European Journal of Applied Sciences <p><em>European Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) </em> is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all aspects of applied sciences and natural sciences.</p> <p>A wide range of topics in applied and natural sciences are covered, which includes but not limited to the Agriculture, Fisheries, Architecture and design, Divinity, Education, Engineering and technology, Environmental studies and forestry, Family and consumer science, Atmospheric sciences, Oceanography, Human physical performance and recreation, Journalism, Media studies and communication, Business, Law, Library and museum studies, Military sciences, Public administration, Public policy, Social work, Transportation.</p> <p>The journal aims is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary electronic material.</p> en-US (Christopher James) (Olivia Adam) Thu, 12 May 2022 13:30:16 +0000 OJS 60 International Legal Framework Effects on International Law and especially its Impact on the Environment Law <p>In order for the rule of law to accomplish its main objectives or goals, which involves safeguarding people's freedom and well-being, international law must be utilized. The peculiar aspects of international law and the global legal system do not destruct the rule of law in any way. International law does not contain anything inherent towards the rule of law obstruction. The law plays a fundamental role in improving and promoting the rule of law. This paper focuses on the various international legal frameworks and their effects on general law and the environment. The international legal framework has had adverse impacts on various sectors such as health and human right in the different states in the world. The article investigated various problems such as how to have the international legal frameworks impacted the various sectors in the states worldwide, what impactt has the frameworks had on the environment itself, and how the countries have benefited from the international law. The findings of this paper have concluded that these legal frameworks on human rights have affected the general international law in various ways. These frameworks have had a significant role in enhancing the promotion and solidification of the global language of human rights law in the local discussion. In the health sector, the development and explanation of global health law over the past twenty years has been a recognizable development in international health policy mostlyin this period of COVID-19. In the past, public health was considered as a domain of nearly obsolete national jurisdiction, and multilateral relationships in this sphere were narrowed to discrete regions. The international environmental law sector has developed into a distinct part of international law besides its gradual start. Currently, it is full of principles and standards that regulate and control environmental aspects. The principles are significant for several reasons, such as enhancing a platform to dialogue the new environmental conventions and treaties and adopt the ones that are in existence to save the world as united and unique entity.</p> Sapard Vincent-de Paul Mozes Copyright (c) 2022 Sapard Vincent-de Paul Mozes Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Viral Load Pattern and Virological Suppression Rate of a Cohort of Hiv-1 Patients in a Rural Community in Nigeria <p>HIV is a pandemic infection and remains a public health concern for many decades. This infection is associated with life threatening depletion of immune response, opportunistic infections and malignancies.&nbsp; The aim of this study is to determine the viral load pattern and virological suppression rate of HIV-1 subjects in Irrua, Edo Central Senatorial District of Edo state, Nigeria. A total of three hundred and forty four (344) HIV-1 subjects aged between 17-60 years and of both sexes were recruited into the study. The HIV-1 subjects were divided into asymptomatic and symptomatic subjects. One hundred and fifty (150) apparently healthy HIV-1 negative subjects served as control. The viral load titre was determined using the COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS “Taqman” HIV-RNA test (PCR technology). Results obtained revealed that the mean viral loads of the asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-1 subjects were 20,333.00±13,474.65 and 535,000.02±485,423.40 against control (20.00±0.00). Both asymptomatic and symptomatic groups revealed a statistical significant difference (P&lt;0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference according to gender while comparison between viral load and age showed a statistically significant difference (P&lt;0.05).The overall virological suppression rate of HIV-1 subjects on-ART was 81.6%. Sex-wise distribution revealed that more females (48.87%) were virally suppressed compared to their male counterparts (32.73%). According to age distribution, subjects belonging to the age bracket of 37-46 years recorded the highest frequency distribution of 37.96% while the least (5.70%) belonged to the age group of 17-26 years. In summary, there was a significant and progressive increase in the viral load titre of asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-1subjects in relation to control. Also, the proportion of HIV-1 subjects who had viral load &lt;1,000 RNA copies/ml was relatively high at 81.6% but falls short of UNAIDS’ 90% target for on-treatment viral suppression. &nbsp;It re-emphasizes the need to test subjects and start treatment with antiretroviral drugs early.</p> I. O. Babatope, F. I. Esumeh, P. I. Orhue, KENNETH IYEVHOBU Copyright (c) 2022 I. O. Babatope, F. I. Esumeh, P. I. Orhue, KENNETH IYEVHOBU Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Competitive vs Collaborative Clinical Nutritionists: The European Clinical Nutrition Market <p>The European clinical nutrition market is a diverse and competitive industry which would significantly benefit from more conversations about and action towards collaboration between specialists. So far, investment in market research has been focussed on competition and innovation. While collaboration is considered key for the progress of the industry, it is often not prioritized. Professionals, students and new entrants into the European clinical nutrition market, as well as the lay population, would all benefit from increased collaboration. This work provides examples of how to nourish collaboration within the industry. More collaboration would foster increased consumer confidence, engagement, trust and industry growth. Barriers to collaboration include the current dominance of competitive over collaborative working environments.</p> Garduno-Diaz , Frost Copyright (c) 2022 Garduno-Diaz , Frost Thu, 12 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Physico-chemical, morphological, Organoleptic and microscopic study of fresh Arbutus unedo L. fruits from Morocco <p>The Arbutus unedo L or Arbutus tree is a leafy tree that represents a large part in the Moroccan ecological ecosystem. However, the poor studies on the fruits of Arbutus unedo in the Mediterranean countries cause poor exploitation and lack in the market. In this sense, the objective of this work focuses on a general description of the fruits of the province of Beni Mellal, such as morphological, organoleptic, microscopic, physico-chemical characteristics (pH, titratable acidity, moisture content, and ash content), lipid, protein and sugar content.</p> <p>For morphological characterization the studied fruit samples were red and red-orange color; With soft consistency and a rough skin; Mean total mass of 4.99 g ±1.38, a mean length of 1.99 cm ±0.28 and a width of 1.89 cm ±0.21. On the basis of physico-chemical analysis, we obtained a moisture content of up to 63.33%±3.21, an acid pH of 3.86±0.01, a titratable acidity of 0.6%±0.06 and an ash content of 0.35%±0.07. In addition, a spectral analysis using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy shows the identification of wave numbers in the (3010cm-1; 2920cm-1) for lipids, a (1600cm-1; 1652cm-1) for proteins and (1035cm-1; 1011cm-1) for sugar. While according to the organoleptic parameters, we found that the fruit was moderately acceptable by the consumers.&nbsp;</p> <p>Comparing with several results, the variation of morphological and physicochemical parameters may be due to different geographical, climatic and tree age parameters. In addition, these results clearly show the need to seek ways of conservation and industrial exploitation.</p> Badreddine ELMEJHED Copyright (c) 2022 Badreddine ELMEJHED Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Secret of the Explosive Nature of the Aurora <p>The aurora is basically an electrical discharge phenomenon in space around the earth. After the introduction of satellites in this subject,&nbsp; auroral science has greatly advanced. This article describes the present understanding the aurora and its explosive nature from the point of view of a series of electrical discharging processes, namely power supply (dynamo), circuit/current and dissipation (auroral phenomena); this is rather a new approach in the search for the secret of the aurora; in the past, many efforts have been focused on moving magnetic field lines. It is shown that the discharge circuit accumulates the power after the dynamo power increases above 10<sup>11 </sup>w, but it becomes unstable when the accumulated power becomes about 10<sup>16</sup> J, thus suddenly unloading it and generating spectacular auroral displays.</p> Syun-Ichi Akasofu Copyright (c) 2022 Syun-Ichi Akasofu Tue, 17 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Water of an Abandoned Borrowed Pit with Wood-dust Deposit, Port Harcourt, Nigeria <p>The incidence of borrow pit pollution is a common phenomenon all over the world and Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment are on the increase. Water samples from wood-dust effluent points at Egbelu, Port Harcourt were collected and analyzed for PAHs concentration. The analysis was achieved after extraction with Dichromethane and n-hexane in a Soxhlet extractor while Gas Chromatography mass spectrometry was used to separate and identify the components of PAHs in the water samples. The results obtained showed the presence of 2-3, 4 and 5-member ring priority PAHs from the borrow pit, while others were not detected from any of the locations examined. Different classifications showed that the mean concentration value for 2-3, 4 and 5 member rings were 0.132±0.00381, 0.235±0.00381, and 0.192±0.00436 mg/L respectively. In all, eight priority PAHs were detected (Benzo (a) Pyrene, Benzo (k) Fluoranthene, Indo (1,2,3, c-d) Pyrene, Dibenzo (a,h) Anthracene, Benzo(g,h,i) Naphthalene, Flourene and Anthracene. The Mean concentration of samples also showed Ao to be the highest in PAHs concentration while Bo is the lowest. Thus indicating the impact of wood dust on PAHs with only pyrogenic source of contamination. Authorities involved with administration, management and enforcement of contaminants and pollutants on dumping sites should channel their efforts to curb the incidence of outburst of PAHs pollution in the future and fishes from the same source be studied to show the levels of absorption.</p> William Azuka Iyama, Simeon Onisogen Edori, Chika Okwuchukwu, Woroma Stella Emejuru Copyright (c) 2022 William Azuka Iyama, Simeon Onisogen Edori, Chika Okwuchukwu, Woroma Stella Emejuru Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Development of Maluku Nutmeg (Myristica Fragrans Houtt.): Collaborations, Opportunities and Challenges <p>Nutmeg (<em>Myristica fragrans </em>Houtt.) is one of the few commoditites from Indonesia, especially Maluku islands, which are highly demended in international market for centuries and is the base of an international trading route known as “spice route” where Banda “spice island’, Maluku &nbsp;as the center. &nbsp;This study aimed at elaborating the development of nutmeg commodity in its center of origination and cultivation. Data were acquired during implementation of the Blended Learning-Value Chain project, a joint project between Indonesia and Netherlands, nutmeg innovation platform activities, as well as literature research and assessment. Efforts in nutmeg development in Maluku are implemented in inclusive and sustainable manner through collaboration of different institutions and stake holders along the value chain system of nutmeg commodity. Indentification of opportunities, challenges and problems togather with the way of dealing with them are carried out to be further implemented the findings in the field. &nbsp;Suatainable development is persieved in term of environment and biodiversity, humanity especially related to indigenous community, and continuing profitability and therefore developing a sustainable living.</p> Semuel Leunufna Copyright (c) 2022 Semuel Leunufna Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Analyzing Nematic to Isotropic (N-I) Phase Transition of nCB Liquid Crystals Using Logger Pro <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This paper reports detailed analysis of Nematic to Isotropic (N-I) phase transition of n-Cyanobiphenyl (nCB) Liquid Crystals (LC) using Logger Pro. Three bulk samples of nCB liquid crystal family, 4-Pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (5CB), 4-Hexyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (6CB), and 4-Heptyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (7CB) were processed through the Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) instrument for heating and cooling scans. The DSC data is then analyzed using Logger Pro. Logger Pro is a data analysis tool used to collect and analyze data in educational institutes. Our interest is to use Logger Pro in the research area to analyze DSC data of these LCs to get detailed results of N-I phase transition. Logger pro has been proven to be a good data analysis tool to find results in detail for these LCs in this paper. It is found that as nCB gets heavier and its C-C tail gets larger, the N-I phase transition shifts towards higher temperature in heating and shows an increase in enthalpy, wings jump, molecular mobility and molecular disorder.</p> </div> </div> </div> Medaelle Seide, Mathew C. Doran, Dipti Sharma Copyright (c) 2022 Medaelle Seide, Mathew C. Doran, Dipti Sharma Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Basic Principle of Simulation for Texture Formation of Both Face-Centered-Cubic Metals and Body-Centered-Cubic Ones Based on Rotational Symmetry <p>The principal axes of X[100], Y[010] and Z[001] are perpendicular to each other as the three orbits of and &nbsp;by a rotational symmetry of mathematical group theory in such way that component X is not related to Y or Z one another whichever. There is a conservation quantity in the symmetry i.e. the minimum total slip amount, M value in crystal by Taylor. Firstly, a method using a coincidence relation between those of direction cosine and synthesis of slip systems, and the strain tensor &nbsp;d <sub>&nbsp;</sub>in crystal lattice coordinates of X([100])-Y([010])-Z([001]) has been applied to seek eight slips dX<sub>1</sub>,dY<sub>1</sub>,dX<sub>2</sub>,dY<sub>2</sub>,dX<sub>3</sub>,dY<sub>3</sub>,dX<sub>4</sub>,dY<sub>4</sub> which are essential for fcc and bcc. &nbsp;From the eight slips, in fcc metal, orientation at onset(minimum) of M value shows the cube {100}&lt;001&gt; and M value increases{100}&lt;001&gt; →{100}&lt;016&gt;→{100}&lt;013&gt;→{100}&lt;012&gt;→ {100}&lt;023&gt;→ {100}&lt;0,9,11&gt; named the cluster composed of cube and cube-family in fcc metal. In bcc metal, an intersection of two kinds of &nbsp;planes from the three ones composed of , &nbsp;and &nbsp;is chosen, and by the rotational symmetry of the principal axes of X[100], Y[010] and Z[001], 72 possible combinations of the five slips on planes based on Taylor’s formidable restriction rule of the five slips are calculated and this simulates properly lengthy of accumulated researcher’s experimental results such as the three stable orientations of bcc metal in rolling &nbsp; &nbsp;and</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hiroaki Masui Copyright (c) 2022 Hiroaki Masui Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 An An Association Between Administrative Factors and Mortality in ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients of Hospitals in Thailand <p>This descriptive study aimed to study an association between the level of readiness of administrative factors and the mortality rate of patients with acute ischemic heart disease of hospitals in Thailand, Target population were 1,180 hospitals that serving heart disease in Thailand. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. A total of 1,022 response data were obtained. Administrative factors were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis (MRA) methods.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The results showed that the administrative factors which consisted of personnel, finance, supporting, and management factors had overall average readiness at a high level (x̄ = 3.34, S.D. = 0.27). Except budget sufficiency was at a low level (x̄ = 2.43, S.D. = 0.43). All factors were significantly related to the mortality rate, as follows: management factor (Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.433), personnel factor (Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.231), supporting factor (Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.092) and financial factor (Adjusted R<sup>2</sup> = 0.035). Therefore, Thai Ministry of Public Health should provide adequate support for administrative factors especially in terms of management, personnel, and budget sufficiency.</p> Kitigon Vichairuangthum Copyright (c) 2022 Kitigon Vichairuangthum Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Forest-Limit (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) Performance in the Context of Gentle Modern Climate Warming <p>In the context of post-Little Ice Age climate change, regional forest-limit (strictly defined) adjustment was studied over the period 1915 to 1975. The study comprised nearly 200 sites, in the form of systematically distributed belt transects. Forest-limit positions (m a.s.l.) were reconstructed for the years around 1915 and compared to the situation about 1975. During that interval, summer temperatures (June-August) increased by 1.2 °C. Concurrently, elevational upshifts were ubiquitous, site specific and rather modest; c. 17 altitudinal meter rise over a period of about 60 years. This is far less than expected for the climate change alone and indicates a pronounced disequilibrium situation. In comparison, the treeline in the same area, i.e. the uppermost &gt; 2 m tall birches, advanced by average c. 35 m. Thus, it appears that the treeline is a more sensitive biomonitor than the forest-limit. Therefore, the forest-limit should be primarily focused in the context of environmental monitoring. Given that the current relatively warm climate phase continues, the subalpine birch forest belt may eventually recede and give way to a subalpine pine belt. The obtained modest forest-limit advancement is so small that flourishing model simulations of extensive birch forest expansion over most of the current alpine tundra, appear as large and unfounded exaggerations. The alpine tundra of the Scandes, with its characteristic biodiversity, is likely to prevail for a foreseeable future.</p> Leif Kullman Copyright (c) 2022 Leif Kullman Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Nursing Staff’s Experiences of Learning Palliative Care through Simulation Coaching <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>The need to develop palliative care has been recognised in both the public and private sector. This qualitative study is based on self-assessed learning needs of staff in private elderly care and nursing services. This is a sub-study of a large research and development project, carried out in private care and welfare industries in one region of Finland in the years 2017-2019. The study describes nursing staff’s experiences of simulation coaching in learning palliative care at their own workplaces in nursing homes.</p> <p>The participants, employees of two enterprises providing residential elderly care and nursing services (n= 20), wrote essays describing the competence they had developed through palliative care simulations. The essays were analysed using inductive content analysis.</p> <p>The participants found the simulations suitable for learning palliative care. The intervention had been particularly effective in the areas of ethical competence, emotional intelligence, situational awareness and counselling competence.</p> <p>Simulation-based coaching seems a promising method for learning palliative care in both initial and continuing education programmes. Despite the limited sample size, the knowledge produced can be used to develop palliative care training.</p> Mari Salminen-Tuomaala Copyright (c) 2022 Mari Salminen-Tuomaala Tue, 24 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gas-phase Oxidation of Piperidine by "Green Oxidants" H2O2 and N2O <p>Reactions of piperidine oxidation by hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen oxide (1) were investigated experimentally in the gas phase and at atmospheric pressure without the use of catalysts. The reaction site for selective oxidation of piperidine by hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide (1) was identified, and consequently, optimal conditions for obtaining pyridine and 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridine from piperidine were revealed. Effect of the process parameters on reaction determinants in coherently synchronized reactions of piperidine dehydrogenation and decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide was demonstrated (1).</p> Tofik Nagiev, Nahmad Ali-zadeh, Inara Nagieva Copyright (c) 2022 Tofik Nagiev, Nahmad Ali-zadeh, Inara Nagieva Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Trace Metal Content in Soils of Automobile Workshops around Bori Urban Area, Rivers State, Nigeria <p>This study was designed to assess the concentration of trace metals (Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in soils of automobile workshops around Bori Urban, Rivers State, Nigeria. Samples were collected from three auto mechanic workshops within the Bori urban area, Rivers State, Nigeria. The soil samples were prepared by standard procedures, and analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, AAS (Solaar Thermo Elemental Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Model SE 71906). Detectable concentrations (mg/kg) of the metals, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, Ni and Cr were 4.05 ± 1.02, 9.64 ± 0.71, 13.39 ± 2.28, 2.46 ± 0.42, 2.86 ± 0.79 and 2.76 ± 0.99 respectively. The concentrations and contamination factors (CFs) across the three auto mechanic garages were of the order, Pb &gt; Mn &gt; Zn &gt; Cd &gt; Ni &gt; Cr and Cd &gt; Cr &gt; Ni &gt; Mn &gt; Pb &gt; Zn respectively while the pollution load index (PLI) values for the three auto mechanic garages were all greater than 1, indicating a decline in the soil quality for the three studied sites following the order station 3 &gt; station 1 &gt; station 2. The Geo accumulation index (Igeo) revealed that the soils were extremely contaminated by Cd and were all contaminated with trace metals when compared with regulatory standards such as WHO and world average values in shale. Therefore, regular monitoring of the soil in the studied sites be carried out to mitigate dangers implicit in the continued presence of the metals determined. <u>&nbsp;</u></p> M. N. Timothy, A. C. Marcus, William Azuka Iyama Copyright (c) 2022 M. N. Timothy, A. C. Marcus, William Azuka Iyama Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Simulation of Non-Shock Loading of Tantalum <p>We discuss and perform hydrocode simulations of gradual dynamic loading of tantalum. We show that using the generally accepted approach to viscoplastic response, it’s not possible to reproduce some features of the test results. But when we use our <u>overstress</u> approach, we’re able to reproduce those features, including the initial spike of the elastic precursor wave.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2022 Yehuda Partom Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Web based 4G Drive Tests Post Processing Software for Educational and Enterprise Purpose <p>In the world of digital communications, we usually use terms as processing and network optimization. Because mobile operators continuously want to provide the best network experience and quality of service to their subscribers, they continuously seek to improve their network performance both in Coverage, Quality and performance. When mobile technology such as LTE is offered to the public, operators need to be certain that it satisfies their customers. The technology then needs to be tested and optimized if it does not meet the purpose. In this context, one will propose a tool for the processing of drive test data. The proposed tool can be used for enterprises and academic purposes. In fact, online educational courses have brought great dynamics in the field of education and research. It has revolutionized the way learning is being done and perceived in our society compare to traditional learning method. During this period of Covid-19 e-learning is developing faster than before and new solutions to improve it are proposed. For many sub-Saharan African countries, it is very scarce to find telecommunication lecturers with a PhD grade and this has an impact on quality of the training provided to students in telecommunications engineering fields. Another problem is the lack of means to buy and install telecommunication equipments for laboratory experimentations where students can learn and improve their skills during their training program in a university or college. To overcome these problems, a possible solution could be the design of efficient web based tool like the one proposed in this paper and implement labs and e-labs in other to enable students to have a better understanding of mobile network,&nbsp; drive test data post processing, network quality of service analysis and network optimization. The tool proposed will provide detail analytical results using drive test data. Also optimization techniques and solutions after processing Drive Test data obtained from a live LTE network shall be proposed. For this study, DT data from a mobile operator will be analyzed in details using the poposed tool, and how this analysis results can be used to identify poor performance and quality of service areas in the network. Then following optimization techniques proposed, how defined solutions and strategies can be applied to improve performance of these areas based on current network configurations.</p> DEUSSOM DJOMADJI Eric Michel , Basile KABIENA IVAN, Herman Yves CHIEGUE TCHUINMOGNE Copyright (c) 2022 DEUSSOM DJOMADJI Eric Michel , Basile KABIENA IVAN, Herman Yves CHIEGUE TCHUINMOGNE Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Lipophilicity and Interactions Properties of a Group of Thirteen Manzamenones in Comparison with Artemisinin and Quinine Using Quantum Chemical Methods: ONIOM and DFT (B3LYP) <p>This work was undertaken to determine and compare the lipophilic properties of a group of Manzamenones with those of two antimalarials (Quinine and Artemisinin). Manzamenones are atypical fatty acid derivatives, belonging to the large family of lipids. They are extracted from a marine sponge, of the genus Plakortis kenyensis, used in the treatment of malaria. Three approaches were used to estimate the lipophilicity values of the molecules. Secondly, we analyzed the intermolecular interactions between these molecules and each of the two probes: the water molecule and the 3-aminopropanoic acid molecule (alanine: a protein residue of the polymerase). Manzamenones are studied with a mixed method: ONIOM 2. The intermolecular interactions between Manzamenones and water are described at the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The ones between Manzamenones and 3-aminopropanoic acid are described at B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p). The last part of the study was the determination of energetic parameters and the estimation of the relative stabilities of the complexes formed with the two probes. This part allowed making comparisons with Quinine or Artemisinin.</p> Soleymane KONE, Adepo Jacques ATSE, Sékou DIOMANDE, El-Hadji Sawaliho BAMBA Copyright (c) 2022 Soleymane KONE, Adepo Jacques ATSE, Sékou DIOMANDE, El-Hadji Sawaliho BAMBA Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Normative Effect of Harmonic Loads on Pile Group Depends on the Characteristics of Dynamic Response <p>Pile-supported machine foundations are examined in this work to identify the dynamic features of linear and nonlinear theories. A three-pile group with a 3 m pile length and an outer diameter of 0.114 m is given axial harmonic loading before field-based forcing vibration testing. For four distinct eccentric moments, tests are carried out at a static load of 12 kN. Each eccentric instant's reaction in terms of frequency and amplitude is examined. The continuum approach technique is also used for theoretical analysis, which employs both linear and nonlinear solutions. All of the eccentric moments' dynamic field test findings are compared to theoretically expected frequency-amplitude responses. In comparison to the actual test findings, the linear solution's anticipated responses show lower resonant amplitudes and substantially higher resonant frequencies. The dynamic response curves predicted by the nonlinear solution fit the test findings rather well in this situation. To achieve this degree of agreement with nonlinear analysis results, precision in border zone parameters and soil-pile separation lengths was necessary.</p> mohammad al rawashdeh Copyright (c) 2022 mohammad al rawashdeh Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Causality Test on Panel Data: An Application to the Study of the Causality Between Agricultural Growth and Demographic Burst in the Uemoa Area <p>This article aims to analyze the main lines of the modern theoretical debate around the interactions between demographic growth and agricultural growth in the WAEMU space. It identifies the (none) causalities between certain demographic and agricultural growth variables focused on an autonomous and intermediate research field between the corpora of demography and agricultural growth theory. The results of the application of the approach of Konya (2006) based on a test of (none) causality in the sense of Granger (1969), show that the econometric results obtained are ambiguous to the theoretical corpus which was constituted between the strong population growth and weak agricultural growth in the WAEMU space. According to the results of the various (no) tests, the causality between the population surge and agricultural growth is far from being retroactive in certain countries (Benin and Mali) unlike other countries in the area where we note the existence of feedback between population growth and agricultural growth. Almost all the countries of the UEMOA space seem to be part of the logic of the populationists. Population growth in WAEMU countries remains a determining factor for agricultural growth. It is the main lever of agriculture. This result confirms the thesis of Jean Bodin (1530-1596).</p> Moutairou ADEGNIKA Copyright (c) 2022 Moutairou ADEGNIKA Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Productivity of Hybrid Varieties of Maize (Zea Mays L.) Under Tropical Climatic Conditions in the Sudanian Zone of Burkina Faso <p>In Burkina Faso, maize yields are meager in the farming environment because biotic and abiotic constraints severely limit its production. Hybrid maize varieties would be a major asset to meet the productivity challenge. However, hybrids are difficult to access, as their breeding schemes are complex and costly. The objective of this study is to identify hybrids with high yield potential that are adapted to the climatic conditions of Burkina Faso. To this end, 124 hybrid maize varieties and four control varieties were evaluated in the rainy season in the southern Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso. The experimental design used is an alpha lattice with three replications. Observations on the agro-morphological parameters made it possible to classify the material evaluated into three groups according to the productivity of the varieties. All the varieties evaluated had an intermediate cycle of 100 to 110 days at maturity. The best performing hybrids showed a grain yield advantage of between 2 and 110% compared to the control varieties. Among these hybrids, 25 of them showed a grain yield advantage of between 1.5 and 5.5 t/ha over the controls. These varieties are to be subjected to multi-location and multi-annual tests in order to evaluate the stability of their yields and to allow their inclusion in the national catalog. At the end of these tests, the best varieties could be proposed for extension programs in the farming community</p> Abdoulazize BANHORO Copyright (c) 2022 Abdoulazize BANHORO Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The The Kinetics of Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization of Different Organic Amendments in the Soil <p>The exploitation of exogenous organic matter from fresh or composted livestock manure in agriculture is an effective source that addresses the problem of soil depletion and provides essential nutrients to plants. It can also cause worry about environmental degradation, such as CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and nitrate leaching. The rational use of these organic soil amendments requires additional research, which still remains limited in terms of articles and books in Morocco.</p> <p>&nbsp;The objective of our research is to study the kinetics of carbon and nitrogen mineralization of the different organic amendments, sheep manure (SM), cattle manure with straw (CM), two composts (CA, CF), and poultry manure laying hen (PL), by an incubation method under controlled laboratory conditions, and characterize the organic matter (OM) by biochemical fractionation. In the light of these results obtained, it can be seen that laying hen droppings induced the highest level of carbon and nitrogen mineralization, followed by sheep manure and cattle manure with straw which recorded an intermediate rate of carbon mineralization. And high nitrogen immobilization, these two materials are considered to be a transition point between the manure and the two compost, which recorded slow and low carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Statistical analysis endorsed a correlation between the kinetics of carbon mineralization and biochemical fractionations of organic matter in EOMs.</p> Jamal IBIJBIJEN, Ouiam EL GHAZOUANI, Rachid BOUAMRI Copyright (c) 2022 El-Ghazouani, O., Bouamri, R., & Ibijbijen, J. Fri, 27 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Impact of Desert Locust Infestation on Crops, Pasture and Livestock Health in Eastern Equatoria State, South Sudan <p>Desert locust is the word’s dangerous migratory pest that destroys crops and pasture posing a major threat to food security and livelihoods for many rural populations that depend on agriculture. Understanding the level of damage caused by desert locust infestation and its impact on food and nutrition security among the farming communities is vital for the government and development partners to avail support to the affected populations to recover from the shock. The rapid assessment was carried out using household survey questionnaire tool to gather information on the impact of desert locust infestation on crops, pasture, and livestock health in the hotspots of Magwi, Kapoeta, Torit and Ikotos Counties of Eastern Equatoria State. The data gathered was analysed using Microsoft excel and SPSS version 23. The survey results showed that crop production is the main source of livelihood for the rural populations of the State, 20% of the households interviewed estimated a 15% reduction in cereal yields in the second season of 2020 compared to 5% losses in the normal cropping season of 2019. About 60% of the respondents said a few areas ranging from 10-25% of pastureland had been infested in the State. Approximately 26.7% of the respondents said livestock body conditions had been affected by the pasture loss. Therefore, encouraging farmers to diversify crop production is recommended. Training farmers in good agricultural practices and stronger disaster preparedness such as prepositioning of quality seeds in the event of disaster will help the smallholder farmers to recover from the locust crisis and improve their ability to withstand future shocks and natural disasters.</p> Mario Yuga, Philip Wani Copyright (c) 2022 Mario Yuga, Philip Wani Sun, 29 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The W Boson Mass: 80.433 GeV: A Result of a Composite H, W, Z Bosons Model: Other Results: H, Z, Proton, Neutron and Dark Matter Masses <p>The present article develops a model initially published in ref. [1] and completed in ref. [2].This is a quasi-classical quantum model of composite particles with ultra-relativistic (UR) constituents (leptons and quarks). The model is used to calculate the mass energy of three composite particles: an UR tauonium, an UR bottomonium and an UR leptoquarkonium. The result is that these three hypothetic particles have masses close to 125 GeV: the Higgs boson mass energy.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; These results are recalled in the present article. Then the model is extended to calculate the mass energy of the W and Z bosons assumed to be composite particles, as well as those of the proton and the neutron. For the W boson, the model gives two values: one has a mass strictly equal to that measured recently at Fermilab (80.433 GeV), higher than the values measured so far. The other model value is according to the other measurements of the W boson mass.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Finally the model provides a hypothesis on dark matter.</p> Raymond Fèvre Copyright (c) 2022 Raymond Fèvre Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Analysis of Access to Drinking Water for the Populations of the Lobo Watershed in Nibéhibé (Central-Western Côte d'Ivoire) <p>Water is a limited natural resource, necessary for life and ecological systems, and essential for economic and social development. Therefore, the need for water is increasing. This observation makes sense in developing countries in general and more particularly in Côte d'Ivoire at the level of the Lobo watershed. Indeed, despite the efforts made by the state authorities to build water infrastructure, a large majority of the population in rural areas still does not have access to drinking water. This manuscript addresses the problem of financial difficulties related to access to water in the Lobo basin in Nibéhibé. The objective of the study is to highlight the difficulties of sustainable access to drinking water for the populations of the Lobo watershed in Nibéhibé. To achieve this objective, the methodology was based on the triptych documentary research, interview and survey by questionnaire. The documentary research consisted in defining the contours of the subject to better understand it. Then, the interviews conducted with the actors of the water sector in the Lobo River Basin made it possible to collect information on their level of involvement and responsibility at the economic level in the sustainable access to water in the basin. Finally, using the simple random choice method without discount and a statistical equation, we surveyed 300 households in three departments (Daloa, Vavoua and Zoukougbeu). The population surveys, combined with spatially referenced data in a GIS, allowed us to assess not only the spatial distribution of water supply sites, but also to evaluate the state of functionality of the hydraulic structures. The results show that despite all the actions undertaken by the Ivorian State and SODECI for the supply of drinking water, the populations still have difficulties with sustainable access to water resources. This situation will lead the population to turn to other sources of water supply. Unfortunately, these water access strategies are costly and put people at risk.&nbsp;</p> Fanraban Fabrice TOURE , Arthur Brice KONAN-WAIDHET, Affoue Berthe YAO , Ali DIARRA, Tanoh Jean Jacques KOUA Copyright (c) 2022 Fanraban Fabrice TOURE , Arthur Brice KONAN-WAIDHET, Affoue Berthe YAO , Ali DIARRA, Tanoh Jean Jacques KOUA Wed, 01 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Solid Wastes Management, Biogas and Compost Generated from Organic Waste at Al-Akaider Landfill in Jordan <p>Jordan has been facing a wide variety of sudden changes in humanitarian issues (population growth, industrialization rapid, urbanization process, influx of refugees to Jordan etc.). These unexpected changes forced people to make quick reactions to adapt and settle, which resulted in further generation of solid waste which normally was dumped in landfills and caused contamination of soil, water and air. Solid Waste Management (SWM) has been an integral part of every human society. Improper SWM accelerates natural resources degradation and has a great impact on climate change and the quality of life of citizens. Hence, in this paper, we highlight the environmental and health problems of the Al-Akaider landfill in Jordan. We propose a multi-pronged integrated approach to improve solid waste management at the Al Ekaider landfill. In keeping with this approach, a general action plan has been proposed that could be tailored to recycle Organic Waste (OW) to produce biogas and compost.</p> Mohammad Fawzi al Ajlouni Copyright (c) 2022 Mohammad Fawzi al Ajlouni Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of the Farmers' Use of Ict Tools in Farming Practices <p>It has been two decades into the current century which is marked by the revolutionary development and expansion of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), especially across the socioeconomic structure in the underdeveloped and developing countries. The emerging practices of integrating ICT facilities in agricultural sector has shown to be quite promising. This study was designed to determine the use of ICT as an extension tool by farmers in Diyar region (four villages) of Chapainawabganj district, Bangladesh. In this particular area, with many shortcomings, traditional public extension services have been prevalent. The use of ICT as dynamic agricultural extension tool has the potential to fill in the voids left by the traditional extension services. The research work presented in this paper studied the socio-demographic characteristics of the famers, extent of use of ICT tools by the farmers and the attitude of the farmers towards ICT use. Most of the respondents had shown moderately favourable attitude. Education, land ownership and cosmopoliteness showed positive significant relationship. And age, family member, number of children and farming experience showed negative significant relationship with the attitude of the farmers towards using ICT tools. Some basic resistances such as need for availability, accessibility, knowledge, interest and some others are keeping the growth of ICT usage low among the farmers of the chosen area. Evidently more work needs to be done to reach the expected rate of ICT led solutions for the promising agriculture in Chapainawabganj.</p> Mithun Kumar Ghosh, S. M. Rafi, Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Mursaleen Zebin Turin Copyright (c) 2022 Mithun Kumar Ghosh, S. M. Rafi, Iqbal Hasan Mahmud, Mursaleen Zebin Turin Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Emulsification Potentials and Bio- Diversities of Bacterial Isolates from Bonny Loading Jetty Crude Oil Polluted Soil, Bonny Island, Rivers State. <p>Surfactant producing microorganisms are indispensable in utility; In the present study, contaminated homogenized soil samples from Bonny Island River showed the following physicochemical properties: pH (5.67), Chloride ion (Cl<sup>-</sup>) (321±0.2 mg/g),Potassium ion (K<sup>+</sup>) (5.26±0.01mg/g), Magnesium ion(Mg<sup>2+</sup>) (2.19±0.05 mg/g), Iron II ion(Fe<sup>2+</sup>) (38.73±0.13ppm), Calcium ion (Ca<sup>2+</sup>) (4.12±0.1mg/g), Copper II ion (Cu<sup>2+</sup>) (3.2±0.01ppm), Lead II ion (Pb<sup>2+</sup>) (0.21±0.02 ppm), Phosphate ion (PO<sub>3</sub>) (6.24±0.1 mg/g), Total petroleum hydrocarbons(TPH 364±0.05 Mg/g), Total organic carbon&nbsp; (TOC 56.5±0.05 mg/g) and Total organic matter contents (TOM) (63.45±0.2) .Prior to the emulsification screening carried out; microbial isolation and total heterotrophic counting (CFU/g) carried out showed a total of twelve microbial distinct isolates from the polluted soil with a microbial population of 2.5 x 10<sup>8</sup> and 2.1 x 10<sup>8</sup> CFU/g of the soil. Dilution folds of 10<sup>-1</sup> and 10<sup>-2</sup> from the Bushnell-Hass media showed microbial population of 0.33 x 10<sup>4</sup> and 0.78 x 10<sup>4</sup>CFU/g respectively. <em>Klebsiella </em>sp<em>. </em>showed emulsification indices of43.3%, 51.2%, 50 and 48.9%with diesel and coconut oil, kerosene and crude oil respectively. Pseudomonas sp. showed emulsification indices of 40, 43, 54 and 45.6% with diesel, coconut oil, kerosene and crude oil respectively. <em>Bacillus</em> sp. showed emulsification indices of 46, 45, 32 and 37% with diesel, coconut oil, kerosene and crude oil respectively. The present study have shown the great potential of utilization of the bacterial consortium in oil recovering from various damp oil-wells and in cost efficient bioremediation process.</p> Chijioke O. Ezenwelu, Amarachukwu V. Arazu, Izuchukwu Chukwudozie, Oparaji H. Emeka Copyright (c) 2022 Chijioke O. Ezenwelu, Amarachukwu V. Arazu, Izuchukwu Chukwudozie, Oparaji H. Emeka Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mechanism of Solar Activity Triggering Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Consequence of Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics <p>Recently published scientific evidence implies that activities on the sun cause earthquakes and volcanic eruptions on Earth. However, the geophysical basis is inexplicable within the currently popular, but flawed geoscience paradigms. However, the mechanism of solar activity provoking earthquakes and volcanic eruptions follows logically from Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics. Here I disclose the mechanism for changes in solar weather triggering earthquakes and volcanoes which operates as a multi-stage amplifier: A change in the charged particle flux impinging the Earth’s magnetic field induces electric current into the georeactor, which causes ohmic heating, which disrupts sub-shell convection, which results in extra uranium settling-out, which causes a burst of nuclear fission energy, which replaces some of the lost heat of protoplanetary compression, which causes a burst in whole-Earth decompression, which results in a burst of heat emplaced at the base of the crust and/or Earth’s surface experiencing a bit of decompression-driven movement, the extent of which is a function of the degree of sub-shell convection disruption.</p> J. Marvin Herndon Copyright (c) 2022 J. Marvin Herndon Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Whole-Mars Decompression Dynamics <p>Whole-Mars Decompression Dynamics is a new planetary science paradigm that follows from observations that Mars, like Earth, primarily formed by condensing and raining out from within a giant gaseous protoplanet, whose massive shell of gases and ices compressed the rocky planet, but was subsequently stripped away by the super-intense T-Tauri phase solar winds associated with thermonuclear ignition of the sun. For a brief period, perhaps one billion years, Mars’ nuclear fission planetocentric reactor produced the planet’s magnetic field and supplied the lost heat of protoplanetary compression which enabled whole-Mars decompression to proceed. Through the process of mantle decompression thermal tsunami, the stored energy of protoplanetary compression also heated the crust and provided a thermal barrier to the downward percolation of water. Presumably contemporaneous with demise of the magnetic field, the whole-Mars decompression process subsided, concomitantly transforming Mars from warm and wet to cold and dry. Whole-Mars Decompression Dynamics provides different possible interpretations of Martian features and events, including the perimeter-features of Valles Marineris being circum-perimeter tears like Norwegian fjords, surface pits being the consequence of hydrogen geysers like on Mercury, and implications where one might hope to find Martian hydrocarbon deposits.</p> J. Marvin Herndon Copyright (c) 2022 J. Marvin Herndon Wed, 08 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Petrographic and Geotechnical Characterization of the Magmatic Formations from Hadjer El-Hamis and Dandi (Hadjer-Lamis Province, Chad) for Their Use in Civil Engineering <p>This paper deals with the magmatic rocks from Hadjer El-hamis and Dandi located in the Hadjer-Lamis Province (Chad). Indeed, Chad is actually engaged in several construction project and consequently needs a large quantity of good quality construction materials. The present study is in straight line with this logic and aims to determine the petrographic and geotechnical characteristics of the Hadjer Lamis rocks in order to define their use in civil engineering. In this area, rocks outcrop in the form of mounds displaying hexagonal, pentagonal and tetragonal prisms in Hadjer El-hamis, and as fractured blocks in Dandi. Petrographic analyses show that rocks from Hadjer El-hamis are rhyolite displaying porphyritic to locally glassy microlitic texture with mineralogical quatz, alkaline feldspar, pyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals. Rocks from Dandi granites (microgranite, porphyritic microgranite and granite) with massive structure and fine grained (microgranite), fine grained porphyritic micrograined and gritty texture composed of quartz, orthose, plagioclase, pyroxene, biotite and opaque minerals of variable proportions from one rock to another.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The geotechnical analyses carried out on the crushed masses of the sites of Hadjer El-hamis and Dandi concerned their physical and mechanical characteristics. Their physical characteristics show that their average specific density values are 2.40g/cm3 and 2.60g/cm3 and bulk density are 1.41g/cm 3 and 1.38 g/cm 3 respectively for Hadjer El-hamis and Dandi samples. The average values of flattening coefficients are respectively 12.19% and 10.6% for&nbsp; Hadjer El-hamis and Dandi areas. The mechanical characteristics of the studied materials on the basis of average values show that building materials from Hadjer El-hamis resist better to wear than those from Dandi, This difference in mechanical properties is certainly due to the petrographic nature characterized respectively by volcanic rocks in Hadjer El-hamis and plutonic in Dandi. Regarding resistance to impact, the geotechnical material from these two areas show very close average values of Los-Angeles coefficient and dynamic fragmentation coefficient recommended for civil engineering works.</p> <p>It appears from this research work that the studied materials are recommended for civil engineering work except for the sample E6 which presents too high Micro-Deval and Los-Angeles coefficients thus requiring a preliminary treatment before use.</p> AL-HADJ HAMID ZAGALO Copyright (c) 2022 AL-HADJ HAMID ZAGALO Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Numerical Study on Steel Plate Shear Wall with Slit having Rectangular Opening <p>Steel plate shear wall with slit (SPSWS) is one of lateral load resisting systems that can be used in new buildings as well as in upgrading existing structures. It possesses efficient energy dissipation capacity and good ductility as a result of the installed slits within the infill steel plate. Cutouts might be required to let utility lines and other services pass through, for weight reduction and/or aesthetics. In this study, the effect of introducing rectangular cutout on SPSWS system will be examined under cyclic loading using finite element method. The paper considered the buckling load, ultimate bearing capacity, energy dissipation capacity, initial stiffness and stiffness degradation, ductility, and cracking patterns of the SPSWS. The parametric study includes: the effect of the presence of the vertical slits, thickness of steel plate and presence of edge stiffeners. The result showed that the presence of the vertical slits has highly minimized the negative effect of the rectangular cutout on the desired hysteretic behavior of the wall. Buckling resistance of slit wall with edge stiffeners tends to increase with cutting rectangular opening while it declines when the rectangular cutout is introduced to slit wall without edge stiffeners. It was also found out that when cutting a rectangular opening in the slit wall system, edge stiffener is more influential parameter than thickness of plate.</p> Adil Zekaria, Redeat Ashenafi Copyright (c) 2022 Adil Zekaria, Redeat Ashenafi Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Devastating Geohazards and Disaster Risk Management System in Cameroon <p>Cameroon is vulnerable to natural hazards which are exacerbated by encroachment of the inhabitants into risk zones. When these geohazards occur, they tend to be disastrous in most case leaving the victims desperate. This research is aimed at investigating the devastating geohazards that occurred in Cameroon and evaluate the government response system. Using data was generated through a review of Disaster Risk Reduction literature and policy documents from the government, research institutions, academic publications and internet sources, we were able to present a concise account of the typology and of the functionality of geohazards management systems in Cameroon. The findings reveal that volcanic, landslide and floods are the most devastating geohazards in Cameroon accounting for 27%, 25% and 12% of total deaths respectively. Some of these devasting events include volcanic (Nyos 1986, 1746 deaths and Monoun 1984, 37 deaths), landslides (Limbe 2001, 24 deaths, Magba 2003, 22 deaths, Ngouache 2019, 42 deaths) and floods (Douala 2020, 4 deaths). The frequency of landslide and floods has increase in recent decades and most of the affected are not resilient to these disasters. The Disaster risk management system in Cameroon is active and not proactive and very slow in implementation. The system is highly bureaucratic and not flexible. Critical decisions are taken only at the top level and takes time to reach those to implement in the field consequently. From the finding of this paper it is primordial to empower the councils and create a comprehensive disaster management system in Cameroon, which shall involve the mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery phases.</p> Guedjeo Christian, Wotchoko Pierre, Marie-Louise Chenyi, Kagou Dongmo Armand Copyright (c) 2022 Guedjeo Christian, Wotchoko Pierre, Marie-Louise Chenyi, Kagou Dongmo Armand Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Shock Initiation by Shear Band Formation <p>Shock initiation of explosives usually comes about by hot spot formation through void collapse. But very weak shocks, under the hot spot formation threshold, can still lead to shock initiation through the process of shear band formation. We performed weak shock tests in the so-called explosive-window configuration, to determine the shear initiation threshold of the explosive PBX9501. We then ran computer simulations with our shear initiation model, and were able to reproduce a reasonable approximation to the test results.</p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2022 Yehuda Partom Fri, 10 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Panic Disorder and Associated Factors among Nurses Working in Covid-19 Isolation Centres in Lagos, Nigeria <p>Nurses suffered panic disorder due to virulent high aerosol spreading rate of coronavirus and limited data on definitive treatment of affected COVID-19 patients. This study assessed the prevalence of panic disorder and associated factors among nurses working in COVID-19 isolation centres in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was a quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. A population of <em>N</em>=75 nurses was sampled using a total enumeration sampling technique. Purposive sampling method was used to select the two isolation centres where the study was conducted. A structured self-administered questionnaire with validity and reliability established was used to collect data from nurses between 7<sup>th</sup> February and 25<sup>th</sup> March, 2022. Data were collated, screened and imported into SPSS version 25 for analysis. Significance levels of associated factors were established with Fisher’s Exact Test and Multivariate Logistic Regressions at significant level of <em>p </em>&lt; 0.05 and 95% confidence interval. The results showed the mean age of nurses was <em>m</em>=37.6 <u>+</u> 10.2 years and 20.6% developed panic disorder. The age <em>p</em>=0.002, and living with vulnerable persons <em>p</em>=0.005 were significantly associated with panic disorder <em>p</em> &lt; 0.05. Nurses who felt there is threat to their life working in COVID-19 isolation centre were 3.4 times more likely to develop panic disorder compared to nurses who did not (AOR=3.4, 95% CI=2.337, 7.271, <em>p</em>=0.001). In conclusion, twenty percent of nurses developed mild to severe panic disorder due to associated psychological and working conditions factors. Counseling and support program is recommended for affected nurses to improve quality of life.</p> Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed, Joseph Oyeniyi Aina Copyright (c) 2022 Tajudeen Olusegun Rasheed, Joseph Oyeniyi Aina Sun, 12 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing the Northern Gulf of Guinea Coastal Upwelling from a Coastal Weather Station <p>A weather station installed sufficiently close to the sea and satellite Sea surface temperature (SST) data have been used to estimate the potentiality of this station to capture the seasonal coastal upwelling signal along the northern coast of the Gulf of Guinea (GG). The mechanism sustaining this idea is the sea breeze prevailing for many months would transport the atmospheric air cooled by the upwelling from the ocean to this weather station. This study has shown that this mechanism is verified the whole year and mainly during the upwelling period sustaining the use of this equipment inland to capture the signal of this upwelling. The variability of the coastal ambient air temperature recorded by the weather station reflects quite well the variability of SST and the cooling of SST due to the upwelling.&nbsp; The seasonal SST and air temperature cooling are observed during the same period with SST colder than air temperature at the peak of the upwelling. Meanwhile, the difference between the two minima is less than 1°C. The signals of air temperature at the weather station and the SST show that the beginning of the cooling of air is triggered by the decrease of solar irradiance and, later the cooling of air is enhanced by the coastal upwelling through its impact on the marine atmospheric boundary layer. This suggests also that the coastal upwelling starts with the decrease of the solar irradiance and enhanced by marine subsurface processes.</p> Elisée Toualya, Ted Edgar Wango, Marcel Silué Copyright (c) 2022 Elisée Toualya, Ted Edgar Wango, Marcel Silué Sun, 12 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Rehabilitation of Diffuse Axonal Injury Deficit Caused by Traumatic Brain Injury Through Ayurvedic Treatment Protocol- A Case Study. <p>One of the most important types of brain damage that can occur as a result of non-missile head injury is diffuse axonal injury. Though DAI is a histological diagnosis, clinically it may be defines as a state of unconsciousness lasting for minimum 6 hours or more after traumatic brain injury&nbsp; except cases of swelling or ischemic brain lesions. DAI is the considered the most important factor in determining the morbidity and mortality in the traumatic brain injury. DIA causes behavioral, physical, and cognitive changes that effect on social and personal life of a patient also quality of life of patients and their families is affected. Ayurveda describes Head as a marma point. Head injury is termed as <em>Shiromarma abhigata</em> in Ayurveda classical books. Ayurveda treats this with the help of some herbal remedies and Panchakarma like <em>Snehan, Pinda sweda, Nasya, Basti</em> and Marma therapy</p> Deepak Mahajan Copyright (c) 2022 Deepak Mahajan Sun, 12 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Fluoroquinolone Resistance: An Overview <p>In this review, we addressed different types and mechanisms of resistance to fluoroquinolones. Strategies to overcome resistance to these antimicrobials were discussed. The study showed that resistance by efflux was the reported type of mechanism of resistance varied with bacteria stains. For Enterobacteriaceas, plasmid mediated genese were responsible of the resistance but In Shigella, the resistance was due to chromosomal mutation. Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteria, Mycobacteria were found to be the most resistant microorganisms. To face the situation many strategies are usable such as rational antibiotic prescription, new compound discovery, antimicrobial and stewardships. The AWaRe concept is recently developed by the WHO as powerful tool to overcome antibiotic resistance.</p> Blaise DACKOUO Copyright (c) 2022 Blaise DACKOUO Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Mineral Binder Based on Waste of Other Productions <p>In this article possibility of a complex solution of the tasks of ecology and chemical technology of silicates in the preparation of mineral binder material on the basis of rich-tonnage inputs of other varieties was studied. By means of the computer program "Clinker" new compositions of raw materials based on the system of chalk - rice husk - paper scope with a total content of 64-71 wt.% of these wastes are determined. The method of X-ray phase analysis shows the peculiarities of the formation of the phase composition during firing of the developed mixtures with a maximum temperature of 1400 ºC. Standardized technological tests were performed and differences in the properties of the mineral binder were determined when varying the quantitative ratio of components in the composition of the initial mixture.</p> Lev Chernyak Copyright (c) 2022 Lev Chernyak Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 “Patenting of Classic Wastewater Treatment System with Naturally Occurring Organic Materials in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria” <p>The Classic wastewater treatment system (engineered sewage treatment system) was developed and deployed to treat domestic waste (human fasces and urine) water for re-use. Naturally occurring organic materials were used in the treatment process, where 40% of these treatment materials are considered as waste in itself. Effluent from the treatment system was analyzed with physico-chemical and microbial parameters within stipulated limits of WHO/FMENV for safe water use. The removal efficiency of E.Coli, fecal coliform, total coliform, streptococcus and phosphorus from the effluent ranged between 90 to 99% which shows the effectiveness of the treatment system in sewage treatment.</p> E. N. MOORE Copyright (c) 2022 E. N. MOORE Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Contribution of Rivers to the Development of Circular Tourism Case Study: The Acheron River in Greece <p>The present paper investigates the contribution of a river to the development of circular tourism in a place and specifically, a region. According to historical data, it has been proven that human societies tended to look for areas with rich natural resources to develop. These areas were traditionally selected because of the sustainability of these resources. Especially those areas that are located near rivers also had the advantages of moving people and products, fishing and the availability of water. The following text highlights the possibilities that exist for the utilization of riparian sites for the circular tourist development. The Acheron River in the Region of Epirus in Greece is selected as a case study. To serve the purpose, a questionnaire was constructed which was addressed to 352 visitors / tourists in the research area. The work concludes with conclusions and proposals regarding the development of circular tourism in this area.</p> Agisilaos Economou Copyright (c) 2022 Agisilaos Economou Fri, 17 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Crop Establishment Methods and Micro Irrigation for Enhancing Productivity of Total System and Water in Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Haryana: An On-Farm Study <p>Rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) is sustenance for the majority of people in India contributing food security to the nation. However, in the past two decades, water shortage is a serious constraint to nourishing and increasing the productivity of RWCS. Many technological interventions such as raised seed beds, direct seeding, mechanical planting, laser levelling of the land, etc., have been tried to save a significant amount of water. Of which, micro irrigation offers a promising technology on water saving. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the grain yield and water productivity of rice-wheat rotation system under different crop establishment and irrigation methods. The treatment consists of three different methods of establishment (i.e., i. direct seeded rice, DSR/Zero tillage, ZT in wheat; ii. mechanical transplanting for rice/Happy seeder for wheat; iii. Manual method) and three irrigation systems (i.e., i. conventional flood irrigation; ii. Drip; iii. Sprinkler irrigations) along with farmers’ practice. This study was carried out for three years from 2018-19 to 2020-21 as on farm study at Gumthala Garhu village, Pehowa of Kurukshetra district, Haryana, India. The manual planting method recorded 7.8% more rice yield and 1.3% more wheat yield over DSR/ZT. The yield advantage due to drip irrigation over flood irrigation method was 10.27% and 2.24% in rice and wheat, respectively. The manually planted crop (11827 kg ha-1) exerted a significant effect on TSP and on an average a 105% productivity enhancement was recorded over the DSR/ZT (11263 kg ha-1) among the establishment methods. Drip irrigation (11970 kg ha-1) resulted in 106.69% productivity enhancement of RWCS over flood irrigation (11219 kg ha-1). Physical water productivity (PWP) and economic water productivity (EWP) for irrigation water use (IWU) and total consumptive water use (TCWU) of manual planting and drip irrigation were superior to other practices in the total system. AS for water use, manual establishment method recorded 14% less water use over DSR/ZT. Similarly, drip irrigation could save 41% and sprinkler irrigation 37% water over that in flood irrigation method. Therefore, micro irrigation could be a sound technology for water saving in RWCS, thus allowing sustainable food grain production in water scarcity regions.</p> A. K. Bhardwaj, P. Soman, Neeraj Sharma, T. Pandiaraj, B. K. Labh Copyright (c) 2022 A. K. Bhardwaj, P. Soman, Neeraj Sharma, T. Pandiaraj, B. K. Labh Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Vibrational (Infrared, Raman) and Thermogravimetric Study of Copper Ore from the Deposit at Tchirozerine, Agadez (Niger) <p>Agadez is the mining region of the republic of Niger in which all kinds of ore are found. Copper would have been exploited and refined in Niger in the 15th century in the province of Azelik, region of Agadez. In this context, it is important to use mew techniques to characterize the mineralogical variability of copper ore. The collected sample was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopies (infrared and Raman). The results of the X-ray diffraction of the ore show that the sample corresponds to an association between brochantite and biotite, dominated by brochantite. The thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the sample was stable up to 200°C and above this temperature, the solid decomposed in a series of three decomposition stages. Raman and infrared spectroscopies show the fundamental vibration of sulfate ion which functioning as a unidentate because the effective symmetry is lowered to C<sub>3v</sub>.</p> <p><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> Ali SANDA BAWA Copyright (c) 2022 Ali SANDA BAWA Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of dimensions of basalt aggregates on concrete properties. Case of crushed stone and sand from the menchum river in North-West Cameroon <p>This research work aims to compare the physical and mechanical properties of concretes, obtained from different dimensions of&nbsp; basalt aggregates. The results show that the concrete made from the 0/5 mm aggregate has the highest workability, followed by the 5/15 aggregate and the 5/25 aggregate.&nbsp; Also the concrete made from basalt gravel 5/25 mm; 5/15 mm and river gravel recorded mean compressive resistance of 31.4 Mpa, 28.35 Mpa and 26.35 Mpa respectively at 28 days and mean bending resistance of 3.35 Mpa, 2.78 Mpa and 2.49 Mpa respectively at 28 days. The strength of the concrete in compression and bending increases with the dimensions of the aggregates used. It was concluded the workability of fresh concrete decreased with increasing aggregate size, and the compressive and bending strength increased with increasing aggregate size with a water/cement ratio of 0.5. The compaction coefficient increases with grain size.</p> Gouafo Casimir Copyright (c) 2022 Gouafo Casimir Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Temperature Equation of State of an Explosive Reactant <p>To use our TDRR reactive flow model [1-4], we need a temperature equation of state for both compressive and tensile deformation. Such an equation of state is usually constructed around a reference curve in the PV (pressure and specific volume) plane. We show how to construct these equations of state for V&lt;V<sub>0</sub>, where the reference curve is the shock Hugoniot, and for VV<sub>0</sub>, where the reference curve is the axis P=0.</p> Yehuda Partom Copyright (c) 2022 Yehuda Partom Fri, 24 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000