European Journal of Applied Sciences <p><em>European Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) </em> is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all aspects of applied sciences and natural sciences.</p> <p>A wide range of topics in applied and natural sciences are covered, which includes but not limited to the Agriculture, Fisheries, Architecture and design, Divinity, Education, Engineering and technology, Environmental studies and forestry, Family and consumer science, Atmospheric sciences, Oceanography, Human physical performance and recreation, Journalism, Media studies and communication, Business, Law, Library and museum studies, Military sciences, Public administration, Public policy, Social work, Transportation.</p> <p>The journal aims is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary electronic material.</p> en-US (Christopher James) (Olivia Adam) Sun, 07 Jan 2024 07:20:07 +0000 OJS 60 Riemann Solver for Hyperbolic Equations with Discontinuous Coefficients: A Mathematical Proof of the Constant State Formula <p>In<em>&nbsp;</em><em>Godunov</em>&nbsp;numerical methods type used in many industrial and scientific numerical simulations including; fluid dynamics, electromagnetic, electro-hydrodynamic problems, a <em>Riemann</em>&nbsp;problem needs to be solved to estimate fluxes. The exact solution is generally not possible to obtain, but good approximations are available, &nbsp;<em>Roe</em>&nbsp;and <em>HLLC Riemann</em>&nbsp;solvers&nbsp;are among the most&nbsp;popular. However, all these solvers assume that the acoustic waves speeds are continuous by considering some averaging. In a previous work the effect of such averaging is demonstrated to be significant for some applications leading to a wrong solution. A <em>Riemann</em>&nbsp;solvers is proposed taking into account the discontinuity of the acoustic waves speeds. The case that shows discrepancy comparing to the averaged &nbsp;solvers is the one with an acoustic waves speeds&nbsp;having a negative&nbsp;left value&nbsp;and a positive right&nbsp;value. In this case a constant state&nbsp;appears and a formula of the constant state&nbsp;is proposed. A numerical,&nbsp;and a particular exact solution based on a regularization technique are provided to demonstrate the validity of the formula. However, and due to the important impact of this case on &nbsp;&nbsp;<em>Godunov</em>&nbsp;type&nbsp;schemes, a mathematical proof&nbsp;is necessary. In this paper&nbsp;the formula of the constant state is proved, the proof is based on the generalized functions algebra theory .</p> Lakhdar Remaki Copyright (c) 2024 Lakhdar Remaki Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Proximate and Phytochemical Profile of Ethanol Extracts from Seeds and Pulps of Artocarpus. Heterophyllus <p>The Proximate and phytochemical potentials of the seeds and pulp of <em>Artocarpus heterophyllus </em>were evaluated to unravel reasons behind their wild usages locally for treatment of several diseases. The phytochemical and proximate compositions of the seed and pulp were determined using standard laboratory methods. The result shows that in pulp, flavonoids (98.11ppm), were the highest phytochemicals present, followed by alkaloids (24.86ppm), and Tannin (22.59). This shows that the pulp contains more phytochemicals (234.19ppm) than the seeds (160.25)<em>. </em>The proximate profile gave maximum carbohydrate (%) for seed and pulp respectively as 52.68 and 56.6, followed by protein (%) as 24.13 and 18.85 for seed and pulp. This research work shows that it is clear that both the seed and pulp of <em>A.heterophyllus</em> have essential potential ingredients that could be used in management of several diseases, fungal and bacterial infections. The assayed proximate profile showed high Carbohydrate, protein and fibre content. Making this samples good carbohydrate, protein and fibre sources.</p> Habiganuchi, A., Monago-Ighorodje, C., Olua, V., Amadi, S. C., Ibiama, B. G., Habiganuchi, O., Ajie, B. I. Copyright (c) 2024 Habiganuchi, A., Monago-Ighorodje, C., Olua, V., Amadi, S. C., Ibiama, B. G., Habiganuchi, O., Ajie, B. I. Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Milankovitch Cycles, New Insights <p>Milutin Milankovitch published his influential research “Canon of Insolation and the Ice-age Problem” in Belgrade, Serbia, in 1941. His work is still significant in terms of studying climate changes. In this paper we also consider new scientific knowledge about solar insolation. Periodic solar activities such as sunspots and the magnetic field cycles or grand solar minimum/maximum affect the Earth’s atmosphere. These periodic natural factors, together with Milankovitch cycles, are important for regional and for global climate.</p> Gordana Jovanović Copyright (c) 2024 Gordana Jovanović Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Growth and Yield Responses of Okra (Abelmoscus Esculentus) Grown on Soil Amended with Dewatered Domestic Sewage Sludge in the West of Cameroon <p>Sewage sludge can be good to remedy soil depletion problems by intensive cropping and overcome fertilization costs in agriculture. This study aimed to assess the influence of domestic sewage sludge on the growth and yield of <em>Abelmoschus</em> <em>esculentus</em> in West of Cameroon. Sewage sludge from the digester of sewage treatment plant in University of Dschang was dewatered on filter beds and ground in a mill. It was applied to fields at rates of 10 t/ha (T1), 20 t/ha (T2) and 30 t/ha (T3) to evaluate their effects on the growth and yield of okra (KIRIKOU F1 variety). The experimental design was completely randomized bloc with three replicates. Growth parameters including plant height, leaf number and leaf area and yield parameters including flower buds number, flower number, total fruit number, mature fruit number, fruit diameter and weight were evaluated with time. Growth parameters were collected from the fourth week after sowing at biweekly frequency, while yield parameters were measured weekly from first flower buds formation until end of experiment. The highest plant height, leaf number and leaf area were obtained on the T2 field. Yields in T1, T2 and T3 fields were statistically similar with positive control T4 (0.25 t/ha of 12-14-19 NPK) but differed significantly with the negative control T0 (no fertilizer) which was similar with positive control. The best yield (0.588 t/ha) was achieved from fields fertilized with T2. These results show that sewage sludge, a by-product of domestic sewage treatment, can be used as fertilizer for okra production.</p> Justine Mireille Fotsa Tiwa, Martin Lekeufack, Marcelle Léonce Tsimi Edzigui, Diane Fowoung, Amandine Elodie Manekeu Tanetsa, Adrienne Chimi Djiomou, Théophile Fonkou Copyright (c) 2024 Justine Mireille Fotsa Tiwa, Martin Lekeufack, Marcelle Léonce Tsimi Edzigui, Diane Fowoung, Amandine Elodie Manekeu Tanetsa, Adrienne Chimi Djiomou, Théophile Fonkou Thu, 11 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Post-pandemic Socioeconomic Recovery: A Framework of Integrated Recovery Strategies for Severely Affected Economies <p>COVID-19 might have come and gone but the effects, which are likely to linger for at least a decade, are still here with us. Life must continue which was why most countries looked for post-pandemic recovery strategies. Many countries, especially those which were severely affected, called for high power workshops, seminars and conferences involving government officials, captains of industries, academia and think tanks just to devise strategies to prevent economic paralysis leading to presentation of many recommendations. In a corroborative fashion, the aim of this article was to examine the socio-economic effects of COVID-19 on severely affected economies and to recommend ways those economies can emerge from the effects. We relied on scoping review of relevant documents on COVID-19 in major search engines especially MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus and others to look for solutions for severely affected economies. The stages involved in selection, inclusion and systematic review of the retrieved documents were guided by the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. After a series of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 31 articles finally met our expectations and were included in the study. We determined severely affected economies as those which depended mainly on tourism (e.g. Moldova, Seychelles, etc.), the top ten countries with the highest casualties (e.g. USA, UK, India, Brazil, Italy, etc.) and the top ten with the highest number of clinically confirmed cases (e.g. USA, UK, Brazil, etc.). Other criteria include those countries which slipped into depression (e.g. USA, Nigeria, etc.) and those with economic fragility prior the outbreak of COVID-19 (most sub-Saharan Africa countries). Having reviewed the articles, we came up with eight integrated recovery strategies for the economic revival of those severely affected economies, such as: collective intelligence and entrepreneurial resilience, prioritizing e-commerce and digital trading, and re-strategizing tourism and transport. It is believed that if aggressively pursued, severely affected economies will emerge stronger after feeling the heat of COVID-19.</p> Paul O. Adekola, Helena Nogueira, Daniela Rodrigues Copyright (c) 2024 Paul O. Adekola, Helena Nogueira, Daniela Rodrigues Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Gamma Ray Energy Absorption Buildup Factor Computation for Human Tissues in Energy Range of Medical Radionuclides Up to 10 Mean Free Paths <p>Gamma ray energy absorption buildup factors (EABF) have been meticulously computed for a comprehensive set of 16 human tissues, encompassing breast, lung, kidney, pancreas, liver, eye lens, thyroid, brain, ovary, heart, large intestine, blood, skin, spleen, muscle, and cortical bone. These calculations encompass photon energies inherent to prevalent radionuclides, spanning from 0.021 to 1.25 MeV, while delving into penetration depths reaching up to 10 mean free paths (mfp), all accomplished via the utilization of MCNPX2.6. The outcomes underscore the pivotal role of chemical composition of tissue in determining EABF, shedding light on the substantial influence this factor wields. Particularly noteworthy is the observation that cortical bone distinctly exhibits significantly lower EABF values compared to the other tissues under investigation. Leveraging the EABF values furnished in this study offers a powerful means of regulating dose levels for both therapeutic and diagnostic applications, contributing to the precise administration of radiation-based medical interventions.</p> Dariush Sardari, Bashir Bashiri, Mehrnaz Zehtabvar, Shahnaz Hashemi, Leila Anvariazar Copyright (c) 2024 Dariush Sardari, Bashir Bashiri, Mehrnaz Zehtabvar, Shahnaz Hashemi, Leila Anvariazar Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Fate of Energy Arising from Renewable Sources <p>Using the wind energy as example, this notice sheds some more light on the effects of conversion of natural energy on the Earth's climate. This energy is mostly converted into electric energy that may strongly affect the climate. Its final mode is heat that is disposed as waste in the environment.</p> Jovan Mitrovic Copyright (c) 2024 Jovan Mitrovic Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Quantum Gravity, Energy Wave Spheres, and the Proton Radius <p>We argue, from present considerations and a previous analysis of the hydrogen atom as a miniature Michelson-Morley experiment in the Material Point Universe Revisited, that the electron wave velocity in the hydrogen atom is and that the fine-structure constant is the ratio of the remaining mass of the electron to the initial electron mass, not the ratio of velocities, as Sommerfield had it.</p> Darrell Bender Copyright (c) 2024 Darrell Bender Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Can Science Reveal the Origin of the Universe? <p>Recently Nature published an influential paper and introduced a novel perspective: "Quantum theory might make the cosmos more certain than classical physics ever did." [1]. After reading this paper together with the relevant background theory, we think that this conclusion is drawn from continuous misconceptions since relativity theory, quantum mechanics and Big-Bang theory. These misconceptions include: (1) no distinction between Universe and world, thus blurred the boundary between speculative knowledge and scientific knowledge; (2) physical reality and mathematical language; (3) deterministic classical mechanics and probabilistic quantum mechanics; (4) completeness and logical consistency. In this short paper, six issues we found from reading this paper are briefly discussed and our main conclusions are that science cannot reveal the origin of whole Universe but a concrete system within the world we can observe. Scientific theory should not be required to be complete in order to keep its logical consistency. We should not interpret a scientific theory to be either deterministic or probabilistic and this depends on the information available to us for the model parameters. The clarification of these issues may be helpful to promote the development of cosmology theory in the track of scientific theory.</p> Weicheng Cui Copyright (c) 2024 Weicheng Cui Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Origin of Optical Activity in Cubic NaClO3 and NaBrO3 Crystals at 296K <p>The optical activity is theoretically determined both in the dextro- and levorotatory crystals of NaClO<sub>3</sub> and NaBrO<sub>3</sub>. Both compounds have identical structures and they crystallize in the space group <em>P</em>2<sub>1</sub>3 as ionic solids from the water solution at room temperature. The net charges of Cl, Br and O atoms in the XO<sub>3</sub><sup>‒</sup> ions are variables, when the ratios of the electric moments of second rank in the two principal axis directions and the ratios of the defined isomorphic and measured refractive indices of the two crystals are iterated to a topological equivalence. The difference of the net charges of Cl- and Br-atoms brings the opposite sense of optical rotation in these compounds. The rotation is computed from the principal axis components of the second electric moments and axial vectors derived from the point charge model. The unit cells have four XO<sub>3</sub><sup>‒</sup> ions of three-fold symmetries lying on the four diagonals. The components of the dominant axial vectors of two ions, standing in the right- and left-handed symmetries, are pointing towards each other in the principal axis directions and contribute to the optical rotation. The left-handed component against the propagation direction of the plane-polarized light changes its handedness and rotation character making the compounds optically active. Optical activity is observed in all three principal axis directions. NaBrO<sub>3</sub> is dextro- and NaClO<sub>3</sub> levorotatory in the right-handed coordinate axis system. The compounds have opposite senses of optical rotation when crystallizing in the left-handed coordinate axis system, but the they are not enantiomorphs, because the space group is not chiral.</p> Markku Lennart Karppinen Copyright (c) 2024 Markku Lennart Karppinen Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of Biophotonic Treatment on Hematologic and Metabolic Parameters <p>The wide-ranging effects of healthful vs. damaging consequences of UV irradiation on key physiologic parameters are reviewed in this paper. The effects are dependent on the wavelengths encountered, the absolute intensity and duration of the exposure, the tissues exposed, and whether the UV effects were delivered via <em>in vivo</em> or as an extracorporeal exposure <em>in vitro</em> typically performed with freshly obtained heparinized aliquots of whole blood. While damaging effects of high UV intensity may include irreversible irradiation damage to key cellular and molecular components, controlled low dosages of UV irradiation delivered via a conventional biophotonic apparatus at specific, controlled wavelengths can deliver beneficial effects on blood oxygenation, tissue repair, immune responses, glycemic responses, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) concentrations. HbA1c is an important diagnostic marker for the effectiveness of diabetes management. Studies reviewed demonstrate increases in blood oxygenation and corresponding decreases in HbA1c concentrations following nominal biophotonic treatment and indicate that the application of this therapy extends beyond its more commonly applied applications in the treatment and control of infectious illnesses and anti-aging biophotonic therapeutics.</p> Orien L. Tulp, Syed A. A. Rizvi, George P. Einstein Copyright (c) 2024 Orien L. Tulp, Syed A. A. Rizvi, George P. Einstein Mon, 22 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Parkinson’s Disease and Food Expenditure in Italy: Stochastic and Non-Stochastic Analyses of Food Elements <p><u>Background</u>: The correlation between food and Parkinson's disease (PD) shows that the Mediterranean diet (MeD) brings positive benefits. <u>Objective</u>: To find the correlation between PD and food components in the various regions of Italy in 2016. <u>Methods</u>: The protein, fat, mineral and vitamin content of 275 foods belonging to 56 distinct food categories were correlated with PD in terms of standardised mortality ratio (SMR). Data were computed for 19,500 families in 540 Italian municipalities for 2016. Life expectancy, demographic data and level of well-being were also analysed. Stochastic and non-stochastic analyses (neural network mapping) were used to compute the associations with PD. <u>Results</u>: The following results were obtained by focusing on the food components deemed significant in both stochastic and non-stochastic analyses: Alcohol, saturated and monounsaturated fats, calcium and sodium were found to be causative or partially causative factors. Soluble sugars, carbohydrates, starch, selenium and vitamin D were seen to be protective or partially protective. The SMR of PD was significantly lower in Southern Italy than in the North due to a lower consumption of causative foods and higher consumption of protective ones. Furthermore, the lower gross domestic product (GDP) in the South may also have a significant effect. <u>Conclusions</u>: In 2016, the PD death rate in Southern Italy was significantly lower than in the North. The food component pattern that emerged in Southern regions was also significantly different: a lower consumption of causative food components and higher consumption of protective ones together with a lower GDP and life expectancy. Using data on food expenditure and quantities enable us to track the correlation with PD SMR on an annual basis.</p> Umberto Cornelli, Enzo Grossi, Martino Recchia, Claudia Antonelli, Luca Battaglia, Giorgia Bonalume, Roberto Butti, Camurri, Matteo, Carluccio, Beatrice, Clementi, Camilla, Condoleo, Federico, D’Ambrosio, Alessio, De Lucia, Veronica, Giardinetti, Rebecca, Gusperti, Greta, Idonia, Marco, Idonia, Luca, Iftime, Maria Daniela, Malnati, Sofia, Mandelli, Kevin, Masini, Chiara, Messina, Beatrice, Nebbia, Stefano, Piarulli, Gabriele, Piccinini, Daniele, Pelucchi, Francesca, Radici, Alessandro, Rattaggi, Matteo, Testa, Mattia, Volpi, Viviana, Zahra, Meerab Copyright (c) 2024 Umberto Cornelli, Enzo Grossi, Martino Recchia, Claudia Antonelli, Luca Battaglia, Giorgia Bonalume, Roberto Butti, Camurri, Matteo, Carluccio, Beatrice, Clementi, Camilla, Condoleo, Federico, D’Ambrosio, Alessio, De Lucia, Veronica, Giardinetti, Rebecca, Gusperti, Greta, Idonia, Marco, Idonia, Luca, Iftime, Maria Daniela, Malnati, Sofia, Mandelli, Kevin, Masini, Chiara, Messina, Beatrice, Nebbia, Stefano, Piarulli, Gabriele, Piccinini, Daniele, Pelucchi, Francesca, Radici, Alessandro, Rattaggi, Matteo, Testa, Mattia, Volpi, Viviana, Zahra, Meerab Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mössbauer Spectroscopy Investigation of Thulium Oxide-Hematite Magnetic Ceramic Nanoparticles <p>Magnetic ceramic nanoparticles system xTm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-(1-x)a-Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (x=0.1and 0.5) was synthesized by mechanochemical activation starting from hematite and thulium oxide precursors and characterized by transmission Mӧssbauer spectroscopy.&nbsp; The Mӧssbauer spectra were typically analyzed considering 1-3 sextets, corresponding to hematite (with and without thulium doping) and a doublet, representing thulium iron perovskite (thulium orthoferrite).&nbsp; The magnetic hyperfine fields (BHF) and doublet abundance were studied as function of the ball milling time (BMT) for both molar concentrations employed.&nbsp; The results are consistent with the formation of solid solutions in the investigated system.&nbsp; The mixed-oxide nanoparticle system synthesized may have important applications in displays, sensors and photovoltaics, and is paving the way for emerging utilizations related to mechanically flexible electronics.</p> Elena Stipetich, Sarah Glasser, Monica Sorescu Copyright (c) 2024 Elena Stipetich, Sarah Glasser, Monica Sorescu Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Mt. Åreskutan Nunatak: An Arboreal “Roadmap” to the Paleobiogeograpy of the Swedish Scandes and a Possible Pointer Towards a Future Revival of a Richer and More Biodiverse Mountainscape <p>In the context of proposed future anthropogenic climate warming, the present study accounts for arboreal responses to recent temperature rise, viewed in the perspective of Lateglacial and early Holocene climate and ecosystem variability. As an analogue to a future warmer world, the focus is on an early deglaciated nunatak in the southern Swedish Scandes, Mt. Åreskutan, with a well-researched arboreal history, embracing periods of climate warming of present-day extent. New research from this and adjacent localities challenges traditional historical narratives, which fail to provide a true picture of deglaciation and vegetation history. It is increasingly evident that common boreal tree species grew close to this summit in a climate, 2-3 °C warmer than at present, during the Lateglacial and early Holocene periods 16&nbsp;800- 6000 years ago. Based on minimal temperature requirements for tree growth, future warming of the same magnitude would be sufficient for trees to reclaim their lost ground close to this peak. Recent observations of tree saplings and the emergence of genuine “forest plants” at these high elevations, indicate that dispersal mechanisms will not constrain this progressive process. Conceivably, it will not manifest as advancement of a broad forest front. History suggests that pockets of trees, with a ground cover of boreal plant species, will establish in local favourable niches, e. g. sites of vanished glaciers and perennial snow beds. Much of the present-day alpine tundra may be more conservative and resilient to tree invasion, as evident from insignificant upslope movement of forest limits in response to modern climate warming. By and large, continued warming is no imminent threat to alpine biodiversity. An open and diverse high-mountain landscape is likely to prevail.</p> Leif Kullman, Lisa Öberg Copyright (c) 2024 Leif Kullman, Lisa Öberg Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Equivalence of Information and Effect <p>A formula is developed that shows the Equivalence of Information and Effect and at the same time after transforming the Equivalence of Information flow and Energy.</p> Friedhelm M. Jöge Copyright (c) 2024 Friedhelm M. Jöge Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Flexible and Wearable Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Sensing: Development and Future Perspectives <p>Wearable gas sensors based on flexible design can be coupled to the vicinity of biological or environmental interfaces for detecting of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with greatly simplified sample collection, storage, and analysis process. The flexible devices expand the detection form of sensors and provide continuous and real-time insights for gas detections. Based on wearable exhalation detection system, such as smart facemasks, in-situ and dynamic detection of various VOCs during diet and exercise regulation has been achieved. Thus, the wearable detection provides a unique perspective for biological metabolic activities and important technical support for personalized health detection and disease diagnosis such as pathogens from aerosol. This article introduces the development and application of the flexible wearable in-situ gas sensing technology and provides a detail outlook of the future perspectives in this field.</p> Houcheng Ren Copyright (c) 2024 Houcheng Ren Thu, 01 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Giant Platelets as Potential Biomarker for Autism Spectrum Disorder <p><u>Introduction</u>: Platelet hyperserotonemia has been repeatedly observed in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Ras p21 protein activator 3 (<em>RASA3</em>) is essential in forming and differentiating blood cells, especially platelets. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the expression of <em>RASA3</em> and examine the platelet morphology in addition measuring the plateletcrit and platelet count in all samples. <u>Methods</u>: RNA was extracted from 12 autistic children and four control samples then qPCR was used to determine the expression of <em>RASA3</em>. Platelet morphology was examined under light microscope. In addition, Complete blood count (CBC) test with automated haematology analysers was done for all children to determine the platelet count and the plateletcrit (PCT). <u>Results</u>: The qPCR result showed differential expression patterns of <em>RASA3 </em>between autistic and normal samples. The platelet morphology revealed large and giant platelets in all autistic samples and the plateletcrit percentage was increased in 10 out of 12 ASD samples. <u>Conclusions</u>: There is a correlation between dysregulated <em>RASA3</em> and the large and giant platelets in ASD cases which could explain the platelet hyperserotonemia in this disorder and could be used as an early biomarker for ASD diagnosis or may be used for early interventions.</p> Aya Sanyour, Safiah Alhazmi Copyright (c) 2024 Aya Sanyour, Safiah Alhazmi Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Historical Irony: The Israeli State Is Mostly Endangered by Its Religious Sector <p>The Jewish people (Israelites) suffered thousands of years from invasions and destructions of their Canaan homeland (e.g., Assyria in 721 BC; Babylon in 597 BC; Rome in 63 BC), pogroms during exile (e.g., mostly in the 19<sup>th</sup> century in Eastern Europe, and even nowadays by the Palestinian terror organization Hamas), and attempts of extermination (e.g., holocaust during World War II; attack by the Arabic states upon the re-establishment of Israel in 1948), but miraculously they survived against all odds.</p> Michael Gurevitz Copyright (c) 2024 Michael Gurevitz Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Attenuating Potentials of Pleurotus ostreatus, Non-ionic and Phyto-emulsified Surfactants on Crude oil Impacted Soil and the Hepatotoxicity of Leaf Aqueous Extract of Telfaria occidentalis Harvested from the Attenuated Soil on Wistar Rats <p>This study investigated and compared the hepatotoxicity of aqueous leaf extract of <em>T. occidentalis</em> from crude oil impacted soil and impacted soil amended with <em>Pleurotus ostreatus,</em> non-ionic and phyto-emulsified surfactants. Crude oil highly impacted soil excavated from an oil spill site at Obeche community in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was used. Remediation was induced using white rot fungus (<em>Pleurotus ostreatus</em>), phyto-emulsified surfactant (<em>Costus afer</em> stem) and chemical surfactant (Triton x-100) for 60 days after which fresh seeds of <em>T. occidentalis</em> were planted on the soil and allowed to germinate and grow for 6 weeks. Twenty one (21) adult wistar rats weighing between 170-200g were used. They were randomly sorted into seven groups (A-G) of three rats each. After one week of acclimatization, the animals were administered the aqueous leaf extract of <em>T.occidentalis</em> harvested from the soil samples. Liver marker assays and histopathological evaluations were done using standard laboratory methods on the sampled wistar rats. Results from this research revealed a significant difference (<em>p</em>≤ 0.05) in the ALP level when group F (151.33 ± 12.05) is compared with group A (92.66 ± 3.05). Only groups D (74.00 ± 74.48) and G (88.67 ± 3.21) decreased when compared with group A (92.66 ± 3.05). For the AST levels of wistar rats fed with <em>T.occidentalis</em> harvested from cells A to G, only groups B and G are significantly different (<em>p</em>≤ 0.05) when compared with group A. All the amended cells except cell E (41.67 ± 3.78) are observed to be decreased when compared with group A (35.00 ± 4.58). Only groups E, F and G are significantly different (<em>p</em>≤ 0.05) when compared with group A in the ALT levels. Groups B and G are observed to be significantly decreased with values of 18.00 ± 2.64 and 15.67 ± 2.08 respectively when compared with group A (23.00 ± 4.58). Histopathological evaluation of the liver of the wistar rats revealed the presence of congested sinusoid, congested vessels, intraparenchymal inflammation and congested central veins for groups A, C, D and E respectively with mild periportal and intraparenchymal inflammation in groups F and G respectively. Findings from this study revealed that the <em>T.occidentalis</em> leaves harvested from the polluted and amended soil samples caused varying degrees of hepatotoxicity to the rats with only those harvested from group G (<em>Costus afer</em> + Triton x-100) showing no presence of acute hepatotoxicity. The finding therefore indicates that a combined formulation of non-ionic and <em>Costus afer</em> phyto-emulsified surfactants could be a possible remediation pathway in the bioremediation technology.</p> K. T. Nwauche, Berezi, E. P., Ugoh, A. I. Copyright (c) 2024 K. T. Nwauche, Berezi, E. P., Ugoh, A. I. Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Climate Variability on Crop Yield in Nigeria (1980-2020) <p>This study examined the effect of climate variability on crop yield from 1980-2020 in Nigeria. Rainfall and temperature data were obtained from the Community Climate System Model website. In contrast, the crop yield of five cereal crops namely cassava, maize, sweet potatoes, yam, and plantain were obtained from the African Center for Statistics of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) Addis Ababa for the same period. The data sets were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The results of the analysis revealed that the mean values of rainfall and temperature are 1259.4237mm and 25<sup>o</sup>C respectively for the 41 years of the study. Furthermore, the regression analysis indicates an increasing trend for the two climate parameters. At the same time, cassava has the highest yield of 101,449.4390 hg/ha the highest followed by yam 920,75.2678hg/ha, plantain 622,92.3659 hg/ha, sweet potatoes 475,06.0488hg/ha and the crop with the least yield was maize 146,60.0488 hg/ha. However, the analysis of the effect of climate variability on crop yield revealed that sweet potatoes and maize correlated significantly with rainfall and temperature demonstrating the effect of climate variability on crop yield. This implies that both maize and sweet potatoes were the most sensitive to climate variability while cassava, plantain, and yam were the least sensitive crops. The study recommended mainstreaming the weather index crop insurance scheme into the Nigeria Agricultural Insurance Corporation (NAIC) to help and modulate the loss and production risk arising from extreme climate events. There is also a need to pay close attention to factors outside rainfall and temperature in explaining low and inconsistent yield in Nigeria. Also, farmers should take factors like soil fertility, untimely planting, improper selection of cropping systems, diseases, and pest infestation among others into consideration</p> O. Ideki, Nwaerema, P., Abali, T. P. Copyright (c) 2024 O. Ideki, Nwaerema, P., Abali, T. P. Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Analysis on Two Fake “Topology Diagram of Mineral Paragenesis Combination in Multi-Component Open Systems” Published by Jingwen Mao, Academician of The Chinese Academy of Engineering <p>The making principles and methods of "multi-component open system mineral Paragenesis combination topology diagram" are one of the most basic cutting-edge research topics in geoscience. So far, only a few professors among Chinese geologists can do this kind of work. Researcher Mao Jingwen of the Institute of Mineral Resources of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences published an academic paper and a doctoral thesis in 1986 and 1988 respectively, which contained two "topological diagrams of multi-component open system mineral Paragenesis combinations". We have proved through detailed research that the two diagrams produced by Mao Jingwen have the following series of fundamental errors: ①He doesn’t comply with the principle of mineral phase law (<em>P</em>≦<em>C</em>), ② He doesn’t comply with the Gibbs phase law (<em>F</em>=<em>Ci</em>+2-<em>φ</em>=0), ③ He doesn’t know how to determine the effective inert components and excess components (as shown in Figure 1 of the text, he replaced the effective inert components with excess components in the composition ⊿ diagram), ④ He doesn’t know how to determine the relationship between symbiotic minerals (For example, the four univariable reaction equations in Figure 2 of this article are wrong), ⑤He doesn’t know how to determine the stoichiometry of univariable reaction equations, ⑥It violates the principle of "mass conservation" before and after the univariate reaction. This fully shows that Mao Jingwen himself does not understand the principles and methods of drawing topological diagrams of mineral symbiosis combinations, that is, both diagrams are fake, and Mao Jingwen deliberately falsified them.</p> Fa Han Copyright (c) 2024 Fa Han Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Biofilm Formation in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci from Various Animals <p>Bacteria show a distinct tendency to "adhere" to various surfaces. This is precisely why many microorganisms occur in the environment in the form of a biofilm and not in a planktonic form. Biofilm formation has been demonstrated in several bacterial species, and hence in staphylococci. Previous studies regarding the staphylococci related to human strains. Antibiotic resistance is currently a problem all over the world, and the formation of biofilm can also affect it, since bacteria that grow in the form of biofilm are much more resistant. The aim of this study was testing biofilm-forming ability in various staphylococci from different animals. One hundred (100) faecal staphylococci from 407 animals were tested. Biofilm formation tested on Congo red agar was confirmed after 72 hours in 81 staphylococci, in 19 strains biofilm was not confirmed on this medium. Using tube method correlation in most cases with the results on Congo red agar was found. Microtiter quantitative plate assay assessed biofilm production in 59 staphylococci out of 100 tested. In a percentage, 96.29% strains from faeces of domestic animals formed biofilm. In the species <em>Staphylococcus vitulinus</em> (14), <em>S. pasteuri</em> (1), <em>S. sciuri</em> (2), <em>S. saprophyticus</em> (1) and <em>S. caprae</em> (1) was biofilm-forming ability detected only using plate assay. To know biofilm-forming ability in huge target of coagulase-negative staphylococci from various animal species is original contribution to biofilm studies.</p> Eva Bino, Anna Kandričáková, Andrea Lauková Copyright (c) 2024 Eva Bino, Anna Kandričáková, Andrea Lauková Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Microbial Evaluation and Solar Disinfection of Hand dug wells, Rivers and Swimming Pools in Port-Harcourt Metropolis <p>Rivers and wells are sources of water for most rural dwellers as they serve as the common source of water used for domestic chores. This study investigated the microbiological quality of rivers, wells, swimming pool which are located in Ogbogoro, Choba, Iwofe all in Port Harcourt metropolis. Standard microbiological and physiochemical methods were used to ascertain the microbial and physiochemical quality of the water samples. The pH values ranged from 5.5 – 6.94. A total of eleven bacteria genera were isolated; they are <em>Klebsiella</em> spp (4.84 %)<em>, Enterococci (8.06 %)</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em>spp (14.52 %), <em>Salmonella (6</em>,45 %) <em>Staphylococci</em> spp (24.19 %)<em>, Bacillus</em> spp (6.45 %), <em>Shigella</em> spp (4.84 %), <em>Streptococci</em> spp (3.23 %)<em>, Enterobacter</em> spp (6.45 %), <em>Vibrio cholera</em> (1.61 %) and <em>E. coli (8.06 %)</em>. The total heterotrophic bacteria count ranged from log 5.07 – log 8.44 cfu/ml. Coliform count showed values log 2.27 – log 6.86 cfu/ml. Salmonella-Shigella count ranged from 0 – log 6.65 cfu/ml. Nine fungi general were identified: <em>Aspergillus niger</em>, <em>Mucur</em> sp., <em>Aspergillus flavus</em>, <em>Candida</em> sp., <em>Fusarium</em> sp<em>., Penicillium</em> sp., <em>Trichophyton</em> sp., <em>Rhizopus</em>, <em>Rhizopus stolo</em>. Exposure of river and well samples to solar showed that there was a huge reduction in microbial load; log 5.47 cfu/ml to log 0 cfu/ml and log 5.18 cfu/ml – log 0 cfu/ml for river and well respectively. The result shows that the investigated pools, rivers and wells were contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms due to insufficient treatment, inadequate management and poor hygiene of bathers. It is therefore recommended the proper treatment of water before use for domestic purposes especially when sourced from rivers and wells, appropriate maintenance and monitoring.</p> Onyinyechi Ndimele Akomah-Abadaike, Duke, O. C. S Copyright (c) 2024 Onyinyechi Ndimele Akomah-Abadaike, Duke, O. C. S Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Changes In Enso Sea Surface Temperatures Drive Climate Change <p>There are two fundamental aspects of climate change, global warming and the massively increasing incidence and intensity of catastrophic weather. It is shown that both are driven by the increasing global concentration of water vapor (△TPW) resulting from increasing Sea Surface Temperatures in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific El Niño-Southern Oscillation or ENSO region of the Pacific (ENSO SST). Physical principles to determine changes in the annual average global temperature (△T<sub>Avg</sub>) and concentration of water vapor (△TPW) as a function of the first derivative of the 12 month average, for the period commencing in August of the prior year, sea surface temperatures within the ENSO region (△ENSO SST<sub>5mo</sub>) are set out. The resulting temperature determinations are within 0.4% of the NOAA annual global Celsius temperature record and TPW within 0.9% of published results. The data and these principles show that since 1972 the 1 °C increase in T<sub>Avg</sub> and an 11% increase in TPW are the result of a 5% cumulative increase in the ENSO SST and the 360% increase in annual catastrophic weather events, 400% increase in severity and resulting 1,400% increase in devastation are the result of the 11% increase in TPW (130% increase in devastation for each 1% change in TPW). Far more importantly, the data show and the physics teach that if average global precipitation is increased sufficiently, by 0.2% in excess of evaporation, these climate changes are completely reversible.</p> William Albert Van Brunt Copyright (c) 2024 William Albert Van Brunt Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Disruption of Earth’s Atmospheric Flywheel: Hothouse-Earth Collapse of the Biosphere and Causation of the Sixth Great Extinction <p>The Anthropocene is the Epoch of Man, in which human activities have drastically changed Earth’s geology, landscape, ecosystems, biodiversity and climate. The energy necessary to power modern civilization comes from petroleum, natural gas, and coal, the latter derived from millions of years of photosynthesized vegetation, subsequently stored underground. The best stratigraphic markers of the Anthropocene are combustion products of these fuels such as spherical carbonaceous particles and iron-containing magnetic particles. We have previously shown that particle pollution from combustion sources, not carbon dioxide, is the primary cause of global warming.&nbsp; More recently, we have shown combustion products, notably coal fly ash and HULIS aerosols, not chlorofluorocarbons, are the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion. Modern-day transformation of the biosphere is strikingly evident in the atmosphere, which has been polluted to the point of overcoming Earth’s atmospheric flywheel (radiation buffering mechanism). The planet is already in a Hothouse Earth phase, with runaway warming triggering multiple “tipping points” that threaten biosphere integrity and human civilization itself. Contrary to the prevailing narrative, the stratospheric ozone layer has been badly damaged, and increasingly deadly ultraviolet radiation now penetrates to Earth’s surface. This situation has been made unimaginably worse by the deliberate, covert planetary modification, euphemistically called geoengineering. While the scientific community, government leaders, the mainstream media, and indeed the masses “look the other way” and ignore the obvious atrocities in our skies, ongoing tropospheric aerosol geoengineering operations continue to spray toxic substances, such as coal fly ash, into the atmosphere. Humanity must wake up to the dire reality we face. International cooperation and crash efforts will be necessary to at least slow the rate of biosphere collapse and salvage something of our critical life support systems. Our time is short to phase out and end all geoengineering activities and to reduce and/or eliminate all sources of coal fly ash and HULIS-type aerosols.</p> Mark Whiteside, M.D., M.P.H., J. Marvin Herndon, Ph.D. Copyright (c) 2024 Mark Whiteside, M.D., M.P.H., J. Marvin Herndon, Ph.D. Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Stability: Geotechnical Analysis of Landfill Sites <p>Most people live in a society surrounded by limited space in cities. One of the basic activities of a human is feeding himself, which allows him to continue the struggle of life. Eating, drinking and cleaning activities are inevitable in human life. All of these activities generate solid, liquid or gas waste and these wastes should be removed from daily life as quickly as possible in order to remove the nuisances to the public. The rapid growth of urbanization and industrialization has made it necessary to find new ways of waste disposal. Waste Management (WM) is the solution for the public and for the environment to maintain health, hygiene and aesthetical view. Landfilling is one of the most common methods used worldwide for solid waste management. Landfill sites play a significant role in waste management; nevertheless, as the amount of waste increases, more material is brought to landfills. Dangerous mishaps may occur if improper management practices are not implemented at the landfills. Due to the nature of waste, landfills face a number of stability issues that pose a threat to resilience and safety. This study intends to provide an overview of the topic of landfill site stability and examine the solution to landfill accidents caused by improper operation and maintenance.</p> Sami Goren Copyright (c) 2024 Sami Goren Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Motivational Factors of Online Learning in Higher Education <p>Among others, universities were forced to modify their operation when the global pandemic hit in 2020. Teachers and students worldwide were forced to move online to continue learning after several lockdown orders. This study focuses on a Finnish University of Applied Sciences where an extensive survey was sent to all students a year after their student life had changed completely. Qualitative content analysis was done to analyze survey responses from 619 students from different fields and study backgrounds. The results indicate that several motivational factors around online learning are also related to things other than technology or pedagogical choices. The factors encouraging or discouraging motivation are divided into five categories: 1) Life situation, 2) Previous experience, 3) Social relationships, 4) Technology and internet skills and attitude, and 5) Financial resources. The proposed model of motivation factors related to online learning includes: 1) Environmental, 2) Individual, and 3) Pedagogical factors.</p> Ari Haasio, Elisa Kannasto Copyright (c) 2024 Ari Haasio, Elisa Kannasto Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Stochastic Modeling of Consumption and Solar Radiation Variation and its Application to the Optimal Control of an Autonomous Microgrid of a Cluster of Houses <p>In non-interconnected areas, the efficient use of renewable energies requires an optimal management of power consumption. We study the case of the "Cirque de Mafate" on Reunion Island. A model based on mixed integer linear programming has been developed as optimization tool. In order to minimize energy losses by maximizing the use of electrical appliances or the use of solar energy and the energy stored in the battery during the day, this paper aims to find the optimal balance between the production system and the consumption of the microgrid by considering uncertainties of demand as well as the production resources. The loads are the electrical appliances of a group of three houses. It consists to model, optimize and simulate the stochastic operation of an autonomous microgrid by mutualizing production and storage resources. The uncertainty propagation method is developed to take into account uncertainty of solar radiation as well as electrical consumption of the users in the optimization model. Indeed, to estimate the probability density function of the electricity consumption, non- parametric methods for the estimation of probability density functions are applied. These same methods were used to estimate the probability density functions of solar radiation for the solar resource forecast. Indeed, the prediction of the intermittent resource and the combination of generation sources taking into account the uncertainty of the users' demand is the key for the proper operation of a microgrid in autonomous mode. The results show the performance of the system to achieve self-consumption for three days if the solar forecast is pessimistic and allow us to evaluate the performance of the system under random constraints. Indeed, they allow us to make decisions in order to advise users on the use of electrical appliances by taking into account their behavior and the last minute modification of their time slots of use of electrical appliances.</p> Paulisimone Rasoavonjy, Oanh Chau, Tovondahiniriko Fanjirindratovo, Olga Ramiarinjanahary, Sylvain Dottia Copyright (c) 2024 Paulisimone Rasoavonjy, Oanh Chau, Tovondahiniriko Fanjirindratovo, Olga Ramiarinjanahary, Sylvain Dottia Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The Roots of The Thermodynamic Laws <p>Historians of thermodynamics usually consider the Sadi Carnot’s memoir, appeared in 1824, as the origin of modern thermodynamics. A closer inspection of published works tells us another story. More than five decades prior to Carnot’s publication the Scottish instrument’s maker, whose name was James Watt, issued his ideas on thermodynamics. Today Watt is well known as originator of various ideas, particularly for his perfection of the steam engine. However, he is almost unknown as a scientist of thermodynamics. The present paper illustrates some of Watt’s original thermodynamic ideas which he obtained from the hidden principles of the steam engine. In around 1769 he recognized and formulated the foundations of modern thermodynamics. He illustrated the working principle of the steam engine by using the 1<sup>st</sup> and the 2<sup>nd</sup> law of thermodynamics which were absolutely unknown at that time. Despite these facts, the name of James Watt is banished from the history of thermodynamics. The Watt’s understanding and presentation of these laws are the pivotal subject of the present work.</p> Jovan Mitrovic Copyright (c) 2024 Jovan Mitrovic Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Absurdity and Serendipity: Reclined domain for Innovations and Researchers/Discoveries <p>An absurdity is a kind of illogicality and etymologically origin from the Latin word “<strong><em>absurdus-a-um</em></strong>”, means unreasonable or out of place/discordant, etc [1]. Absurdity subsists in an arbitrary campaign besides in the situation arises, being considered as a fiasco to demark an indispensable and meaningful from unnecessary and worthless. Sir Selman Waksman got Albert Lasker award (1948), Nobel Prize (1952) and Leeuwenhoek Medal for their work on antibiotic: streptomycin’s discovery, yet co-researcher Albert Schatz and other scientific community also had considered antibiotic’s finding as an absurdity. Term serendipity recites discoveries being befalling at the juncture of chance and wisdom. Serendipity is the fact-full finding of rather advantageous and/or remarkable may be by fate. Greek mathematician, Archimedes in the 3<sup>rd</sup> century had validated the principal law of hydrostatics mere by chance while verifying the crown was made of pure gold/cheap alloy when lowered in the water in tub, and then water overflowed and ran out dis-clothed into the street by shouting “<strong><em>Eureka-Eureka/miracle</em></strong>”. Similarly Swiss chemist Albert Hofmann in 1938 had discovered a psychedelic drug Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) by accident after unintentional ingestion of strange amount possibly absorbing via skin. Absurdity and serendipity on mutual blending arises many surprises and delightful outcomes. Envisaging a series of absurdity endures incidental results, where the nonsensical elements somehow align perfectly to yield an optimistic and eloquent conclusion. All needs to be stumbled upon a mode and/or a breakthrough in the midst of chaos or irrationality.</p> Tahir Nasir Copyright (c) 2024 Tahir Nasir Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Brief Review on the Conformal Scalar Equation <p>In this short note we develop a method to fully integrate the conformal scalar equation in dimensions (N −1, 1) where N is the total number of dimensions. The Conformal Group in this flat space is SO(N, 2) and the Conformal Scalar equation is readily given by [1]:</p> Jos´e M. Cerver´o Copyright (c) 2024 Jos´e M. Cerver´o Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Chemical Properties and Proximate Composition of Pellonula leonensis Fish from the Congo River and Nanga Lake <p><em>Pellonula leonensis</em> is a small fish, with a maximum size of around 102,8 mm, consumed in Congo Brazzaville, most of which comes from the Congo River and Nanga Lake. For the nutritional importance of <em>Pellonula leonensis</em> fish in the diet of Congolese populations, this study aims to determine the proximate composition of this fish. The moisture content was obtained after drying the samples in an oven at 70°C for 24 hours. The total lipid content was determined after Soxhlet extraction. The Kjeldahl method was used to determine total protein content. Total soluble sugars were determined using the phenol and sulphuric acid method of Dubois et al. The total ash content was measured after incineration in a muffle furnace at 550°C. Magnesium, phosphorus and calcium contents were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. Regarding the <em>Pellonula</em> <em>leonensis</em> fish studied, the protein content varies from 38.71 to 39.93%, from 40.27 to 41.12% and from 39.75 to 39.96% respectively for the dried fish of Brazzaville, Boko and Pointenoire. Lipid levels vary from one source to another, with levels of around 20% and 30% respectively in samples from Nanga Lake and the Congo River. The carbohydrate content ranged from 2.01 (± 0.09) to 4.88 (± 0.07)% for samples from the Congo River and from 8.14 (± 1.22) to 9.26 (± 0.95)% for samples from Nanga Lake. The samples studied gave ash contents ranging from 13.95 ± 1.01 to 15.81 ± 0.79 % for both origins. The crude fibre content varied from 0.26 to 0.29%, from 0.30 to 0.33% and from 0.37 to 0.39% respectively for samples from Brazzaville, Boko and Pointe-Noire.</p> Léa Béatrice Mambou, Bob Wilfrid Loumouamou, Gadet Michel Dzondo Copyright (c) 2024 Léa Béatrice Mambou, Bob Wilfrid Loumouamou, Gadet Michel Dzondo Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000