How Did We Get Here? An Examination of Opioid Addiction from A Historical Perspective
Keywords:Opioid Addiction, Community Building, Mandatory Minimum, Sentencing Disparities
America is facing a drug crisis that is rocking the nation at the cost of one trillion dollars since former President Richard Nixon declared war on drugs more than 40 years ago in 1971. This latest opioid crisis can be identified as the war on drugs 2.0. Research supports that the American public is not interested in fighting the war on drugs; it is interested in creating viable intervention programs that are effective in treating drug addiction and education programs for the drug prescribing medical community. Results revealed statistically significant differences between socioeconomic status and race, family status and criminal background, family status and criminal background related to a drug background, and family status and equally offering drug treatment options.
. Sentencing Project, U.S. prison population trends, 1999-2014: Broad variation among states.
Washington, DC, 2016. The Sentencing Project.
. Manchikanti, L., National drug control policy and prescription drug abuse: Facts and fallacies. Pain
Physician, 2007. 10: p. 399-424.
. Sehgal, N., et al., Prescription opioid abuse in chronic pain: A review of opioid abuse predictors and strategies to curb opioid abuse. Pain Physician, 2012. 15(3 Suppl): p. ES67-
. Taliaferro, W., et al., From incarceration to reentry: A look at trends, gaps, and opportunities in correctional education and training. Center for Law and Social Policy, 2016. p.1-25.
. Greene, M., et al., Pseudoaddiction: Fact or fiction? An investigation of the medical literature. Current Addiction Reports, 2015. 2(4): p. 310-317. Doi: 10.1007/s40429-015-0074-7.
. Boynum, D., et al., An analytic assessment of U.S. drug policy. 2005. Washington D.C.: The AEI
. Berkun, R., et al., Opioid addiction: Addressing the crisis of a
national overdose epidemic. Journal of Pain Relief, 2016. 5(6): p. 1-3. DOI: 10.4172/2167-0846.1000271.
. Chambers, R. A., Physician understanding and treatment of addiction: Have "pseudoaddiction"
and "self-medication" led us astray? Journal of Addiction and Dependence, 2016. 2(3:, 1-4.
. Lynch, M., Mass incarceration, legal change, and locale. Criminology & Public Policy, 2011a. 10(3): 673- 698.
. Mauer, M., The impact of mandatory minimum penalties in federal sentencing. Judicature, 2010.
94(1): p. 6-8.
. Neill, K. A., et al., Explaining dimensions of state-level punitiveness in the
United States: The roles of social, economic, and cultural factors. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 2014.
26(2): p. 751-772.
. Conklin, J.E., Criminology (11th ed), 2012, New York: Pearson.
. U.S. Legal., War on drugs and legal definition. https://definitions.uslegal.com/w/war-on-drugs/.
. Rengifo, A. F., et al., The unintended effects of penal reform: African American presence, incarceration, and the abolition of discretionary parole in the United States. Crime &
Delinquency, 2012. doi: 10.1177/0011128712443218.
. Provine, D. R., Unequal under law: Race in the war on drugs, 2007, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
. Mauer, M., Long-term sentences: Time to reconsider the scale of punishment. UMKC Law Review, 2018. 87: p. 113.
. Campbell, M. C., Politics, prisons, and law enforcement: An examination of the emergence of "law and order" politics in Texas. Law & Society Review, 2011. 45(3): p. 631-665.
. Sorenson, J., et al., Racial disproportionality in state prison admissions: Can regional variation be explained by differential arrest rates? Journal of Criminal Justice, 2003. 31: p. 73-84.
. Hetey, R. C., et al., Racial disparities in incarceration Increase acceptance of punitive policies. Psychological Science, 2014. 25(10): p. 1949-1954.
. Nellis, A. (2016, June). The color of justice: Racial and ethnic disparity in state prisons, 2016, June. The
Sentencing Project. Available at: http://www.sentencingproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/The-
. Kang, J., et al., Implicit bias in the courtroom. UCLA Law Review, 2012. 59: p. 1124:1186.
. Nellis, A., Life goes on: The historic rise in life sentences in America, 2013. Washington, DC: The
. Gordon, D., The return of the dangerous classes: Drug prohibition and policy politics, 1994. New
. Holloway, L., RE-enSLAVED: How African American bondage came back after emancipation, 2013.
Humanities, 34(2): p. 38.
. Neill, K. A., Yusuf, J., & Morris, J.C. (2014). Explaining dimensions of state-level punitiveness in the United States: The roles of social, economic, and cultural factors. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 26(2), 751-772.
. Sheldon, R., Controlling the dangerous classes: A critical introduction to the history of criminal
Justice, 2001. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
. Condon, J., et al., Prevalence of drug use: Key findings from the 2002/2003 British crime survey,
2003. United Kingdom Home Office.
. Musto, D., The American disease: Origins of narcotic control (3rd Ed.), 1999.Oxford University Press.
. Gottschalk, M., The past, present, and future of mass incarceration in the United States. Criminology
& Public Policy, 2011. 10(3): p. 483-504.
. Bobo, L. D., et al., A taste for punishment: Black and white Americans' views of the death penalty and the war on drugs. Du Bois Review, 2004. 1(1): p. 151-180.
. Reiman, J. H., The rich get richer, and the poor get prison: Ideology, class, and criminal justice,
2007, Boston: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
. Chambers, C. L., Drug laws and institutional racism: The story told by the Congressional Record,
2011, El Paso, TX: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC.
. Pickett, J. T., et al., Reconsidering the relationship between perceived neighborhood racial composition and whites' perceptions of victimization risk: Do racial stereotypes matter? Criminology,
2012. Criminology, 2012. 50(1): p. 145–186.
. Simon, J., (2001). Entitlement to cruelty: neo-liberalism and the punitive mentality in the United States.
In K. Stenson & R. Sullivan (Eds.) Crime risk and justice: The politics of crime control in liberal democracies, 2001. p. 125-143.
. Stegmen, D., et al., Policies and imprisonment: the impact of structured sentencing and determinate sentencing on state incarceration rates, 1978–2004. Justice Quarterly, 2011. 28(1): p. 174-201.
. Nolan, J.L. (2001). Reinventing justice: The American drug court movement, 2001, Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.
. Holloway, et al., The effectiveness of drug treatment programs in reducing criminal behavior:
A meta-analysis. Psichothema, 2006. 18(3): p. 620-629.
How to Cite
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.