European Journal of Applied Sciences <p><em>European Journal of Applied Sciences (EJAS) </em> is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all aspects of applied sciences and natural sciences.</p> <p>A wide range of topics in applied and natural sciences are covered, which includes but not limited to the Agriculture, Fisheries, Architecture and design, Divinity, Education, Engineering and technology, Environmental studies and forestry, Family and consumer science, Atmospheric sciences, Oceanography, Human physical performance and recreation, Journalism, Media studies and communication, Business, Law, Library and museum studies, Military sciences, Public administration, Public policy, Social work, Transportation.</p> <p>The journal aims is to encourage scientists to publish their experimental and theoretical results in as much detail as possible. There is no restriction on the length of the papers. The full experimental details must be provided so that the results can be reproduced. Electronic files and software regarding the full details of the calculation or experimental procedure, if unable to be published in a normal way, can be deposited as supplementary electronic material.</p> en-US (Christopher James) (Olivia Adam) Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 One Simple Cosmological Implication of Light Transmition in Hubble’s Law <p>Hubble’s law gives a great indication that the Universe expands and will do so in the near future. In this “Paper” we try to extract information from Hubble’s law and so to retrace its forward and backward steps. The most “striking” result for the universe is that the “theory” predicts a maximum radius of the universe and a maximum life-time. In addition one can predict if there is causality in between two points (t2 ,d2 ) and (t2 ,d2 ) of space time.</p> Thanassis Dialynas Copyright (c) 2023 Thanassis Dialynas Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Synthesis and Antibacterial Activity of 6-bromo-2-(o-aminophenyl)-3-amino-Quinazolin-4(3H)-one from 6-bromo,2-(o-aminophenyl)-3,1-benzoxazin-4(3H)-one. <p><u>Introduction</u>: Quinazolinone derivatives reveal various medicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, as well as antimicrobial activity. These heterocycles are valuable intermediates in organic synthesis. <u>Methods/Experimental</u>: The compound, 6-bromo,2-(o-aminophenyl)-3,1-benzoxazin-4(3H)-one (1) was synthesized by dissolving 5-bromo anthranillic acid in 100 ml of pyridine. To this reaction mixture o-amino benzoyl chloride stirring at room temperature for 30 minutes this was refluxed with 75 mL of hydrazine hydrate for 3 hrs. at 120-130<sup>0</sup>C. the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to room temperature to give 6-bromo-2-(o-aminophenyl)-3-amino-Quinazolin-4(3H)-one (2). These Compounds were evaluated for their bacterialrial activity (against some gram positive and gram-negative microorganism) and antifungal activity (against Candida albicans). <u>Study Design</u>: This study was experimentally design and the antibacterial activity was evaluated against some microorganism, <em>Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus specie</em>s, <em>Aspergillus Species</em>, Pseudomonas<em> aeruginosa</em>, Escherichia<em> coli,</em> Klebsiella<em> pneumonia</em>, and <em>candida albicans.</em> <u>Result</u>: The compounds exhibited significant antibacterial activity with a zone of inhibition in the range of 10 – 16mm in comparison to control. <u>Conclusions</u>: From our findings, the compounds synthesized have higher antibacterial activities as compared to Ciprofloxicin (CPX) and Ketonaxol (PEF) standard antibacterial drugs.</p> Osarumwense Peter Osarodion Copyright (c) 2023 Osarumwense Peter Osarodion Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Entrepreneurship: The Value-Added of Co-Creation through Web 3.0 <p style="font-weight: 400;">This paper explores the concept of entrepreneurship and the added value that co-creation, facilitated by Web 3.0 technologies, can bring to businesses. It delves into the potential advantages of integrating co-creation strategies, such as increased innovation, customer engagement, and market adaptability, while highlighting the role of emerging web technologies in enabling more effective collaboration and interaction between businesses and consumers. The various formations of customer integration in terms of ideational and inventive service and new product development represent an essential factor of economic success in the current work reality for companies. In this emerging epoch, which is constitutively characterized by increasing disruption processes and is referred to by politics and economics etymologically and polysemically as Industry 4.0 and Economy 4.0, a more precise discourse analysis is required in a problem-explorative manner. As a result of an increasingly individualized, informatized, and internationalized society, in which the Java API Web 3.0 not only leads to the transformation of the communication matrix through web-semantic algorithms per se, there is potential added value through co-creation. The customer, in the sense of appropriation research, is not only a profane website visitor but can be determined as an ideational and inventive prosumer with regard to conversion who, within the framework of integrative, interactive, and readaptive value creation, offers companies a decisive benefit reciprocally with the help of Web 3.0. Companies are looking for ways to cope with the phenomenon of ever-shortening product life cycles.</p> Giovanni Vindigni Copyright (c) 2023 Giovanni Vindigni Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Management Practice and Sustainability of Community Policing Projects: A Case of Nyumba-Kumi Community-Policing Project in Kasarani Constituency in Nairobi County, Kenya <p>Sustainability of projects is very important in promoting long-term gains to the beneficiaries. However, risks are ranked among the most constraining factors in attaining long-term impacts of projects focused on promoting peace and security in the community. The study investigated the influence of risk management practice on sustainability of Nyumba-Kumi community-policing project in Kasarani Constituency in Nairobi County, Kenya. The objectives were to establish the influence of participatory risk assessment, risk planning, risk communication and risk monitoring on sustainability of community-policing project. Risk theory and sustainability theory anchored the study. Descriptive survey was adopted. The targeted population was 222 project coordinators. A sample size of 144 was obtained using Krejcie &amp; Morgan formula and stratified random sampling. Structured questionnaires and interview guide were used to collect data. Split-half method was used in testing reliability at Cronbach`s alpha ≥0.7. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequencies, mean, percentages, standard deviation, Pearson-Correlation method and regression analysis. The research model was tested using F-test at 95% confidence interval. Qualitative data was analyzed through content analysis. The results from inferential statistics showed that risk management practice has statistically significant effect on sustainability of Nyumba-Kumi community-policing project. The strength of influence decreased in the following order: risk monitoring (r=0.72), risk planning (r=0.60), participatory risk assessment (r=0.47) and risk communication (r=0.39). The accounted for 59% variation in the sustainability of Nyumba-Kumi community-policing project (for R<sup>2</sup>= 0.59). Thus, risk management practice was concluded to be an important factor for promoting sustainability of community-policing project</p> Josephine Naanyu Lerina, John Rugendo Chandi, Nicasio Gicovi Njue Copyright (c) 2023 Lerina Josephine Naanyu, Chandi John Rugendo, Njue Nicasio Gicovi Tue, 09 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Mediterranean Diet and Cancers in Italy: Stochastic and Non-Stochastic Analysis <p><u>Background</u>: The relationship between foods and cancers has been documented in many epidemiological and cohort studies of the Mediterranean Diet (MeD). <u>Objective</u>: Correlation between food expenditure in Italy and the prevalence of nine cancers: breast, prostate, colon, pancreas, TBL (throat-bronchial-lung), bladder in males and females, uterus, and ovaries, with a comparison of differences between Northern and Southern Italy. <u>Methods</u>: The expenditure of 19500 Italian families on the 56 most sold food categories was taken from ISTAT (Italian National Institute of Statistics) records for 2016. These data were then correlated with the prevalence of death from the nine above mentioned cancers in 2020. Stochastic and non-stochastic analyses were used to determine the correlations between foods and cancers. <u>Results</u>: None of the cancers showed identical protective or causative food patterns. The data confirmed the causative role of wine and the protective role of pasta, flour and sugar. Surprisingly fish and olive oil were found to be causative for some cancers. Southern Italy showed significantly lower prevalence of cancer due to a lower consumption of causative foods and higher consumption of protective ones. <u>Conclusion</u>: MeD has changed in Italy. Some causative and protective foods were found for all the cancers, but none had the same pattern. However, foods can be considered important co-factors in cancer development. Pasta, flour and sugar were shown to be protective for many cancers and, besides wine, some other foods, like olive oil and fish, were causative for some cancers. The correlation between food expenditure and disease seems to be a valid, simple research method.</p> Cornelli, Umberto, Grossi, Enzo, Recchia, Martino, Cestaro, Benvenuto, Rondanelli, Mariangela, Cazzola, Roberta, Pistolesi, Elvira Copyright (c) 2023 Cornelli, Umberto, Grossi, Enzo, Recchia, Martino, Cestaro, Benvenuto, Rondanelli, Mariangela, Cazzola, Roberta, Pistolesi, Elvira Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Effects of the Continuity of Daily Life Record Chart and of Voluntary Training in Elderly People with Mild Care <p>21 elderly people receiving light nursing care were asked to fill in daily life record charts and to do voluntary training for three months. They were then divided into two groups, in order to assess the effects of the above activities: the “completion” group, who were able to continue the program during the 3-month period, and the “resignation” group, who resigned from the program without finishing the 3-month period. Comparing the two groups of participants, we found that the resignation group showed a significantly lower figures in the duration of home-visit rehabilitation, daily life record chart, voluntary training, HDS-R, and frequency of going out (p&lt;0.05). As for the changes after the intervention, the completion group showed an increase in ROM, MMT, and FIM (p&lt;0.05). The resignation group showed a significant increase only in FIM, but no significant difference in ROM or MMT. As for the achievement of daily life record chart and of voluntary training, the daily life record chart proved to be easier for the participants to work on. It was revealed that those who have been using the in-home rehabilitation service for a long time are more likely to establish the daily life record chart log and voluntary training. These findings suggest that the continuation of daily life record charts and of voluntary training are effective in improving physical functions and in acquiring exercise habits.</p> Takayuki Hashimoto, Kanichi Mimura, Takashi Kawabata Copyright (c) 2023 Takayuki Hashimoto, Kanichi Mimura, Takashi Kawabata Sat, 13 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Wave Energy: Boats on Waves Can Be a Source of Clean Energy <p class="SSEAbstract">The energy of ocean waves across a large part of the earth is inexhaustible. The whole world will benefit if this endless energy can be used in an easy way. The coastal countries will easily be able to meet their own energy needs. The purpose of this article is to use the infinite energy of the ocean wave in a simple way, i.e., a method of efficient use of wave energy. The paper starts by discussing specifically about pitch motion of a boat caused by waves. Afterward with a graphical presentation discussed about the method of using the force from pitch-movement of the boat. Finally, the conclusion states the possibilities, disadvantages and advantages.</p> Md. Moniruzzaman Copyright (c) 2023 Md. Moniruzzaman Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Water Variables Analysis Using a Concept of Principal Component Statistics in Etim Ekpo River, Niger Delta Zone, Nigeria <p>Water Variables Analysis through a concept of principal component statistics (PCS) was studied in Etim Ekpo River, Niger Delta Zone, Nigeria from January, 2020 -December, 2021 at three designated stations. Seventeen water variables were studied and analysed using various prescribed standards. A total of 34 samples were collected at all stations. The principal component statistics (PCS) was employed in the analysis of the water variables. The principal components adopted were that which contained the highest percentage of the total variance of information in the original data set. The results showed that the loading factors were basically, temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), sodium (Na), Electrical Conductivity (Ec), total suspended solids (TSS), Acidity (A), Magnesium (Mg), Total Hardness (TA), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Sulphate (So­<sub>4</sub>), Phosphate (Po<sub>4</sub>-P), Total Alkalinity (TA). These could be aligned as: nutrient loading factors, organic loading factors, domestic loading factors and chemo-physical loading factors. In a nutshell, the water variable analysis tickle within the prescribed standards of various organizations, which is perfect to sustain the aquatic biota. However, the quest of anthropogenic advancement should be checked, which might increase loading factors in the system. </p> Akpan, I. I. , Jonah, U. E., Ite, A. E., Ukekpe, U. S., Rapheal, M. P. Copyright (c) 2023 Akpan, I. I. , Jonah, U. E., Ite, A. E., Ukekpe, U. S., Rapheal, M. P. Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Calibration of Impact Ignition from Shear-Band Formation on The Mesoscale <p class="SSEAbstract">Relying on test results in [1], we proposed in [2] a macroscopic impact ignition model for low velocity impact situations, in terms of the product PD (P=pressure, D=plastic deformation rate). Here we upgrade this model by taking into account the time duration to ignition for different PD levels. Our macroscopic impact ignition model is now based on, and calibrated from, 1D simulations of pure torsion on the mesoscale. We assume that low velocity impact ignition is invoked by shear localization and formation of shear bands. We denote by (PD)<sub>L</sub> the macroscopic shear localization threshold. When PD&gt;(PD)<sub>L</sub> in a macroscopic cell, shear bands start to form there. The shear bands then develop and heat up towards the ignition temperature. We further assume that the time duration from localization to ignition h=t<sub>ig</sub>-t<sub>L</sub> is also dependent on PD. Using 1D simulations of shear band formation in torsion similar to [3], we calibrate (PD)<sub>L</sub> and h(PD), which we can then use in macroscopic hydrocode simulations. Our mesoscale simulations depend on a realistic strength model for explosives. This model employs the overstress approach to dynamic viscoplasticity [4], and its main feature here is the pressure dependence of its plastic flow curve.</p> Y. Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Y. Partom Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 On the Prospect of Fossil Fuel on Planet Mars <p>Planet Mars has long been a source of attraction to astronomers and scientists. In 1976, the Viking probes inaugurated the beginning of a new era in human history by searching for primitive lifeforms on Mars. Successive Martian missions have discovered evidence, in the form of dried rivers and lake beds, of the prior abundance of water on the Martian surface leading to conjecture that, millions of years ago, some kind of primeval lifeforms, supported by chemical and biological processes, are at the origin of formation of fossil fuel on planet Mars. One hypothesis even maintains that conditions on Mars, in its early history, resembled, to a major extent, the environment reigning on Earth in its embryonic stage. Petroleum has been the outcome of this natural environment on Earth. It is argued that nascent conditions on Mars developed a fertile environment leading to the formation of fossil fuel. The aim of this paper is to investigate the prospect of such hypothesis, and to examine the likelihood that subterranean resources being extant in Mars in view of the latest data gathered by Martian probes. Analysis shows that kerogen is a viable signature of the potential presence of fossil fuel on Mars, and this result comports with preliminary findings of the Martian Rovers.</p> Shawki Al Dallal Copyright (c) 2023 Shawki Al Dallal Sun, 21 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Modeling Volatility Clustering in Daily Demand for Emergency Healthcare Services in The University of Cape Coast Hospital, Ghana: A Longitudinal Study <p><u>Introduction</u><em>:</em> Since early 2020, demand for emergency healthcare services in the University of Cape Coast hospital has become increasingly volatile. This phenomenon is a cause for concern because sudden and unexpected shifts in demand for emergency healthcare services can and have created expensive disruptions in operational activities even for very well-run and sophisticated emergency healthcare systems elsewhere. These phenomena of shifts in demand often create shocks in the system called <em>volatility clustering</em>. This is used as a crude measure of the risk of operations in the emergency healthcare industry for strategic planning, readiness, and swift response to demand for emergency healthcare services. Modeling these volatilities is crucial for prudent risk management practices such as proactively curtailing losses or liabilities, negative spillover effects, medicinal supply chain disruptions, and overall costs among key stakeholders. Despite its relevance, the knowledge of volatility density clustering in the demand for emergency healthcare in the hospital is complex and imprecise and the model(s) explaining it remains unknown. <u>Methods</u><em>:</em> a longitudinal study was conducted by using high-frequency data of daily returns of the demand for emergency healthcare services in the hospital from January 2020 through June 2022. The Generalized Autoregressive Conditionally Heteroscedastic (GARCH) models were deployed to analyze the data. <em>Eviews 10</em> statistical software package was used to process the data with statistical significance set at 5%. <u>Results</u><em>:</em> this unbiased research study revealed a current daily average admissions of 35 patients on an 11-bed capacity emergency ward and an overall emergency admission of 13,656 patients over the study period. The results showed that the daily returns of the demand for emergency healthcare in the hospital exhibited high and persistent volatility clustering with the observed R-squared LM-statistic = 20.15; <em>p</em> &lt; .001, for the returns series and suggesting as the optimal model out of six explanatory candidate volatility models. By implication, the associated volatility with the current operational capacity is woefully inadequate. <u>Conclusion</u><em>:</em> countermeasures and supporting tools need to be designed and developed by management to guarantee readiness for rapid response, monitor and minimize any undesirable outcomes, and ultimately maximize quality patient care and safety.</p> James Prah, McAdams Bakr, Mathurin Youfegan-Baanam, Kwasi Nkrumah, Obed Lasim, Evans Ekanem, Patience Kponyoh Copyright (c) 2023 James Prah, McAdams Bakr, Mathurin Youfegan-Baanam, Kwasi Nkrumah, Obed Lasim, Evans Ekanem, Patience Kponyoh Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Diameter and Thickness Effects Scaling Deviations of High Explosives <p class="SSEAbstract">One way to characterize the sensitivity (or the reaction rate) of explosives is through size-effect tests. For explosive rods they are called diameter effect tests, and for explosive plates, they are called thickness effect tests. With high reaction rate explosives, different test configurations usually yield almost the same reaction rate or detonation velocity. But with low reaction rate explosives, different test configurations usually yield somewhat different detonation velocities. Following one of our previous papers [1], we propose here that those different detonation velocities result from the phenomenon of partially reacted boundary layers, that form when a detonation wave is grazing along a free boundary. In what follows we perform computer simulations to show how such a phenomenon comes about.</p> Y. Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Y. Partom Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Shear Band Interaction In 1D Torsion <p class="SSEAbstract">When two shear bands are formed at close distance from each other, they interact, and further development of one of them may be quenched down. As a result, there should be a minimum distance between shear bands. In the literature there are at least three analytical models to estimate this minimum distance. Predictions of these models do not generally agree with each other and with test results. Recently we developed a 1D numerical scheme to predict the formation of shear bands in a torsion test of a thin-walled pipe. We validated that scheme by reproducing the results of the pioneering experiments of Marchand and Duffy [9], and then used it to investigate the mechanics of shear localization and shear band formation. We describe our shear band code in a separate publication [8], and here we use it only as a tool to investigate the interaction between two neighboring shear bands during the process of their formation. We trigger the formation of those shear bands by specifying two perturbations in the initial strength. We vary the perturbations in term of their amplitude and/or their width. Usually, the stronger perturbation triggers a faster developing shear band, which then prevails and quenches the development of the other shear band. We change the distance between the two shear bands and find, that up to a certain distance between them, one of the shear bands becomes fully developed and the other stays only partially developed. Beyond this distance between them the two shear bands are both fully developed. Finally, we check the influence of certain material parameters and loading parameters on the interaction between such two neibouring shear bands, and compare the results to predictions of the above-mentioned analytical models from the literature.</p> Y. Partom Copyright (c) 2023 Y. Partom Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Antimicrobial Drugs among Outpatients in a Specialist Hospital in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. <p><u>Background</u>: Globally antimicrobials are a key tool in our fight against infectious diseases. Antimicrobial knowledge entails being familiar with the many classes of antimicrobials available and the infections they can treat. Assessing the knowledge of Antimicrobial is necessary among patients&nbsp; to avoid its misuse and development of antimicrobial resistance. It will aid in decision making and improving health seeking behaviour of patients.&nbsp; This study seeks to assess the knowledge of antimicrobial drugs among patients in a specialist hospital in Abuja Muncipal Area council, FCT, Abuja. <u>Methods</u>: This was descriptive, cross-sectional study done in September, 2022&nbsp; among clients attending outpatient clinic at a District Hospital Abuja's. it involved a sample size of &nbsp;sample size 423 with 400 responding .&nbsp; A multistage sampling technique was adopted for this study. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS 28 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) computer software (IBM SPSS Inc. 2021). The data was summarized using descriptive statistics which include the percentages, frequencies. Test of association was done using , the chi-square test (χ 2), and &nbsp;p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Ethical approval was granted by Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State <u>Results</u>: One hundred and fifty respondents (37.5%) had good knowledge of antimicrobials, 141 (35.25%) had fair knowledge of antimicrobials, and 109 (27.25%) had poor knowledge (gave unsatisfactory answers to questions regarding knowledge about antimicrobials). Between male and female respondents. 22% of female respondents had good knowledge, 18.25% had fair knowledge &nbsp;and 16.75% had poor knowledge. Of all the male respondents, 15.5% had good knowledge, 17% had fair knowledge and 10.5% had poor knowledge. There was a statistically significant association between knowledge of antimicrobials with Marital Status (χ²<sub> (2, N=400)</sub> = 54.92, p &lt; 0.001)where more singles had poor knowledge of antimicrobial than married people, Education (χ²<sub> (2, N=400) </sub>= 87.16, p &lt; 0.001), where more of those with tertiary education had good knowledge of antimicrobials than those with no education or only primary education. &nbsp;and Age (χ²<sub> (2, N=400) </sub>= 56.84, p &lt; 0.001) as more younger people (18 - 29 years ) had good knowledge of antimicrobials than older people (40- 59 years).<u>Conclusion</u>: Over a third of clients had good knowledge of antimicrobials, a third also had fair knowledge while about a&nbsp; quarter had poor knowledge. The government and health care workers should support efforts towards improving the knowledge of communities on the basics of antimicrobials, in order to guide its use and improve antimicrobial stewardship.</p> Idoko, Lucy O., Okafor, Kingsley C., Lolo, Nomsu S. Copyright (c) 2023 Idoko, Lucy O., Okafor, Kingsley C., Lolo, Nomsu S. Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Knowledge and Prevalence of antimicrobial use (AMU) among patients in a District Hospital in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria <p><u>Background</u>: Worldwide, antimicrobial use is a major contributor to the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), with people and animals serving as the primary drivers. Knowledge of antibiotic rational use includes not only providers' actions in ensuring patients receive appropriate treatment for their condition, at the right dose and duration, but also patients' actions in adhering to the treatment protocols recommended, completing the full course, and not sharing or storing medicines for future use. This study aims to determine the knowledge and prevalence of antimicrobial use among patients in a District Hospital in Abuja, Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria. <u>Methods</u>: This was descriptive, cross-sectional study done in September, 2022 among 400 patients attending outpatient clinic at Maitama District Hospital Abuja's. A multistage sampling technique was used in this study. The data was analyzed using the IBM SPSS 28 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) computer software (IBM SPSS Inc. 2021). Ethical approval was granted by Bingham University Teaching Hospital, Jos, Plateau State. <u>Results</u>: The prevalence of antimicrobial use in the last 1 month, 6month and last 1 year was 41.5%, 32.0% and 5.6% respectively. A majority (74.25%) of the participants had gotten a prescription for the antibiotics from a doctor or nurse, 83.75% of them had received advice from a doctor, nurse or pharmacist on how to take the antibiotics while 16.25% of them had not. The antibiotics were sourced pharmacy (70.25%), hospital (22.5%), clinic (4.25%) while 3% stated other sources. Respondents stated that the conditions that can be treated with antibiotics, bladder infection or urinary tract infection (UTI) (75.2%), followed by Skin or wound infection (70.8%), Sore throat (62.4%) and Gonorrhea (55.9%) were the most selected. While other conditions were Cold and flu (48.5%), Fever (33.7%), Malaria (34.2%), Measles (30.7%), Body aches (21.3%), Headaches (11.9%) and HIV/AIDS (11.4%). Two thirds (63.25%) of respondents had good knowledge of antimicrobial use, 17.25% fair knowledge of antimicrobial use, and 19.5% poor knowledge of antimicrobial use. Test of association showed statistical significance for Age (χ²<sub> (2, N=400) </sub>= 69.56, p &lt; 0.003), Marital status (χ²<sub> (2, N=400)</sub> = 96.64, p &lt; 0.001) and Education (χ²<sub> (2, N=400) </sub>= 106.53, p &lt; 0.01). <u>Conclusion</u>: The prevalence of antimicrobial use in the last 1 month was 41.5%, prevalence in last 6 months was 32.0% and in last 1 year was 5.6% respectively.Two thirds of respondents had good knowledge of antimicrobial use, 17.25% fair knowledge of antimicrobial use, and 19.5% poor knowledge of antimicrobial use. Individuals and communities should develop proper health-seeking behavior, such as consulting a physician or a licensed health workers before using antimicrobials.</p> Idoko, Lucy O., Okafor, Kingsley C., Lolo, Nomsu S. Copyright (c) 2023 Idoko, Lucy O., Okafor, Kingsley C., Lolo, Nomsu S. Sat, 27 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000