance is the pure opposition of a biological conductor to the flow of an alternating current through the intra and extra-cellular ionic solution and it is inversely related to the dynamics of body fluids and body composition. <strong>Objective: </strong>The purpose of this study was to determine the reference values of the indexes bioelectrical impedance (BI) for children of normal body mass index in southeastern Brazil of middle-income country. <strong>Methods:</strong> Two hundred eighty-one children with normal body mass index were included in the study (135 female and 146 male), aged 4 to 129 months, selected from federal public urban school in São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, where bioelectrical impedance values resistance (R) and reactance (Xc) values were measured in order to establish reference values of these parameters. <strong>Results:</strong> The anthropometric variables, body mass index, z-scores and bioelectrical impedance parameters were evaluated. For both genders, the mean and standard deviation of anthropometric variables were: age (months): 73.42 <u>+</u> 34.65; weight (kg): 23.5 <u>+</u> 9.46; height (m): 1.16<u>+</u>0.22; BMI (kg/m<sup>2</sup>): 16.65<u>+</u>1,75; Xc (ohms): 63.92<u>+</u>9.6; R (ohms): 749<u>+</u>75.26. For analysis, the children were stratified into three groups for each gender, being divided by ages: 4 to 23 months; 24 to 71 months and 72 to 129 months<em>.</em> Linear regression analysis showed R had a significant progressive decrease with age (p=0.0003) while Xc had a progressive increase (p=0.0065) with age increase. We analyzed by multiple regression the associations between R and Xc with anthropometric variables by age group to establish the reference values, confidence intervals and the tolerance limits for a new individual observation. Test-Retest Repeatability between three repeat and consecutive measurements was considered excellent. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland -Altman reproducibility was for reactance 0.755, Resistance 0.98 and phase angle was 0.93. <strong>Conclusion: </strong>The BI reference values were established, in a field where there is a relative lack of publications, and we collected relevant information about resistance and reactance in a population of middle income setting that could be used in epidemiologic studies and could be used reference value in children with altered body composition.</p> Cristina Malzoni Ferreira Mangia Mangia, Alexandre Carneluti, Benjamin Israel Kopelman, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Maria Cristina Andrade Copyright (c) 2023 Cristina Malzoni Ferreira Mangia Mangia, Alexandre Carneluti, Benjamin Israel Kopelman, Werther Brunow de Carvalho, Maria Cristina Andrade Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact of Calcium Fructoborate on WOMAC and McGill Subscales and Individual WOMAC Questions: Post-Hoc Analyses of Data from a Previously Published 90-Day Randomized Clinical Trial <p class="MDPI17abstract" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt; text-indent: 16.55pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif;">Calcium fructoborate (CFB) has been shown to reduce overall joint discomfort on the Western Ontario and McMaster University Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and the McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). No study has addressed the impact of CFB on the subscales of these measures, nor on individual questions. Here, we re-examined data from a previously peer reviewed and published 90-day, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on CFB to determine whether there were subscale or individual questions differences. In the original study participants were randomized into three groups: 1) placebo, 2) a morning dose of 216mg of CFB and evening dose of placebo (CFB1), or 3) a morning and evening dose of 108mg of CFB (CFB2). Our new analyses indicated that by day 30, both CFB groups were distinguishable from placebo on the WOMAC Pain and WOMAC Activities of Daily Living subscales. Furthermore, they were distinguishable from the WOMAC Stiffness subscale by days 60 and 90 (CFB1, CFB2, respectively). Importantly, analyses of individual WOMAC questions revealed differences in at little as 14 days. For the McGill pain subscale, differences emerged by day 7 and 14 between placebo and CFB1/CFB2 groups, respectively, while the affective dimension was different from CFB groups by day 60. For the miscellaneous dimension, placebo was differentiable by day 60 and 90 (CFB1/CFB2, respectively). These data provide greater visibility into CFB’s joint health benefits and suggest that CFB’s effects support real improvements in practical aspects of daily physical activity.</span></p> Jennifer Robinson, Boris Nemzer, Tania Reyes-Izquierdo, Zbigniew Pietrzkowski, John Hunter Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Robinson, Boris Nemzer, Tania Reyes-Izquierdo, Zbigniew Pietrzkowski, John Hunter Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000 A Modified Structural Setting and Subsurface Distribution of Cretaceous Facies from Southwest to Northeast in The Calabar Flank of The Lower Benue Trough <p>This research is focused on the structural setting and subsurface distribution of cretaceous facies in the Calabar Flank, Lower Benue Trough. The aim of this research is to compare the works of Nyong (1995), Reigers and Petters, (1997) in light of new available subsurface data. Materials used are data sets from three wells drilled at different periods within the same acreage (Wells A, B and C). Seismic data, well logs and mud log data have been used to analyze and study the subsurface geology of the study area. Well data from the three wells were viewed and matched with processed seismic data. A composite stratigraphic section produced show correlatable facies, their lateral extents and the subsurface facies distribution in the study area. Well A drilled, south central Calabar Flank encountered shale and sandstone, very thick shale unit with limestone overlying sandstone at the base. Well B also drilled south central Calabar Flank about 0.8km from Well A encountered the same sequence. Whereas Well C drilled about 4.7km from Well B encountered sandstone, shale, marlstone and limestone. This research shows that only well C encountered marlstone. Observations from the well sections, show the penetrated limestone unit appears disconnected, with very high resistive anomaly suggesting that the limestone reservoir penetrated by the three wells are not laterally continuous. These findings tend to modify the earlier published articles on the structural setting and subsurface distribution of Cretaceous sediments SW to NE of the Calabar Flank South Eastern Nigeria in terms of facies distribution, facies lateral extent and structural variability or changes.</p> Richmond Ideozu, Acra, E.J., Selema, S. B. Copyright (c) 2023 Richmond Ideozu, Acra, E.J., Selema, S. B. Tue, 31 Jan 2023 00:00:00 +0000