Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for the researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly in the domain of Accounting and Finance, Advertisement, Behavioural Sciences, Business Management, Contemporary business issues, Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance, Cultural studies, Developmental economics, Economics, Econometrics, Entrepreneurship and small business management, Finance, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Management Sciences, Operation and Production Management, Organizational Behaviour, Portfolio management, Research Methods in Business, Social ethics in various societies.</p> Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2055-0286 <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> The Role of Palestinian Olympic Committee in Crises Management According to Individual Sport Unions During Corona Pandemic <p>This study aimed to identify the role of the Palestinian Olympic Committee in managing crises from the point of view of individual sports federations in light of the Corona pandemic, as well as to identify the differences in the role of the Palestinian Olympic Committee in managing crises from the point of view of individual sports federations in light of the Corona pandemic, according to variables (gender, characteristic Management, academic qualification, years of experience). The descriptive analytical method was used in one of the forms of the survey study due to its suitability for the purposes of the study. The study sample consisted of (90) administrative members of sports federations, selected by a random-stratified method. The questionnaire was also used as a tool for the study. The results of the study showed that the total degree of the role of the Palestinian Olympic Committee in crisis management from the point of view of sports federations was moderate with an average of (2.99),The results also showed that there are no statistically significant differences at the significance level (α ≤ 0.05) in the role of the Palestinian Olympic Committee in crisis management from the point of view of individual sports federations, in the total degree ,before the crisis occurred and during the crisis) due to For the gender . On the other hand, differences were statistically significant in (after the crisis occurred) due to gender and in favor of females. The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences due to characteristic Management, academic qualification, years of experience variables.</p> Ala' Majed Huseen Nada Hatem Ghrab Qasem Assad Dabeek Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman Copyright (c) 2024 Ala' Majed Huseen Nada, Hatem Ghrab, Qasem Assad Dabeek, Abderraouf Ben Abderrahman 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 1 13 10.14738/assrj.112.16352 The Impact of Campus Residency on Retention of First-Generation African American College Students at Predominantly White Institutions <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of campus residency on the retention of first-generation, African American college student at PWIs. A sample of 20, full-time freshmen students participated in the study. The researchers used in-depth interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the impact campus residency is having on student retention. All information was self-reported by the participants. Limited research has been conducted on first-generation African American college students at Predominantly White Institutions. Study findings supported previous research in relation to on-campus housing and a sense of belonging. Study showed that campus residency had impacts on student’s retention as a result of their accessibility to academic support systems, extracurricular activities, importance of faculty and staff relationships, peer interactions, and a sense of belonging.</p> Pernell H. Goodwin Felix A. Okojie Copyright (c) 2024 Pernell H. Goodwin, Felix A. Okojie 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 14 32 10.14738/assrj.112.16097 Social Entropy: An Information Measure of Institutional Complexity <p>Information theory has impacted disciplines across science and technology, including the 20th century’s IT revolution. However, information theory has been applied much less to the social sciences and has not been applied at all to theoretical social psychology. While information-based statistical programs are used to analyze data across social disciplines, information theory has not been used to analyze social structure and the self as an informational process related to the conflict reducing characteristics of institutions. The present paper addresses this gap by suggesting Shannon information as a measure of the complexity within institutional settings in relation to the formally rationalizing drives of industrialized societies in contrast to the informal social control experienced in simpler societies. The paper analyzes social theory related to institutional complexity from several disciplines arguing that it is synonymous with information as suggested by Shannon. A post structural methodology for measurement of social complexity and directions for future research are suggested.</p> Rebecca van Stokkum Copyright (c) 2024 Rebecca van Stokkum 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 33 53 10.14738/assrj.112.16387 Guidance/Training Course in Facing the Psychological Pressures and Improving the Speed and Performance of Football Referees for Iraqi Premier League <p>The study aimed to identify the effect of the guidance and Program in Facing the Psychological Pressures and Improving the Speed, its Endurance and Performance of Football Referees for Iraqi Premier League. The equal-group experimental method has been used. The groups are two experimental groups and a control group with pre- and post-measurements. The study sample consisted of (30) referees. They were selected randomly and by lottery. They were distributed into two experimental groups (the first experimental group takes the training curriculum, the second experimental group takes the training curriculum and the guidance program), and the third group is the control. Each group consists of ten referees. Having done that, the normal distribution was conducted by using the skewness and variation coefficients. while homogeneity was used by Levene’s test for homogeneity and the (F) test for equality. The researcher conducted an exploratory experiment, which focused on identifying the field difficulties that the researcher may face during the actual conduct of the guidance and training program. The SPSS statistical software has been used. The results of the study showed the improvement of the second experimental group, followed by the first experimental group, and then the control group. Accordingly, the researcher concluded that the guidance and training program improved the referee’s performance.</p> Ali Al Qaysi Mohamed Baaziz Samia Boukari Ahmed Attia Olfa Turki Sabri Gaied Chortane Riad Khalifa Copyright (c) 2024 Ali Al Qaysi, Mohamed Baaziz, Samia Boukari, Ahmed Attia, Olfa Turki, Sabri Gaied Chortane, Riad Khalifa 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 54 70 10.14738/assrj.112.16392 Radically Embodied Compassion Training: Cultivating Psychotherapist Courage, Distress Tolerance and Compassionate Responsiveness via Traditional Martial Arts <p>Psychotherapeutic encounters inevitably entail moments and episodes of disaffiliation, ruptures and conflict. These events can pose significant challenges and threats to both client and therapist. Resolving and repairing such ruptures requires therapists to tolerate not only their clients' but also their own distress, to better afford the courage and wisdom to respond compassionately. Whilst there is plenty of excellent research and guidance on how to respond to and repair alliance ruptures, few approaches explicitly focus on the development of the underlying (neuro)physiological capacities, embodied motivational switching abilities and somatic resources to be able to do so in situations of high relational threat. Traditional martial arts provide a powerful and fruitful means to entrain these competencies and processes, which can feasibly be transferred to psychotherapeutic encounters. This paper outlines the development of training workshops for therapists/clinicians based on traditional martial arts principles and practices, embodied neuroscience and interpersonal neurobiology. This overview will thus help illuminate how such training may afford therapists/clinicians greater distress tolerance and compassionate responsiveness, otherwise termed Radically Embodied Compassion (Clapton &amp; Hiskey, 2020), in difficult therapeutic encounters such as alliance ruptures.</p> Neil Clapton Syd Hiskey Copyright (c) 2024 Neil Clapton, Syd Hiskey 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 71 87 10.14738/assrj.112.16285 The Assessment of Critical Thinking Skills in Secondary School Students in Saudi Arabia <p>The assessment of critical thinking skills in secondary school students in Saudi Arabia involves evaluating their ability to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information. Various methods are employed, including traditional exams, project-based assessments, and scenario-based tasks. Traditional exams may include questions that require students to apply logic and reasoning, while project-based assessments assess their ability to solve real-world problems. Scenario-based tasks present students with situations where they must make informed decisions, encouraging critical thinking. Additionally, group discussions and debates are utilized to gauge their capacity for reasoned argumentation. Educators often use rubrics to evaluate students' thought processes and the depth of their analyses. Challenges in this assessment process may include cultural influences on critical thinking styles, language barriers, and varying educational backgrounds. Therefore, it's crucial to design assessments that consider these factors and promote a holistic understanding of critical thinking skills. Continuous professional development for teachers and the integration of critical thinking across the curriculum are essential for fostering these skills. Overall, a multifaceted approach ensures a comprehensive evaluation of critical thinking skills in Saudi Arabian secondary school students, preparing them for the complexities of the modern world. The assessment of critical thinking skills in secondary school students in Saudi Arabia employs diverse methods, encompassing exams, projects, and discussions. These evaluations gauge students' abilities to analyze, synthesize, and evaluate information. Exam questions are crafted to test logical reasoning, while project-based assessments measure problem-solving in real-world scenarios. Group discussions and debates assess students' reasoned argumentation, promoting critical thinking. Rubrics provide a structured evaluation framework, ensuring consistency. Cultural influences, language barriers, and diverse educational backgrounds pose challenges. Adaptable assessments considering these factors are crucial. Continuous professional development for educators and integrating critical thinking across curricula enhance skill development. A holistic approach ensures comprehensive evaluations, preparing students for the complexities of the modern world.</p> Huma Hyder Copyright (c) 2024 Huma Hyder 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 11 2 88 98 10.14738/assrj.112.16442 The Impact of Macroeconomic Indicators on Medical Tourism: A Global Perspective <p>Medical tourism is an expanding global phenomenon stimulating economic development driven by a combination of multiple macro and socioeconomic factors. The study aims to investigate whether the development of medical tourism globally is associated with specific macroeconomic indicators. The association of Medical Tourism Index (MTI) is explored with Gross Domestic Product (GDP), healthcare spending and international tourism receipts.&nbsp; A countries’ grouping method and an ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model were used. MTI was used as the outcome variable, while macroeconomic indicators as potential predictors. The grouping of countries showed that European and Asian countries as well as Canada excel high ranking in all indicators. However, the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC) that exhibit high performance in GDP, rank below the MTI average.&nbsp; Caribbean and Latin American countries are ranking high in the MTI but fall below the average in all the indicators. The OLS analysis showed a positive correlation between the score of the MTI and health expenditure and no correlation among MTI, GDP and international tourism receipts, a finding also supported by the grouping analysis. Taking into consideration the similarities and disparities found among countries regarding the macroeconomic indicators mostly impacting medical tourism, it seems that there is a consensus on their relationship but not clearly identified rather due to a variety of social, cultural and ethical factors that dominate in each country. Further research is needed in order to obtain more robust and comparative evidence.</p> Mary Geitona Georgia Giannake Dimitris Zavras Dimitra Latsou Copyright (c) 2024 Mary Geitona, Georgia Giannake, Dimitris Zavras, Dimitra Latsou 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 99 111 10.14738/assrj.112.16471 Estimating Computational Thinking Ability Using Tablets and Electronic Pens <p style="font-weight: 400;">This study proposes a method to estimate a computational thinking ability utilizing handwritten logs. The development of computational thinking skills to build a plan to organize solutions is crucial from an early age. The methods for cultivating these abilities in elementary education are still in the developmental stages. The proposed method analyzes hand-drawing logs obtained through tablets and electronic pens. Participants are assigned illustration tasks utilizing the layer functionality. The transition among layers objectively assesses whether individuals solve tasks in a perspective manner according to a plan. In an experiment involving 24 students and graduate students, an application with seven layers is employed to assign a 20-minute task of replicating a car illustration. From the results, it turns out we can estimate computational thinking abilities from hand-drawing logs. In addition to that, the results reveal the characteristic way of using and holding the pen that occurs when one has a planning perspective unique to computational thinking. This research promotes the ongoing exploration of methodologies for assessing computational thinking skills, particularly in the context of elementary education. It contributes to fostering computational thinking abilities in younger ages.</p> Kohei Urayama Hiromitsu Shimakawa Copyright (c) 2024 Kohei Urayama; Hiromitsu Shimakawa 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 112 123 10.14738/assrj.112.16480 Characteristics of Postmodernism Reflected on Designs of ready-to-wear Children's Clothing Using their Artistic Drawings <p>This study aims to simplify the postmodernism's characteristics to create innovative fashion designs for children's ready-to-wear clothing. By incorporating children's artistic drawings, the study seeks to achieve the designs' functional, aesthetic, and productive aspects. The significance of this research lies in enriching the practices of the ready-to-wear children's clothing industry through the utilization of postmodernism characteristics. A descriptive analytical approach was employed to identify the relevant characteristics of the postmodernism and adapt them to the design process for children's clothing. Eight designs were created and evaluated by specialists using a study tool. The results revealed statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the designs across various aspects. The aesthetic aspect received the highest evaluation, followed by the production and, finally, the functional aspects. The study concluded that the design incorporating the attribute of ambiguity was the most highly rated among the designs, considering all aspects. Based on these findings, the study recommends further exploration of the postmodernism in fashion design and an in-depth study of international arts to foster creativity and diversity in children's clothing design.</p> Wesam Sabbagh Copyright (c) 2024 Wesam Sabbagh 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 124 150 10.14738/assrj.112.16491 The Effects of Teaching Human and Social Sciences in A Training Program Intended for Physical Education Students in Tunisia <p>This research addresses the question of the social representation of human sciences teaching in a training program intended for physical education student trainees. The objectives of the study are to identify the social representations of human sciences teaching for student trainees and to see the influence of social representation on practice<a href="" name="_ftnref1">[1]</a>and educational behaviors. Data was collected through in-depth interviews using an associative method with a representative sample of students. The results show that the participants' social representation of the human sciences is organized around common elements: the understanding of human beliefs, life and culture.</p> Bechir Nasri Ines Souid Copyright (c) 2024 Bechir Nasri, Ines Souid 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 151 165 10.14738/assrj.112.16435 National Housing Policies and Gender Issues: Reflections on Argentina’s ‘Habitar en Igualdad’ Program <p>Social rights are not easily given as they are built through processes of struggle, mostly led by organized collectives and social movements in situations of vulnerability or imminent loss of rights and lives. The right to housing is included in this category of social rights that needed to be achieved based on demands, especially in Latin America. This article aims to reflect on public policies and gender issues in Argentina, based on the analysis of the interministerial program ‘Habitar en Igualdad’. To this end, we base our discussions on Cortés, Montaner and Muxí, Rolnik, Kern, and on Judith Butler’s debates about body controls and the precarious lives of the LGBTQIA+ population. The methodology adopted was descriptive, according to Serra and to Gil. As a result, we found a difficulty in continuing public policies dedicated to the LGBTQIA+ population, as well as an erasure of this population group in housing policies, in the face of constant harassment from neoliberal and far-right governments. Therefore, publicizing and encouraging recent inclusive experiences of sexual dissent can be a further step in promoting social rights.</p> Yuri Nascimento Paes da Costa Carlos Henrique Magalhães de Lima Copyright (c) 2024 Yuri Nascimento Paes da Costa, Carlos Henrique Magalhães de Lima 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 166 181 10.14738/assrj.112.16500 Affective States: A Neglected Construct in the Study of Efficacy <p>The social cognitive theory concept of efficacy has a rich evidence base to support its importance to educators. Although there is much research in support of the theory, there is also evidence which contradicts some of its major and long-held beliefs. One of these beliefs is that out of the four sources of efficacy, affective states are the weakest in terms of impact. This paper synthesizes evidence to challenge the accepted notion and presents an argument for affective states being the most powerful source of efficacy. This idea has important implications for school leaders because of efficacy’s relationship to resilience and job commitment.</p> T.J. Hoogsteen Copyright (c) 2024 T.J. Hoogsteen 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 182 190 10.14738/assrj.112.16490 Socio-professional Antecedents of Conciliation between Work and Family Role among Tunisian Physical Education Teachers <p><u>Background</u>: Balancing work and family are an important issue these days, as demands and commitments in both contexts have increased. Aims: The aim of this study was to study the issue of family-work balance among Tunisian physical education teachers, and to identify the differences between men and women as well as the main factors influencing the relationship family-work. <u>Method</u>: 486 physical education teachers (342 men, mean age = 42.35 ±5.554, and 144 women, mean age = 42.80 ±7.708) belonging to three Tunisian governorates participated voluntarily to our study. <u>Results</u>: The results obtained from the MANOVA analysis showed the impact of gender and family status on reconciliation (Gender: [Lambda of Wilks = ,978 &lt; 1, D = 3,551, p = 0,014 &lt; p = 0,05]; Marital status: [Lambda de Wilks = ,906 &lt; 1, d = 8,134, p = 0,000 &lt; p = 0,05]), but work place had no effect: [Wilks' Lambda = .990 &lt; 1, D = .830, p = 0.546 &gt; p = 0.05]. <u>Conclusion</u>: Our statement therefore underlines the fact that the work-family conflict is very present among PE teachers in the south-western of Tunisia, contrary to the image perceived by society which provides that teachers have a working time that allows them to live comfortably.</p> Hedi Zemmel Mohamed Baaziz Badai Saii Zouheir Ben Jannet Copyright (c) 2024 Hedi Zemmel, Mohamed Baaziz, Badai Saii, Zouheir Ben Jannet 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 191 200 10.14738/assrj.112.16439 Diasporic Consciousness: A Study of Identity Crisis in Jhumpa Lahiri’s “Unaccustomed Earth” <p>This paper explores the creative work of renowned diasporic Indian writer Jhumpa Lahari in her collection of eight short stories entitled "Unaccustomed Earth" where, she has explored the tug of war between the traditional-cultural values sustained by the immigrant parents but were curtailed by their precocious young American teenagers. The oscillation of permanent settlement in the new land and an overwhelming nostalgia for the homeland is a persistent theme of diasporic writers. In the introductory part of the research paper diaspora is defined and elucidated. The dispersion of Indian people across the globe and their vivid experiences and suffrages is discussed in the second part of the paper. The central themes of the diasporic writer and Indian diasporic writers and their closeness and corelation to celebrated diasporic writer Jhumpa Lahiri is discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. Diasporic terms like assimilation, adaptation, hybridity, host culture, ethnic and culture conflicts have been discussed in the light of the ‘Unaccustomed Earth’ by Lahiri. Irresistible past of the immigrants for their land of origin is a perennial source of study among diasporic writers. This paper explores the tug of war between the first-generation migrants who have the sense of rootlessness, alienation, and nostalgic homesickness on one hand and the hybrid and multicultural third generation and its synthesis of the past and the modern leading to socio-cultural, linguistic, and psychological transfusion widening new dimensions for the next generation in Lahiri’s stories. &nbsp;</p> Kamlesh Dangwal Copyright (c) 2024 Kamlesh Dangwal 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 201 209 10.14738/assrj.112.16348 Vision and Mission: To Restore and Work on a Narrative About South Africa and the Netherlands for Our (Grand)Children and Future Generations <p>This article shows a contrast between the morality of South Africa and the Netherlands. The latest example is the courtcase before the International Court of Justice in The Hague. The Netherlands is conspicuously keeping its distance. This may be explained by the neo-colonial attitude of the Netherlands during the period when it colonised, enslaved, looted and pillaged South Africa, imposed indentured labour and established apartheid. This article attempts to initiate a new narrative that transcends this sickening history, a narrative intended for South African and Dutch great-grandchildren. We see this narrative as a start for rewriting history, but also for writing children's books and creating restorative art expressions.</p> Angelie Sens Carl H. D. Steinmetz Anneke Hoek Gina Lafour Copyright (c) 2024 Angelie Sens, Carl H. D. Steinmetz, Anneke van Hoek, Gina Lafour 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 210 223 10.14738/assrj.112.16485 The Social, Economic, and International Relations Impact of the 2023 Israel-Hamas War <p>Hamas's attack on Israel on October 7<sup>th,</sup> 2023, is not the first of its type. The Israeli-Palestine tension can be traced back to 1947 following the UN Partition Plan that divided the British Mandate of Palestine into Jewish and Arab Nations. Following Britain’s withdrawal from the Peninsula, the Jewish leaders declared the State of Israel, sparking the first Arab-Israeli conflict and this tension has worsened over the years. We use Thomas Hobbes's Social Contract to explain the tension between both parties. According to Hobbes, man lives in a State of Nature which is characterized by war and the continuous fear of death. This fear of death is the reason why man enters into a contract (Social Contract). There have been diverse schools of thought as to the origin of the Israeli-Palestine tension. Some believe it is the 1947 UN Partition Plan, others believe it is the June 1967 war, while others believe it is religion. Regardless of the original cause, it is evident that both parties have retained severe casualties over the years. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to review the economic, social, and international relations consequences of the 2023 Israel-Hamas war. The current war has had several social consequences: refugee migrations, lack of basic survival necessities, withdrawal of medical aid groups, starving refugees, desolated cities, and allegations of rape and sexual torture. Economically, the war has led to the loss of income from economic activities, an increase in oil prices, reignited inflation, high-interest rates, increased government expenditures, and exchange rates. It has also impacted international relations among nations due to a split in support between Israel and Palestine. Nevertheless, there is an allowance for further study because this paper is limited only to the social, economic, and international relations impact of the war.</p> Ruth Endam Mbah Laura Hultquist Beryl Ngum Fonkem Emmanuel Fonjindam Mbah Copyright (c) 2024 Ruth Endam Mbah, Laura Hultquist, Beryl Ngum Fonkem, Emmanuel Fonjindam Mbah 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 224 236 10.14738/assrj.112.16499 Estimation of Differences in Work Attitudes by National Character from Psychological Change Points <p>More and more foreign workers work in Japan year by year. However, there is a problem that a few foreign workers keep working in Japan. One of the reasons is the work attitudes of foreign workers is different from those of Japanese companies. Japanese companies want to fully understand their work attitudes so that they can develop foreign workers’ human resources appropriately. This study proposes a method for estimating the differences in the work attitudes from physiological characteristics during video watching. The method uses videos to collect psychological change points during the viewing. Pupil diameter is measured to estimate cognitive change while EDA is measured to estimate emotional change. Change points are detected from time series of the physiological characteristics to know the scene causing the changes. The work attitudes are also examined from questionnaires. An experiment reveals differences in cognitive change indicating that Japanese and Vietnamese have different views on work. It also showed that Japanese and Vietnamese have different attitudes towards work difficulties and responsibilities. Differences in emotional change indicated that Japanese and Vietnamese differ in the factors that cause emotional change. The findings can be used for human resource development to assign suitable work to foreign workers.</p> Koki Matsuno Hiromitsu Shimakawa Copyright (c) 2024 Koki Matsuno, Hiromitsu Shimakawa 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 237 258 10.14738/assrj.112.16479 21st Century Challenges of Social Accountability in Post-Soviet Estonian Local Governments <p>Contemporary European social work is based on the principles of collective responsibility, human rights, and social justice. The preparation and adoption of the Social Care (Welfare) Act in 1995 followed the general principles of the corresponding law from 1925, in that the responsibility for organizing social welfare fell to local government. Thus, at the end of the 20th century, the main public social work` organizer in Estonia is the local government. Following an accountability-based approach, this research has aimed to explore the accountability of social work in the rural local government. The utilized methodology has been the collective case study (Mills 2010). I followed the information-oriented selection: the cases of maximum variation by size and location. Triangulation has been used as a procedure for acquiring data (Ragin 2011). The lack of state regulation together with an insufficient understanding of social work has affected the local government’s ability to interpret the required duties. An agreement has been missing for sharing the responsibility between the state, the local government and the families. There is also the problem of the local-centered practice, whereby the local government’s own practice of social work has been politically loaded.</p> Vaike Raudava Copyright (c) 2024 Vaike Raudava 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 259 267 10.14738/assrj.112.16487 A Predatory West, Africa’s Postcolonial States, International Trade Relations and Underdevelopment in Africa: A Survey of Centre/Core-Periphery Issues <p>This paper examines a predatory West and Africa’s postcolonial states international trade relations and underdevelopment in Africa to divulge how centre-periphery issues evoke underdevelopment in postcolonial African states. It argues that, historically, be it a core or peripheral, in whatever mode of production, the state is the dominant laboratory for all human activities, as it plays ever-dominant roles in domestic and international politico-economic and socio-cultural affairs, being the primary vector for development or underdevelopment is society. However, international trade relations have conditioned these roles and capacities of the state, in terms of strengths or weaknesses in service delivery to its citizens. Having been incorporated and monetised into the West’s capitalism, the postcolonial Africa’s state, has despite these roles, subjectively occupied a debilitating peripheral capitalist position in global wealth production. Today, like yesterday, the postcolonial African state, exhibits excruciating and traumatising underdevelopment, incarnated by uncivilised political, social, economic infrastructures, which incubate citizens’ apathy to governance, while enhancing insecurity, poverty, conflicts and fragmentation of nationalities. Using Raul Prebisch’s (1949) dependency theory, I argue that, the weaknesses and fragilisation of the postcolonial African state accrue from the despondent peripheral capitalist position it occupies in the international capitalist division of labour. Via Wallenstein’s (1930-2019) Modern World System theory, (MWS), I seek reawakening the gratuitous Africans’ slumbering consciousness towards overcoming underdevelopment; impelled by a predatory West’s instigated peripheral capitalism.</p> Peter Sakwe Masumbe Copyright (c) 2024 Peter Sakwe Masumbe 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 268 315 10.14738/assrj.112.16330 Dutch Colonization and Slavery of Asia: From Apology to Reparation <p>This article is about the history of forced apologies and reparations for the 350 years of Dutch colonization and the Dutch war of occupation of the Republic of Indonesia from 1945-1949, the trade in enslaved people, the extermination of the indigenous population, their replacement by people willing to serve the Dutch colonists, and the looting and plundering of natural mineral resources and earthly products such as nutmeg. The apologies issued are half-hearted, enforced by lawsuits that focus on a few rather than entire populations. The apologies are limited to the Republic of Indonesia and then only for the period 1945-1949. Currently, the Netherlands is considering apologies and possibly reparations for the suffering inflicted on Africans in the transatlantic triangle. In the process, Asian genocides, torture, executions, beheadings, enslavement of people, and looting and robbery of people and land are being covered up.&nbsp; Perhaps this is neo-colonization at its best. This article also makes a proposal, based on the insights of the international reparations movement and transactional justice, in the hope that the Netherlands and its Dutch municipalities will begin to mend their ways. At the heart of this proposal are methods for apologizing and repairing suffering. This can only be done together with our Asian sisters and brothers.</p> Carl H. D. Steinmetz Copyright (c) 2024 Carl H. D. Steinmetz 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 11 2 316 344 10.14738/assrj.112.16495