Transactions on Engineering and Computing Sciences <p>Transactions on Engineering and Computing Sciences is peer-reviewed open access online journal that provides a medium of the rapid publication of original research papers, review articles, book reviews and short communications covering all areas of machine learning and artificial Intelligence. The journal publishes state-of-the-art research reports and critical evaluations of applications, techniques and algorithms in Engineering Management, Cloud Systems, Electrical Engineering, Industrial Networks and Intelligent Systems, Mechanical Civil and Chemiical Engineering, Internet of Things, Mathematical Modeling, Robotics Research, Engineering informatics, Computer Science, Computer Hardware/Software, Robotics and application, Embedded Systems, Data Base Management &amp; Information Retrievals, Geographical Information Systems/ Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Fuzzy Systems, Web and Internet computing, Machine learning, Artificial intelligence, Cognitive science, Software engineering, Database systems, Soft computing, Optimization and modelling and related application areas.</p> en-US (Thomas Harvey) (Olivia Adam) Sun, 07 Jan 2024 07:52:25 +0000 OJS 60 Eigenface and Wavelet Feature-based Face Recognition for the Development of Security System <p>The security system is very crucial in our daily sphere of life. With the rapid advancement of technology and the increasing demand for secure access control systems, developing efficient security systems has become a critical area of research. This paper represents the two significant techniques Eigenface and Wavelet feature. Eigenface utilizes Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to extract the most significant features from any facial image. However, the performance of the eigenface can be affected by various factors such as lighting, pose, and expression. To overcome this inability, we have adopted the wavelet technique. The wavelet feature extraction technique helps to extract detailed information about the image by decomposing it into different sub-bands. A comprehensive facial image of a dataset is initially collected and then the Eigenface technique is applied to extract features. The wavelet technique is also performed to recognize images and identify the image having distortion to it. By imposing Wavelet features, higher accuracy, and reliability of the classifier are obtained. We hope the concept of security system development will benefit by implementing this technique.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Md. Firoz Biswas, Mousumi Kar, Lasker Ershad Ali, Md. Rafiqul Islam Copyright (c) 2024 Md. Firoz Biswas, Mousumi Kar, Lasker Ershad Ali, Md. Rafiqul Islam Sun, 07 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Challenges and Market Opportunities for Solar Energy in Saudi Arabia <p>At present, the renewable energy sector, especially solar energy, is the world's future destination for a clean future in terms of resource consumption. The world's solar obsession, and the quest for the best use of sunlight, are of particular interest to countries in the world and Saudi Arabia. Although sunlight is highly suitable in Saudi Arabia compared to other countries, it still pays large sums for traditional energy sources. Saudi Arabia experienced significant population and economic growth in recent years, a direct result of an increase in consumption of traditional energy sources, which poses a major threat to the country's economy, as well as the negative environmental impacts of the use of non-renewable energy sources. The following points are the outputs of the study: Reviewing previous projects on solar energy in Saudi Arabia, comparing the performance of photovoltaic solar power systems from concentrated solar power systems in Saudi Arabia, and studying the structure of the solar energy sector in Saudi Arabia, as well as the challenges and opportunities in the solar energy sector to reach recommendations that would support the transition towards renewable energy in Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed to strengthen the solar energy sector and formulate recommendations. The SWOT analysis was used to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the solar sector in the Kingdom, as well as the opportunities and threats facing the sector. Results of SWOT analysis revealed that Saudi Arabia citizens are aware about climate change and want to shift to renewable energy, but the cost of renewable energy transformation for end users is not cheap, among other results. One of the most significant opportunities in Saudi Arabia is the Vision 2030 that focuses on Renewable Energy transformation, while the economic feasibility of renewable energy projects is considered a major challenge. Renewable Energy projects in Saudi Arabia can contribute to 2.1% reduction in local CO2 emissions.</p> Saleh Amid Saleh Alkhaldi Copyright (c) 2024 Saleh Amid Saleh Alkhaldi Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Technology and an Organization’s Business Model <p>The contemporary view of the interconnected digital world began to take shape in the mid-1990s with the commercialization of the Internet.[1] In the early years of the 21<sup>st</sup> Century, social media companies started to surface.[2] The use of computers and the Internet, combined with social media, have substantially changed the way most companies conduct business when compared to the way business was conducted prior the mid-1990s. The effective execution of this changed business model is based on digital interconnections among computer-based communication systems.</p> <p><a href="#_ftnref1" name="_ftn1"></a></p> Lawrence A. Gordon Copyright (c) 2024 Lawrence A. Gordon Thu, 18 Jan 2024 00:00:00 +0000 A Study on the Eigenmodes in the Photonic Crystal Waveguide with Dielectric Hole <p>The eigenmodes in the photonic crystal Waveguide with dielectric hole are investigated by finite element method. The relative permittivity of the dielectric hole and cladding is significantly lower than that of the core areas. The propagating wave is confined in the region of the high relative permittivity by Snell’s law. The space of the waveguide is divided into the elementary triangular mesh in the process of numerical calculation. The Krylov-Schur iteration method is performed to obtain several prominent and reliable eigenmodes. The eigenmode obtained from this calculation is determined as the transverse electro-magnetic modes because the photonic dielectric hole mixes the transverse magnetic and transverse electric characteristics. As results, eigenmodes composed with the vector electric field, three dimensional electric potential and two dimensional electric equipotential are shown in a simple schematic representation. These results will enable the implementation of more advanced communication fiber by utilizing the ideal properties of the photonic crystal waveguide.</p> Yeong Min Kim Copyright (c) 2024 Yeong Min Kim Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Risk Allocation and Sharing in Mega Industrial Projects from the Perspective of the New Yellow Book -FIDIC-2017 to Approach a Balanced Construction Contract <p>Owners frequently allocate excessive&nbsp;risks to contractors and utilize (custom) contracts to fit their project needs and specifications. The MENA region has seen a boom in industrial projects in recent years, which has made it imperative to examine the barriers to optimal risk allocation and throw light on the processes currently in place for risk allocation. In order to approach a balanced construction contract, the current article aims to investigate the existing risk distribution in mega industrial projects. Properly identifying, evaluating, and assigning risks in contracts can improve project performance. First, the study found 70 risk factors that were categorized into nine groups based on a thorough literature review and scientometric&nbsp;analysis. Estimates of the likelihood, impact, and method of control for these risk factors were requested from the respondents. The findings showed that the way risk is now allocated in construction projects is ineffective and has resulted in a number of other issues, including aggressive contractual relationships, claims, and conflicts. Strong organizations today work hard to maintain effective partnerships by enforcing policies that promote cooperation and aid in risk management. Contractual provisions used in mega industrial projects become less flexible and less able to accommodate the needs and interests of the parties involved in all potential situations as a result of standardization. One of the most prominent standard forms of contracts for mega industrial projects, the Conditions of Contract for Plant and Design Build (FIDIC form 2017 Yellow Book), was researched and reviewed to identify risky provisions and offer solutions for contractual issues. &nbsp;In order to reduce the project's major risk factors and partially reform the contract requirements into risk-balanced conditions&nbsp;that may improve the contract's utility as a project management tool, several modifications were made. These amendments concentrated on the particular needs of mega industrial projects and made a concerted effort to address a number of issues, including the Employer and Contractor's responsibility matrix, liability limitations, resolving procurement-related issues, design errors and contradictions in documents, the necessity of coordination between contractors and subcontractors, the significance of following the project schedule, and the relationship between delay damages and project milestones. Contract parties will benefit from the study's findings in terms of effective project management, risk reallocation, management, and reduction of claims, as well as preventing disputes.</p> Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim, Mona Abdelhamid Hassanen, Adel ElSamadony Copyright (c) 2024 Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim, Mona Abdelhamid Hassanen, Adel ElSamadony Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Standardization of BIM Execution Plans (BEP’s) for Mega Construction Projects; A Comparative and Scientometric Study <p>Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the foundation of the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry's digital transformation. BIM is a method of creating and managing information on a construction project over its entire life cycle. The lack of standardized processes for developing Building Execution Plans (BEPs) is a significant impediment. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development and implementation of BEPs in AEC industry. The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze the content topics of a BEP. The paper highlights the prevalence of differences in the content, structure, practice methods, contractual requirements, and project characteristics among various BIM execution planning guidelines. It also identifies the need for standardized approaches to information exchange and collaboration in BIM projects. The findings of this research provide insights for industry professionals, researchers, and technology developers interested in the current and future uses of BEPs and smart document application in BIM. This study identified and analyzed 36 BEP documents published by diverse organizations globally. Results showed a theoretical framework shared among most BEPs, despite variations in content presentation and chapter titles. The identified key elements in BEPs include project information, goals and objectives, roles and responsibilities, collaboration procedures, model structure, quality control, technology infrastructure needs, and project deliverables. Furthermore, the study proposes a comprehensive BEP framework, synthesized from the most frequently occurring sub-elements in the analyzed documents. This study conducts a thorough Scientometric analysis using the Web of Science and Scopus databases to examine the development of scientific trends and subjects in the realm of BIM Execution Plans from 2020 to 2023 as it’s the most period has Development in BEP. The lack of standardized guidelines for BEP development is identified as a significant impediment, leading to inconsistencies and inefficiencies in project delivery.</p> Kamal Ahmed Shawky, Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim, Alaa Gamal Sherif Copyright (c) 2024 Kamal Ahmed Shawky, Ahmed Mohammed Abdelalim, Alaa Gamal Sherif Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Making and Evaluating Visible Light Splitters Using Polyethylene Kitchen Wrap <p>We propose a method of creating an inexpensive visible light range wave plate using a birefringent material—kitchen wrap—and an evaluation method using a camera and projector. By stacking the appropriate number of kitchen wraps, any wave plate corresponding to any color can be created. The light of the projector is photographed using a camera through a kitchen wrap sandwiched between polarizing plates arranged in the crossed-Nicols condition. First, by rotating the kitchen wrap, the optical axis was obtained based on the change in luminance. Next, by increasing the number of kitchen wraps, the wavelength deviation per sheet was measured based on the change in luminance. The experimental results confirmed that polyethylene wrap is suitable as the material of the wave plate, and the optical axis is tilted by 45° with respect to the cut surface.</p> Atsutoshi Kurihara, Yuto Osada, Yue Bao Copyright (c) 2024 Atsutoshi Kurihara, Yuto Osada, Yue Bao Sat, 10 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Analysis of TCP, UDP and SCTP in Smart Meter Data Transfer <p>The ever-increasing demand for electricity has caused a lot of problems to utility companies all over the world. One challenge has been that the old metering system hasn’t been readily configured to rapidly match the current demand patterns as it suffers from many short comings like poor and insufficient interaction between consumers and utility companies. This has prompted utility companies to implement smart meters in their distribution networks. TCP is one common protocol in smart meters but as we know one big challenge with sending data using TCP is that it Introduces data overheads, hence, there's possibility that TCP introduces some form of delay in smart meter response time. This research aimed at comparing the data transfer rates for different transport layer protocols and recommending the best protocol based on their delay as we shall see from the simulation. OPNET was used to simulate and develop a smart meter network by deploying an ethernet network of smart meters. Since the OPNET platform has no specific smart meters available, a smart meter was developed using an advanced workstation (node) in OPNET and configure it with typical characteristics of a smart meter within the TCP/IP application protocol. One big challenge in this experiment was that SCTP is a new protocol and has not been integrated fully in OPNET. The lack of smart meter nodes also meant that results did not actually reflect a true scenario of how a true smart meter would perform in reality.</p> Peter Mulenga Copyright (c) 2024 Peter Mulenga Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Inquiring About The Memetic Relationships People Have with Societal Collapse <p style="font-weight: 400;"><span style="font-weight: 400;">This paper explores how information processing affects behavior and factors of societal collapse. An approach to further explore peoples’ behaviors concerning collapse is explained. Metamemetics is an approach to understanding the way we think proposed by Diego Fontanive. Factors of collapse and how we relate to it are explained in different fields. Examples in the paper use the Internet as a place to study perception of processing information. A survey was made and given for observations about user behavior and expectations. Another example survey was given out to critically observe user behavior and expectations across different websites, tracing factors of the cognitive aspect of societal collapses, such as a decline in attention span. Exploring the application of this approach is recommended when studying reality and how we relate to it, and inquiries about systems and potential societal collapse.</span></p> Monique Cardinal Copyright (c) 2024 Monique Cardinal Tue, 20 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000