Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2055-0286 <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This study sought to determine the Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ level of professional and personal characteristics in Maguindanao Division I. Specifically, it determined the Junior High School Mathematics Teachers’ level of Professional and personal characteristics; the Junior High School Students’ level of academic performance in Mathematics; and the significant relationships of the teachers’ level of Professional and personal characteristics and their Junior High students’ level of performance in Mathematics. The study used the descriptive-correlational survey method. It determined the level of teaching practices of twelve (12) Junior High School Mathematics teachers of Maguindanao Division I in terms of professional and personal characteristics. Pearson’s Product - Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship of the level of professional and personal characteristics of the junior high Mathematics teachers to the students’ level of academic performance. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ professional and personal characteristics is very satisfactory. It is further concluded that the outstanding professional and personal characteristics of the teachers have no bearing on the academic achievement of the students. The students must work hard to get higher grades and the teacher must develop professional and personal characteristics to perform tasks exceedingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Professional and Personal Characteristics, Junior High School Mathematics Teachers, Level of Academic Performance</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ELISA ABELLAR Copyright (c) 2021 ELISA M. ABELLAR 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 181 186 10.14738/assrj.87.10434 An Assessment of the Adequacy of the Methods Of Domestic Solid Waste Management in Kisii Town, Kenya <p>Urban domestic solid waste is increasingly being generated in many urban centres including middle sized towns. In many urban areas in developing countries there’s a growing need and awakening for meeting the waste disposal for the ever increasing population. This paper examines and analyses the varied treatment and disposal methods of domestic solid waste employed in Kisii town. The specific objective of the study include: to assess the adequacy of the available management systems of handling domestic solid waste (DSW) in Kisii town. A mixed methodology approach was taken into consideration. A sample of 110 households was obtained using the multi stage stratified sampling method. Data collection methods of the sampled size involved the use of questionnaires to 110 householders and direct interviews to 2 county officers in charge of DSW and observation integrated with photography. Data analysis was carried out using methods such as use of tables and graphs through SPSS. The results indicate that the storage facilities are inadequate for the residents, the collection times are not only insufficient but also irregular, the transportation means employed are limited, and disposal and treatment of the DSW is limited to mainly open dumping at the overfilled Nyambera dumpsite. In conclusion, the management methods of the DSW are inadequate and pose severe health risks to the residents of Kisii. It is recommended that, for effective domestic solid waste management adequate bins should be provided in the town, collection should be regular and indiscriminate in all estates, recycling, re-use, reduce and energy recovery should be introduced to move from challenges to opportunities. Finally, an integrated model of integrating CBOs and private groups in management of DSW is suggested to ensure sustainable solid waste management.</p> Mecheo O. Naftal Copyright (c) 2021 Mecheo O. Naftal 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 157 180 10.14738/assrj.87.10423 PRE DISASTER COMMUNICATION ON ONLINE NEWS PORTAL TRIBUNNEWS MARCH 2020 EDITION AS DISASTER MANAGEMENT SUPPORT <p>Covid-19 has become an issue that has been written about in the media since the end of 2019. Since the emergence of the first case in Indonesia in March 2020, efforts are needed to manage disasters that occur. The role of various parties is needed to provide information and communication to the public, one of which is through the mass media. Information on pre-disaster is important for the formation of security and community capacity in dealing with disasters. The mass media becomes a self-warning system in providing information and education to the public. Currently the media continues to grow, the internet makes it easy for every audience to access various information in the mass media, one of which is disaster information. This study aims to provide an overview of how disaster information is packaged in the mass media as a form of disaster communication to the public. The concepts used in this research are disaster management, and disaster journalism. This research method uses descriptive qualitative using literature studies and framing analysis on the online news portal Tribunnews during March 2020. The results of this study indicate that disaster communication determines community attitudes in dealing with disasters. The role of disaster communication in the mass media is very important, and can determine the success of the government in providing information for public safety and overcoming disasters that occur. This research contributes that the optimization of disaster communication is important in disaster management. The government is the main source of the media in finding news sources. Therefore, the government must provide information intake actively, periodically and with a positive frame.</p> Rohmah Nia Chandra Sari Rachmat Kriyantono Desi Dwi Prianti Copyright (c) 2021 Rohmah Nia Chandra Sari, Rachmat Kriyantono, Desi Dwi Prianti 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 240 250 10.14738/assrj.87.10522 THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF FACEBOOK IN THE ACADEMIC LIVES OF STUDENTS AT MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY – MAGUINDANAO <p>This study covered the contributions of Facebook in the lives of students particularly at Mindanao State University-Maguindanao. The descriptive-qualitative survey design/method of research was used in this study. Respondents of the study are the 200 selected students from the six Colleges/Department of Mindanao State University – Maguindanao which are as follows: College Arts and Sciences (16), College of Education (46), College Public Affairs and Governance (72), College of Forestry and Environmental Studies (4) College of Fisheries (6) and College of Agriculture (56). Purposive sampling was employed by the researcher in this study in getting the 200 students of Mindanao State University – Maguindanao. The statistical tools used in the study are: frequency distribution, weighted mean, and ranking. On the basis of the findings of the study, the contributions of Facebook in the academic lives of the student at Mindanao State University-Maguindanao were often. However, on problems encountered by the respondents it needs to motivate some aspects under the tips to safe online and policy to secure in the use of Facebook by the respondents/students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Contributions, Facebook, Academic Lives of Students</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sari Pilot Datuali Abdula Datuali Abdula Sadat Blah Copyright (c) 2021 Sari K. Pilot, Datuali P. Abdula, Datuali P. Abdula, Sadat G. Blah 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 209 217 10.14738/assrj.87.10445 Electoral Violence and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges <p>The study examined the effects of electoral violence on the democratization efforts and democratic consolidation in Nigeria since the beginning of the Fourth Republic in 1999. The nation’s elections, at all levels of governance, are characterized by violence. Violence mar as high as 70 percent of Nigerian elections resulting in deaths, destruction of properties, maiming, etc. Successive governments have made frantic efforts to institutionalize and consolidate democracy in the country, embarking on various electoral reforms with little or no result with respect to curbing electoral violence. Thus, the main objective of this study is to show that the high rate of electoral violence witnessed over the years has weakened and discredited the democratic consolidation drive of the Nigerian state. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the “State Fragility Theory”. However, the author’s modified version of “State Compromise Theory” was used to analyze the nature, character and reasons for electoral violence in Nigeria and its effects on the institutionalization of democracy in the country. The study used both primary and secondary data. The primary data were mainly drawn from mainly the authors’ observations during elections, over the years, while secondary data were drawn from existing literature on the subject matter. The study revealed that the pervasive violence at different elections has greatly discredited and emasculated democratic governance in the country. Violence has become both physical and cathartic. It manifests in form of wanton shooting by political thugs to intimidate voters and electoral officials, so as to snatch election materials, disruption of voting, vote suppression, cancellation and annulment of elections in opposition strongholds, etc.&nbsp; The paper concluded that, to ensure the consolidation of democracy in Nigeria, election management bodies must adopt an electoral system that drastically reduces congregation of people at a voting point(s) so as to reduce violence. Some of the recommendations are that election management bodies should deploy appropriate technology to reduce congregation of people at a voting point, transmission of results should be done electronically to minimize human involvement, contacts error and manipulations.</p> Deinibiteim M. Harry Samuel B. Kalagbor Copyright (c) 2021 Deinibiteim M. Harry, Samuel B. Kalagbor 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 140 156 10.14738/assrj.87.10440 The Impact of Personal Computer on Students’ Academic Performance <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>This study aimed to determine the effects of Personal Computer on students' academic performance of the Grade 11 Senior High School students at MSU-Maguindanao. Specifically, this study identified the uses of Personal Computers as rated by the students in their studies, the academic performance of respondents with Personal Computer, the academic performance of respondents without Personal Computer, and the significant difference in academic performance of respondents with and without Personal Computer. Survey questionnaire was used as an instrument in gathering data. The questionnaire contains ten (10) related to the uses of computer in the students’ studies. The 10 questions are measured in terms of a 4- point scale such as: 1 for always, 2 for often, 3 for seldom and 4 for never. The statistical tools used in the analysis of data are the frequency count and the mean to describe the effects of personal computer on Senior High School students’ academic performance. The data gathered were consolidated and tabulated. The computations were done manually with the aid of scientific calculator. Findings show that the academic performance of the students with personal computer is generally higher than those without personal computer. Therefore, personal computer has effects in improving the students' academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Impact, Personal Computer, Students’ Academic Performance</p> Sadat Blah Copyright (c) 2021 Sadat G. Blah 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 187 191 10.14738/assrj.87.10435 Between the Therapist’s Vulnerability and the Client’s Vulnerability: Building a Therapeutic Intervention Through the Regressive Regions of the Mind <p>The article expands Winnicott ,Balint and other theoretical conceptions in order to describe what happens in a therapist‘s mind so that an intervention can take place. It stresses not only the need to identify the psycho-developmental region where the patient operates, but also how intervention arises in the therapist’s mental regions and engages the relevant mental regions of the patient. It explains the process in which the therapist’s subjective communication with his own mental regions helps the patient establish an initial connection with his regressive areas and even gradually draw closer to them symbolically. The article offers an analysis based on a detailed clinical illustration.</p> Noga Keini Copyright (c) 2021 Noga Keini 2021-07-22 2021-07-22 8 7 251 259 10.14738/assrj.87.10528 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MAGUINDANAON TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE AND ISLAMIC MARRIAGE SYSTEM <p>This study aimed to find out the Comparison of the Maguindanaon Traditional Marriage and the Islamic form of Marriage. Specifically, the study seeks to find out the Socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, Marital Status and educational attainment.&nbsp; The Requisites of the Maguindanaon Traditional form of Marriage and the Requisites of Islamic forms of Marriage are identified in this study. Also, the factors to a successful marriage in terms of Cultural / familial, Economic, Spiritual factor and the difference between the Maguindanaon Marriage and that of the Islamic Marriage system are the focused of this study.</p> <p>This study made use of expost facto research design particularly descriptive ethnographic in approach. This study was conducted in the thirty four barangays of municipality of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao. The respondents of this study were individuals who have sufficient information on Traditional Marriage of the Maguindanaon and Islamic form of Marriage. There were 200 respondents for the entire municipality. 100 respondents are those members of the Al-Hiqma organization, and one hundred (100) respondents were from Maguindanaon local folk who had sufficient information about Maguindanaon traditional marriage, and used the simple random sampling procedures. A survey questionnaire was used for the respondents who can read and write and for the respondents who have no knowledge on reading and writing used interview method.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Based on the findings of the study, the beliefs and practices of the Maguindanaon in terms of marriage were handed to them by their forefathers through series of generations down to present. These beliefs and practices were counted as legacies of the past that remained a living heritage of the present generations. The Maguindanaon tradition on marriage is still primitive in many aspects like the negotiation of third parties, imposition of dowry, man’s servitude to his in-laws and many of the rituals of the past are still seen in the present time. Education, both Islamic and Western have influenced the marriage practices of some Maguindanaons in the urban society as some of their marriage ceremony are held in hotels and restaurants. The augmentation of the materialistic nature of maguindanaon traditional marriage has been maintained and increased due to the devaluation of the Philippine currencies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key words: Comparative Study, Maguindanaon, Traditional Marriage, Islamic Marriage System</p> Omar Butuan Elisa Abellar Samsiya Mayasa Sadat G. Blah Margie Fiesta Osmeňa Kasim Copyright (c) 2021 Omar S. Butuan, Elisa M. Abellar, Samsiya D. Mayasa, Sadat G. Blah, Margie D. Fiesta, Osmeňa M. Kasim 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 218 239 10.14738/assrj.87.10451 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO (ARMM) PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS FOR MORO NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (MNLF) COMMUNITY IN MAGUINDANAO PROVINCE <p>This study aims to determine the ARMM programs and projects implementation to MNLF identified communities in the province of Maguindanao during the year periods of 2013 to 2017. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the programs and projects of ARMM to MNLF identified communities; how the implementing offices and agencies of ARMM implement these programs and projects to the MNLF-respondents; the extent of benefits do MNLF respondents have obtained from these programs and projects in terms of: (a) Livelihood (b) Health and (c) education; the problems encountered by the MNLF-respondents during the implementation of these programs and projects; and the prepared alternatives/solutions to these problems. This study further used the combination of “Quantitative and Qualitative” analysis of data. The respondents were the MNLF-Field Commanders and identified MNLF community leaders in Maguindanao Province. The Purposive Sampling was used because only One Hundred Fifty-Six (156) MNLF Commanders and Leaders under Prof. Nur Misuari were used as sample respondents. The findings show that there are serious problems that need to be addressed by the national government on the implementation of the MOU signed by the OIC-GPh-MNLF tripartite process structure to monitor the implementation of the 1996 Peace Agreement and the security, governance, economic activities, including the delivery of social services in the conflict-affected areas. Thus, the government specially, ARMM is tasked to formulate and oversee programs and projects implementation in the cities, provinces and municipalities to improve the lives of the Moros and MNLF combatants regardless of race, tribes and group or faction organization affiliation. Hence as concluded further, various socio-economic activities of the ARMM government found out failed or maybe failed again.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Implementation, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), Programs and Projects, Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Maguindanao Province</p> Samsiya Mayasa Abdulmanan Manalasal Margie Fiesta Omar Butuan Copyright (c) 2021 Samsiya D. Mayasa, Abdulmanan S. Manalasal, Margie D. Fiesta, Omar S. Butuan 2021-07-19 2021-07-19 8 7 192 208 10.14738/assrj.87.10441 Understanding Inflation Policy <p>..</p> Clark Johnson Copyright (c) 2021 Clark Johnson 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 1 7 10.14738/assrj.87.10475 Responsible Writing of Violence: A Study of Select Partition Stories <p>This paper analyzes select Partition stories such as Bhisham Sahni’s “Pali,” K. S. Duggal’s “Pakistan Zindabad,” Ishmat Chughtai’s “Roots,” S.H. Vatsyayan’s “The Avenger,” and Atin Bandhopadhyay’s “Infidel” which realistically portray the cataclysmic times of the Subcontinent in 1947. The paper shows that though the stories depict some chilling scenes, they concentrate more on the psychological impact of violence on the characters and the positive aspects of humanitarian gestures seen during the dismal days in South Asian history. With much tact, the authors approach the subject and document the dreadful events of the Subcontinent’s painful past. Also, while dexterously registering the public resistance to the unspeakable horrors of Partition violence, the authors also honestly present their own ethical stance on the events. The article argues that the authors have documented the tragic history in a mature and convincing manner by presenting its balanced and holistic picture by employing an impartial and unbiased perspective. The texts stand as testimonies to the writers’ sense of responsibility at recording tragic incidents not only because of their objective and holistic approach but also because of their cautious use of language so that they do not trigger any further violence through their writing.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Devi Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Devi Prasad Gautam 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 8 25 10.14738/assrj.87.10477 The Significance of Cyberlearning in Economic Education <p>We analyze the potentials of web-based and mobile-based digital technology to disseminate, inform, transmit, instruct, and exchange course content in the teaching of economics. Cyberlearning is the use of networked computer technology to enhance the mode of educational content delivery to learners, and involves personal, social, and distributed learning that is mediated by a variety of rapidly evolving computational devices such as computers, tablets, and smart phones, and involving other media such as the Web, and the Cloud. Yet cyberlearning is not only about learning to use computers or to think computationally; social networking has made it clear that the need is much more encompassing, including new modes of collaborating and learning for the full variety of human experiences mediated by networked computing and communications technologies. Educators have continued to search for answers about how new digital tools and environments can be utilized to enhance learning among students of our contemporary “New Age” generation. In the present paper we examine the potentials of cyberlearning&nbsp;and the opportunities it offers for promoting and assessing learning, made possible by new technologies; and how it can help learners to capitalize on those opportunities and the new practices that are made possible by these learning technologies. In particular, we examine ways of using technology for economics education to promote effective learning that result in deep rooted grasping of content, practices, and skills that will ultimately shape attitudes and contribute to enhanced policy and progress in economic matters of society.</p> Fidel Ezeala-Harrison Copyright (c) 2021 Fidel Ezeala-Harrison 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 26 34 10.14738/assrj.87.10474 Evaluation of the Effects of “USAID- MARKETS” Capacity Building of Farmers on Rice Output in Kebbi State, Nigeria <p><em>Poor yield and low quality of locally produced rice despite many capacity building interventions for rice farmers necessitated this study entitled </em><strong>Effects of “USAID- MARKETS” Capacity Building of Farmers on Rice Output in Kebbi State, Nigeria.</strong><em>Taking an empirical survey, the study comparedoutput and income of the project participants against the non-project participants. Using multi stage sampling techniques, primary data were collected from 240 rice farmers who participated in the training and 240 farmers who did not, through semi-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The study revealed a significant difference between the output of the project participants and the non-participants. In conclusion, “USAID-MARKETS” capacity buildingsignificantly increased farmers’ rice production and income in the study area, however findings from this study also showed that there was a drop in these variables when compared to what was obtained before the capacity building project ended due to inadequate asses to farm inputs, extension services and ready markets. The study strongly recommends the need to scale up the “USAID-MARKETS” capacity building project in a sustainable manner, improve agricultural input sector and extension services in order to strengthen the capacity of rice farmers for increase output and income.</em></p> Tope Alabi Copyright (c) 2021 Tope Alabi 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 35 49 10.14738/assrj.87.10333 Mr. PhD Candidate <p>Across the world, refugee hosting has been associated with costs and benefits to the hosting nations. However, in Kenya, hosting Somali refugees is majorly considered costly rather than beneficial to the nation. The county’s high insecurity is one of the major effects that Somali refugees are associated with. No objective research has indicated the specific benefits of Somali refugees in Kenya. Using mixed research method, this study focused on establishing the costs and benefits of Somali refugees. The findings show that Somali refugees pose positive and negative effects on the Kenyan state. These effects are economic, social, and environmental. The study recommends policy implementation and technological adoption strategies as ways of enhancing Somali refugee contribution to Kenya’s socio-economic development.</p> Haithar Somo Dr. Alice Kurgat Joshua Kwonyike Copyright (c) 2021 Haithar Somo, Dr., Professor 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 50 70 10.14738/assrj.87.10502 Rhythm: Types, Hierarchy and Language Diversity <p>This article deals with the factors which cause the emergence of rhythm, its types, hierarchy and the relation of rhythm to life and the human language diversity. According to Aristotle “all types of rhythm are measured by certain movements”. So all events and processes connected with rhythm are rhythmical in nature. Rhythm is a regular reiteration of identical cases, processes and events within the boundaries of time and space. Rhythm is the form of regular motion. However, rhythm is not the result of motion. It is just the movement itself. All types of rhythm or movement, to our mind, are based on energy the absence of which excludes movements, rhythms, accordingly then life, human language, as well as language diversity. Thus, studying rhythm, its types and systemic hierarchy, to our mind, enables us to reveal the mechanism of transition from inanimate nature to animate one, on the one hand, and creation of the styduing diversity principle of nature, as well as language diversity, on the other hand.</p> <p>The main task of a linguistic scholar, as defined by David Crystal, is great interest. To this linguist <em>“the main task of the linguistic scholar is not to improve the language teaching situation … etc., his task is basically to study and understand the general principles upon which all languages are built. What are the “design features” of human language? What are the differences between languages? How can we describe and classify this? How far are they fundamental? What concepts do we have before we can begin to talk about language at all”</em> (D.Crystal, 1997).</p> <p>Our aim, accordingly, is to make an attempt to study the types of rhythm, its systemic hierarchy and the relation of rhythm to emergence of life and language diversity.</p> Farman Zeynalov Copyright (c) 2021 Farman Zeynalov 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 71 91 10.14738/assrj.87.10438 Pet Attachment and Its Relevant Factors among Undergraduates <p><strong>Objective&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;To explore the characteristics of pet attachment and its relevant factors among</p> <p>&nbsp;undergraduates.&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong>&nbsp;547&nbsp;undergraduate pet owners were&nbsp;selected by&nbsp;stratified random sampling</p> <p>&nbsp;from 7 universities in Guangzhou&nbsp;City. They were investigated with Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale</p> <p>&nbsp;(LAPS), College Students Interpersonal Comprehensive Diagnostic Scale (ICDSCS),&nbsp;Revised UCLA</p> <p>Loneliness Scale-Version 3 (UCLALS), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire&nbsp;(SCSQ) and a self-edited</p> <p>questionnaire on the general personal information. <strong>Results </strong>⑴ The total score of LAPS, ICDSCS and</p> <p>UCLALS, as well as score of coping style disposition were (41.71±10.05), (9.12±5.62), (44.51±7.87) and</p> <p>(-.22±1.50), respectively. ⑵ 20.9% of undergraduates were moderate to severe pet attachment. ⑶&nbsp;Multiple</p> <p>stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the total score of LAPS was positively correlated with 7</p> <p>factors such as total score of UCLALS and ICDSCS, school category, how many pets have you kept, origin,</p> <p>gender and monthly family income (<em>β</em>=.119 to .668, all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05), while the reasons for keeping pets and</p> <p>coping style disposition were negatively correlated with the total score of LAPS (<em>β</em>=-.537 and -.621, <em>P</em> &lt;</p> <p>0.05). <strong>&nbsp;Conclusion</strong> College students' pet attachment is a common behavioral problem, which is closely</p> <p>related to such factors as family rearing, community cultural atmosphere, school education and the personality</p> <p>of the undergraduates.</p> Yongmei HOU Wanhui HUANG Yongxin LIANG Copyright (c) 2021 Yongmei HOU, Wanhui HUANG, Yongxin LIANG 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 92 102 10.14738/assrj.87.10482 BEST PRACTICES FOR VIRTUAL EVENTS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC - FOCUSING ON ATTENDEE ENGAGEMENT <p>The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a severe hazard: not only to human health but also to the economy on both a national and a global level. The pandemic has particularly affected the event industry, which relies on mass gatherings. This research aims to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the event industry and propose best practices for virtual events in terms of attendee engagement. A qualitative research approach was applied to generate insights from industry experts in real contexts in Vietnam. The study drew on interviewees with four participants engaged in virtual events: two from the event industry, and two from the education sector. This research focuses on three key elements to enhance the level of attendee engagement in virtual events: the four realms of experience, storytelling and attendee objectives when joining a given event. The study also highlights the relationships among these three critical elements while offering theoretical contributions and suggesting best practices.</p> Han Nu Ngoc Ton Ngoc Kim Le Copyright (c) 2021 Ton Nu Ngoc Han, Le Kim Ngoc 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 103 118 10.14738/assrj.87.10369 Reflective examination of the educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania: Intricacies for curriculum development in Africa. <p>The central focus of this paper is to undertake a reflective examination of the educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and these educational philosophies intricacies for curriculum development in Africa. The educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah (Consciencism, Socialism, Africanism, Humanism, and Communism) as well as that of Julius Nyerere (Self-reliance and Liberation) were of importance to the distinct countries at the time yet, its relevance can still be felt and their foundational legacies within the educational front solidified and modified to meet current changes in education. African curriculum developers must not lose sight of the implications of these educational philosophies of these great Africanist scholars rather synchronize contemporary educational philosophies to meet the standards and vision of education of these two great Pan-Africanist.</p> Clarke Ebow Yalley Andrews Acquah Copyright (c) 2021 Clarke Ebow Yalley, Andrews Acquah 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 119 126 10.14738/assrj.87.10430 Modeling of the solidarity banking system in Congo: towards human development based on traditional African values <p><strong>Among the institutional instruments likely to participate in the economic development of a country, banks occupy a crucial place, as their role affects means of payment, exchanges, credit, financial transactions and advice.</strong> <strong>The analysis of paradigms and mechanisms of the banking system makes it possible to intervene in the heart of the economic system. Congo's banking system, like that of almost all African countries, is characterized by half a century of failure, several bankruptcies, endemic corruption, the embezzlement and exclusion of so-called poor populations and rural. This article proposes a model of the endogenous financing of the real economy through solidarity banks. Our objective is to formulate a decision-making tool for economic and financial governance, in terms of financing local development. We propose to explain the importance of monetary policy and the renovated banking system on endogenous bases, according to traditional African values. </strong></p> Claver BOUNDJA Copyright (c) 2021 Claver BOUNDJA 2021-07-09 2021-07-09 8 7 127 139 10.14738/assrj.87.10484