Experimental Build of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot


  • Sherine Antoun CMU
  • Blake Kohlbrecher Colorado Mesa University




Robot, Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum, Robot construction, Arduino Controller, Autonomous Control, Programmable Robot


This undergraduate research project describes the construction, autonomous control, and exploration of potential uses of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum (TWIP) in uncontrolled environments [1]. Initially, the non-functioning physical design is two repurposed wheelchair wheels and motors mounted to a chassis that holds two batteries to power the robot. The goal was to continue with the legacy design, augment the build to the point where the robot is programmable, and potentially add sensors for further applications. Another goal was to learn how to design a safe circuit to power the robot and its controllers. Another objective was to learn about the fundamentals of programming an autonomous robot. This paper describes the experimental research progress and findings. The robot is currently programmable with an Arduino Mega 2560, which controls the wheels with two separate motor controllers. It has a limited footprint and has the potential to carry substantial payloads, which promises to be beneficial in uncontrolled workspaces. The initial research has the robot capable of being programmed to go in a straight line and currently has an MPU 6050 accelerometer and gyro attached to the Arduino, delivers state data used to make accurate turns and sense whether the robot has accelerated too quickly and may be in danger of becoming unbalanced.

Author Biography

Blake Kohlbrecher, Colorado Mesa University

Blake Kohlbrecher is an undergraduate Computer Science Honors & Mathematics minor student,  graduating in 2022 (Suma Cum-Laude). 


(1) S. W. Nawawi, M. N. Ahmad and J. H. S. Osman, ”Development of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot,” 2007 5th Student Conference on Research and Development, 2007, pp. 1-5, doi: 10.1109/SCORED.2007.4451379.

(2) N. M. A. Ghani, N. I. M. Yatim and N. A. Azmi, ”Comparative assessment for two wheels inverted pendulum mobile robot using robust control,” ICCAS 2010, 2010,

pp. 562-567, doi: 10.1109/ICCAS.2010.5669926.

(3) Antoun, S.M., McKerrow, P.J. (2010). Wall Following with a Single Ultrasonic Sensor. In: Liu, H., Ding, H., Xiong, Z., Zhu, X. (eds) Intelligent Robotics and Applications. ICIRA 2010. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 6425. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-16587-0_13

(4) McKerrow, Phillip J. and Sh´erine M. Antoun. “A software architecture for mobile robot navigation.”, TAROS’08, Edinburgh (2008) .

(5) Ooi, R.C., 2003. Balancing a two-wheeled autonomous robot. University of Western Australia, 3.

(6) Online: Arduino Mega 2560 documentation https://docs.arduino.cc/hardware/mega- 2560

(7) MD20A Motor Driver Datasheet: https://www.robotshop.com/media/files/ content/c/cyt/pdf/md20a_datasheet.pdf

(8) Github repository for Electronic Cats MPU 6050 library and example: https://github.com/ElectronicCats/mpu6050




How to Cite

Antoun, S., & Kohlbrecher, B. (2023). Experimental Build of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(1), 169–184. https://doi.org/10.14738/aivp.111.13779