European Journal of Applied Sciences <p><em>European Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) </em> is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all aspects of applied sciences and natural sciences.</p> <p>A wide range of topics in applied and natural sciences are covered, which includes but not limited to the Agriculture, Fisheries, Architecture and design, Divinity, Education, Engineering and technology, Environmental studies and forestry, Family and consumer science, Atmospheric sciences, Oceanography, Human physical performance and recreation, Journalism, Media studies and communication, Business, Law, Library and museum studies, Military sciences, Public administration, Public policy, Social work, Transportation.</p> <p>The journal aims is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary electronic material.</p> en-US (Christopher James) (Olivia Adam) Sun, 07 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 OJS 60 The Role of Meteorology in The Mining Chain in Northern Brazil <p>Mining is an important branch of the economy in Brazil. Particularly in the eastern Amazon, a large part of the mineral chain spans regions with heterogeneous landscapes characterized by ridges colonized by native rainforests and canga vegetation, where mining activities have developed, rolling hills with extensive pastures and croplands, and restricted urban areas. Regarding operational activities, the mining industry takes place in open-pit, railway and port settings, all of which are naturally exposed to the impacts of adverse weather conditions. This article addressed the importance of meteorological studies in minimizing and managing the rebounding of atmospheric processes in the mining chain from the mines to the ports. The main methods used in the analyzed studies included regional numerical models and statistical modeling adapted for the target area. The results presented herein refer to the development of climate projections focusing on precipitation extremes, seasonal precipitation forecasts, a short-term meteorological forecasting system, a lightning alert system for mining areas and the creation of a hydrometeorological monitoring network. Such results were presented to stakeholders, who can use information derived from scientific research, especially when planning their respective activities on different time scales, including annual, monthly, daily and hourly timescales, from the perspective of process optimization, human safety, community well-being, biodiversity conservation and water resource management.</p> Douglas Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Paes, Cláudia Wanzeler da Costa, Renata Tedeschi, Renato Silva Júnior, Wilson Nascimento Júnior, Antônio Nogueira Neto, Paulo Kuhn, Vânia Franco, Edmir Jesus, Pedro Walfir Souza-Filho, Everaldo de Souza, Giordani Sodré, Fabrício Silva, Ivan Saraiva, Eduardo Carvalho, Rafael Rocha, Ronnie Alves Copyright (c) 2024 Douglas Silva Ferreira, Ana Paula Paes, Cláudia Wanzeler da Costa, Renata Tedeschi, Renato Silva Júnior, Wilson Nascimento Júnior, Antônio Nogueira Neto, Paulo Kuhn, Vânia Franco, Edmir Jesus, Pedro Walfir Souza-Filho, Everaldo de Souza, Giordani Sodré, Fabrício Silva, Ivan Saraiva, Eduardo Carvalho, Rafael Rocha, Ronnie Alves Sun, 07 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 The Creation of the World - A Galactic Event Beyond Human Grasp <p>The Big Bang theory, first raised in 1931 by the Belgian physicist and catholic priest Georges Lemaître, and supported ever since by most astrophysicists, depicts a 13.8 billion years-old galactic event, wherein an enormous quantity of light energy that aggregated within an infinitely hot and dense ‘Singularity’ dot, suddently inflated and stretched, spreading tremendous amounts of heat and gas that were the primordial components of the universe. Over time that began at the inflation moment (A. Einstein), the extremely hot matter cooled enough to form galaxies (stars surrounded by planets in orbits dictated by their gravitational interactions). Amazingly, subsequent to the inflationary moment, the universe continues to expand in an accelerating manner.</p> Michael Gurevitz, Roee Dagan Copyright (c) 2024 Michael Gurevitz, Roee Dagan Wed, 17 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 An Innovative Paradigm and Proposal of the Universe Including Gravity, Magnetic Field, and Magnetic Shielding <p>The universe is expanding and is believed to be infinite. Therefore, we should consider the physical nature of the universe as an infinite and endless matter. To begin with the speed of light by Einstein’s theory , in which speed of light is fastest, that theory should be stated on the earth only, or at most in the Galactic system only. Because , somewhere in the universe there might be some object which runs faster than light. The gravity formula on the earth should include the effect of magnetic fields and they should be considered te be the following two types; Akaho’s gravity formula-1 for two mases on the Earth which is F = G (M is the mass of object M, and H is the magnetic value of object M. N is the mass of object N and P is the magnetic value of object N. r is distance between M and N. G is 6.67259 x 10-11m3 .S-2 .kg-1). Akaho’s formula-2 is, F = (M is the mass of the Earth which is 5.973 ×1024 Kg. H is magnetic field of the earth which ranges from 25,000 to 65,000 nanoteslas depending on the location. N is the mass of N. P is the magnetic field of the object N. ) . We don’t have to use G because we used the actual values of mass and magnetic field of the earth.-</p> <p> </p> <p>The universe is expanding constantly, and it is an endless object (or just a mass). Anything can exist and/or happen. For these the present mankind are not aware of them. As far as gravity shielding or antigravity is concerned various projects or proposal have been taking place. Those include creation of antigravity from electromagnetism, transversal suspended accelerometer designed to investigate the effect of gravity shielding, and non-magnet methods of propagation to create thrust. Something intriguing device and/or idea will be developed in the near future.</p> Eiichi Akaho Copyright (c) 2024 Eiichi Akaho Wed, 17 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Light Time Delay and Bending of Photon Sources Located in The Solar System Calculated with The Extended Newtonian Inertia (ENI) <p>An equation for the gravitational redshift was obtained which coincides with the GR result for the case of an emitter being far from the gravitational field. The expression was obtained from the relativistic Einstein-Doppler effect without using general relativity. This suggested the equivalence between a change of speed and a change of gravitational potential and triggered a generalization of the 2 nd law of Newton using high order derivative of the gravitational/inertial acceleration. The implied gravitational time dilation (considering a variable speed of light) was used in the ENI model previously developed by the author to calculate the Shapiro delay for light sources coming from the solar system. The obtained results agree very well with the results of general relativity (maximum relative deviation of about 0.2 percent for Pluto). The use of the time dilation factor in the Newtonian model yields also results very close to GR. Therefore the factor of 2 commonly attributed to the difference between the Newtonian and the GR model did not appear here. The speed of light for photons grazing the Sun (Earth and the Milky Way) was calculated to be almost the one in vacuum but for a neutron star it is about 30 percent higher than the one in vacuum. The ENI model yielded results consistent with the GR models when applied to the Mariner 6 and 7 missions, and to the Cassini probe. The ENI model for the deflection of light was extended (without invoking the time dilation) to finite distances of the source and the observer with results being in very good agreement with GR. The decomposition of the starlight frequencies when approaching the Sun was hypothesized</p> Barbaro Q Leyva Copyright (c) 2024 Barbaro Q Leyva Wed, 10 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Research on the Application of Digital Technology in University Procurement Auditing <p>Digital technology is applied in the audit of procurement in universities to identify potential risks and issues, improve audit efficiency, and save manpower and time costs. The application of this technology can enhance risk management, strengthen supervision and management of procurement activities, and support decision improvement. Intuitive and clear audit reports and visualized analysis results provide decision support for university management, accurately assess risks, and formulate improvement measures. University procurement audits can comprehensively and accurately analyze procurement data, identify potential problems and risks, and provide stronger technical support for university procurement management.</p> Yi-Zi Ning Copyright (c) 2024 Yi-Zi Ning Sun, 07 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Telepathic Proficiency - A Factual Threat on Humanity <p>The molecular mechanism underlying human cognition is still a ‘black box’ despite intense brain research. The ~1.4 kg brain tissue contains billions of nerve cells (neurons) connected via synaptic junctions that transport electrical and chemical signals toward target regions, while its functioning is associated with activation or inactivation of variable neuronal networks, demonstrating high plasticity. In recent years, imaging techniques enabling visualizatuin of neurons and synapses have been developed, monitoring brain centers that ‘light up’ by external stimuli (e.g., ref 1). Moreover, various non-invasive techniques for real time monitoring of spatio-temporal (position and time) brain activity upon external stimuli (e.g., sensory, cognitive, motor, regulatory) have been developed {e.g., electroencephalography (EEG), position emission tomography (PET), near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (e.g., ref. 2)}, but despite this impressive repertoire, the processing mechanisms by which activation of certain neuronal networks constitute our consciousness, soul, or abstractive competence (thinking, spiritual perception, inventive productivity, build-up of moral principles, emotions, memories) remain unclear. These open questions are especially puzzling in light of the central role of the brain in controlling our physical and mental abilities and successful mapping of activated structural regions involved in various functions, as well as in light of the enormous progress in other scientific fields such as exploration of marvels in our planet (structure and function of the earth and deep sea, or the protecting atmospheric layers covering our planet, and the enormous variety of life forms); or, the great advances in medicine and prolongation of life expectancy; or, the new findings about deep space and the universe, and the amazing aspirations of reaching to the stars.</p> Michael Gurevitz, Roee Dagan Copyright (c) 2024 Michael Gurevitz, Roee Dagan Wed, 17 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 Phase Change Material for Thermal Comfort Improvement in Tropical Climate of Cameroon <p>Current typical dwellings in the Sub-Saharan tropical climate of Cameroon provide opportunities for more effective design and the use of Phase-change materials (PCM) to reduce cooling energy demand. In this paper, a typical residential house of a single family is modelled with the local construction habits and materials under the tropical region of Cameroon. Energy analysis of the building is performed, taking into account the use of PCM paraffin RT26 in order to enhance the thermal comfort of the building. The impact of using phase change material on indoor air temperature is quantified. The results of the numerical analysis obtained show that the PCM can be a good option in a hot climate for reducing indoor air temperature. The average annual indoor air temperature was reduced from 35°C to 25°C.</p> Aloys Martial Ekoe A Akata, Auguste Oscar Mackpayen, Nembot Ouembe Kennedy, Mbiake Robert Copyright (c) 2024 Aloys Martial Ekoe A Akata, Auguste Oscar Mackpayen, Nembot Ouembe Kennedy, Mbiake Robert Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100 The Influence of COVID-19 Infection on Chinese Peoples’ Negative Mood: The Role of Rumination and Social Support <p><u>Objective</u>: To investigate the Influence of COVID-19 infection on Chinese peoples’ negative mood and the role of rumination and social support, so as to provide reference for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection. <u>Study design</u>:Cross-sectional study. <u>Methods</u>: Using convenient sampling, 2200 people participated to complete a questionnaire survey. <u>Results</u>: The peoples’ infection rate of COVID-19 was 91.3%, and 89.7% people were infected once. COVID-19 infection could predict peoples’ negative mood positively. Rumination played a partial mediating role between COVID-19 infection and negative mood. Social support not only moderated the predictive effect of COVID-19 infection on rumination, but also moderated the predictive effect of rumination on negative mood. <u>Conclusion</u>: High levels of social support can reduce the impact of COVID-19 infection on rumination and the impact of rumination on negative mood. The whole society should support people in coping with COVID-19 infection in multiple ways, and this can reduce their rumination and negative mood.</p> Ling-ling He, Zhao Feng, Chun-Mei Hu, Qi-lan Pan Copyright (c) 2024 Ling-ling He, Zhao Feng, Chun-Mei Hu, Qi-lan Pan Sat, 13 Jul 2024 00:00:00 +0100