Application of Genetic Algorithms Coupled with Neural Networks to Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Footings

  • Jiin-Po Yeh I-Shou University
  • Shu-Yu Yeh I-Shou University
Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Isolated Footings, Genetic Algorithms, Feedforward Backpropagation Networks, Radial Basis Networks


This paper first applies genetic algorithms to optimally design reinforced concrete isolated footings subjected to concentric loading. Based on the ACI Building Code, constraints are built by considering wide-beam and punching shears, bending moment, allowable soil pressure, the development length for deformed bars and clear distance between deformed bars. Design variables consist of the width, length and thickness of the footing and the number of bars in the long and short directions, all of which are discrete. The objective function is to minimize the cost of steel and concrete in the footing. There are totally 144 cases of reinforced concrete isolated footings considered. The optimal results are randomly divided into three groups for the use of neural networks: training data, validation data and testing data. Two kinds of artificial neural networks are employed in this paper: two-layer feedforward backpropagation networks and radial basis networks. Linear regression analysis between the network outputs and targets of the testing data is performed to judge the accuracy of the neural networks. Numerical results show that the feedforward backpropagation network is very effective and has high accuracy with the correlation coefficients and the slope of the regression line being close to one and the y-intercept close to zero. Besides, it is better than the radial basis networks and needs much fewer neurons in the hidden layer.

Author Biographies

Jiin-Po Yeh, I-Shou University


Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering

Shu-Yu Yeh, I-Shou University

Graduate Student

Department of Civil and Ecological Engineering


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How to Cite
Yeh, J.-P., & Yeh, S.-Y. (2016). Application of Genetic Algorithms Coupled with Neural Networks to Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Footings. Transactions on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, 4(4), 18.