Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2055-0286 <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> Local Government Administration And The Development Of Informal Economic Sector In Nigeria: A Study Of Yenegoa Local Government Area, Bayelsa State <p>This study examined local gove rnment policy on informal economic activities&nbsp; and its development&nbsp; Implications. The study used descriptive survey design and also sampled two hundred respondents using purposive sampling technique. The study&nbsp; was guided by Three research questions and objectives in line with the statement of problem. The study extensively&nbsp; reviewed existing literature&nbsp; on the subject matter with focus on government approach towards the development of informal economic sector in Yenegoa .Problems and challenges of the sector was also look at.From the analysis the study found out that there exist no concrete local government policy on the informal economic&nbsp; activities in Yenegoa local government&nbsp; which eventually is the capital of Bayelsa.The lack of policy created poor coordination of the sector and by extension loss of developmental revenue.The lack of policy also hinder the council proper provision of micro credit facility to the sector.These problem culminated to the use of available space including the roads by retailers and road side traders&nbsp; to carry out trading activities.The lack of policy has made all maner of persons to collect illegal taxes from those involve in the informal economic activities.Based&nbsp; on these findings the study recommends among others adequate policy regulations and provision of micro credit to boost economic activities at the informal sector.</p> Sunny Okoro Abeki Copyright (c) 2020 Sunny Okoro Abeki 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 1 11 10.14738/assrj.79.8964 Demographic Variables Influencing Selective Mutism Among Secondary School Adolescents In Obio/Akpor Local Government Area Of Rivers State <p>The study examined demographic variables influencing selective mutism among secondary school adolescents in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study adopted the ex-post-facto research design. Two research questions as well as two corresponding null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study comprised all 14,784 senior secondary school students (SSS 1, 2 and 3) in the 16 public secondary schools in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State. A sample of 80 secondary school adolescents were randomly and independently selected for the study using the purposive sampling technique. A standardized instrument tagged Skills Deficit Diagnostic Instrument (SDDI), was adopted to collect data for this study. The test re-test method was used to determine reliability and the score obtained was 0.81. Data collected was analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test statistics. The finding of the study showed that socioeconomic status significantly influence selective mutism among secondary school adolescents whereas family type did not. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher recommended among others that counseling for adolescents with selective mutism should be encouraged in all schools with the aim of improving adolescents’ mental health and pro-social skills.</p> Love Nwamadi Copyright (c) 2020 Love Nwamadi 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 12 19 10.14738/assrj.79.8841 The Upkeep of Human Rights and Social Justice: The Role of Right to Information Act 2009 <p><em>The study aim is to present </em><em>how upkeep human rights and social justice in a society by the execution of RTI Act 2009. For this the study has focused on awareness of people about RTI, looking for government initiatives by which people learned about it, how eradicate corruption from&nbsp; the DC offices by the execution of RTI, and&nbsp; human rights and social justice endorsed by this law.&nbsp; This is a fundamental study in nature. Mixed approach has been followed. Both qualitative and quantitative data have been used in this study. Primary data collected by interview schedule with closed and open ended questions. Secondary data collected from the different published books, journal, articles and research report. </em><em>The study findings are still inadequate for service providing and some of these are due to lack of information from officers and their support staffs, technological inefficiency as well as colonial legacy of civil servants etc. Mainly the study reveals that still the field administration has not become people oriented in respect of free flow of information so far. But both discussion of theoretical as well as field study proved that RTI law implementation and defending human rights and social justice have strong relationship at the local level. So the outcome of this study has proven that proper execution of RTI law can protects human rights and justice in the society. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Mohammad Samiul Islam Samiul Zayeda Sharmin PhD Swati Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Samiul Islam Samiul, Zayeda Sharmin PhD Swati 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 20 41 10.14738/assrj.79.8925 Senior High School Teachers’ Readiness In Implementing 21st Century Learning: An Input To School Improvement Plan <p>This&nbsp;&nbsp; study aimed to&nbsp; identify the level of teachers’ readiness in implementing the 21<sup>st</sup> century learning; determine the relationship between teachers’ demographic profile and level of understanding 21<sup>st</sup> century learning; determine the difference between Bay and Los Baños districts teachers’ readiness; and design a training program for teachers. The respondents were the regular/permanent senior high school teachers of the Department of Education&nbsp; in the said districts, School Year 2019-2020. The teacher-respondents were from three and six public senior high schools from Bay and Los Baños, Laguna, respectively; adopted questionnaire and&nbsp;&nbsp; used simple random sampling technique. Findings, reveal that the level of teachers’ readiness&nbsp; was high but&nbsp; they still&nbsp; need professional development in order to:&nbsp; increase the knowledge&nbsp; about 21<sup>st</sup> century learning; assessment of&nbsp; students, use&nbsp; technology as a tool in teaching; and have advanced training on different strategies&nbsp; in handling 21<sup>st</sup> century students. The teachers’ profiles such as sex, age, teaching position, years in service and educational attainment influenced the level of teachers’ understanding in implementing the 21st century learning; while there is no difference on teachers’ level of readiness between the Bay and Los Baños districts. Hence, a comprehensive training program is recommended to enhance teachers’ professional and technical skills.</p> Lerma P. Buenvinida Maria Teresa M. Rodriguez Sherwin B. Sapin Nilda S. Alforja Francisco P. Panopio Copyright (c) 2020 Lerma P. Buenvinida, Maria Teresa M. Rodriguez, Sherwin B. Sapin, Nilda S. Alforja, Francisco P. Panopio 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 42 51 10.14738/assrj.79.8967 Balancing Nigerian Federal System: The Politics and Economics of a Federation. <p>This paper discusses the efforts that have been made since Nigeria became independent in 1960 to balance her federal system. These efforts include balancing the territorial structure, creation of states, the power structure between the central and state governments, balancing inform of revenue allocation formulae and balancing by the adoption of federal character principle. Thus, to what extent have these efforts succeeded in balancing Nigerian federal system? Today, however, the efforts continue as Nigerian federal system is being confronted by the clamour for restructuring. The paper concludes by recommending a review of the current federal system which is being practiced more like a unitary system.</p> M. M. Fadakinte Musa Abdulkareem Copyright (c) 2020 M. M. Fadakinte, Musa Abdulkareem 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 52 62 10.14738/assrj.79.7901 Shariah Information Disclosure and its Effect on Financial Perfomance among SMEs in Malaysia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Shariah disclosure has become an important aspect in a Small-Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The disclosure of shariah information would enhance the transparency and accountability of SMEs towards its stakeholders which in return helps promote the long-term profitability and sustainability.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> (1) examine the extensiveness of Shariah disclosure and (2) investigate the relationship between Shariah disclosure on product and services, financing, earnings and expenditure, social functions and environment and its effect on financial performance of SMEs in Malaysia.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In total, 131 respondents comprised of owners and top management of SMEs in the state of Selangor, Kedah, Pahang, and Johor. The questionnaire was developed based on Shariah Index for Islamic Social Reporting and the data was analysed using multiple regression.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The findings indicated that Shariah disclosure on financing found to have significant relationship on the financial performance of SMEs. In contrast, products and services, earning and expenditure, social functions and environment were found to have no significant relationship on the financial performance of SMEs. The results also show that working environment for workers was disclosed extensively by SMEs while, earning expenditure on non-Shariah compliant the disclosure was less extensive.</p> Ain Noor Azman Noor Azman Ali Fauziah Mahat Zaidi Mat Daud Copyright (c) 2020 Ain Noor Azman, Noor Azman Ali, Fauziah Mahat, Zaidi Mat Daud 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 63 75 10.14738/assrj.79.8958 The International Criminal Court And Its Major Obstacles Since Formation <p>Global quest for the prosecution of heinous crimes of concern to the international community as a whole especially genocide, war crime, crime against humanity, and the crime of aggression committed by individuals led to the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) on July 1, 2002. The court had however, not performed optimally due to some challenges. This paper set out to discuss the militating factors in the execution of the court’s mandate. Using the realist theory, the rational behind the attitude of India, China, Russia and the United State (all major non-state parties) in sabotaging the court’s effort is succinctly assessed. After pointing out other factors affecting the court, its way out of some of these problems was laid bare. The paper concludes that the court must make concerted efforts to replicate criminal prosecution in other parts of the world other than Africa to earn the required credibility and legitimacy it sorts. At the same time, it would have to lobby to ensure that major non-state parties, especially the United States, etc. accede to the Rome statute.</p> Barinaadaa Nwinkol Bariledum Kia Copyright (c) 2020 Barinaadaa Nwinkol, Bariledum Kia 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 76 86 10.14738/assrj.79.8845 Outcome Of Health Education Intervention On The Knowledge Of Management Of Coronavirus Challenges In Ekiti State <p>Coronavirus (Covid-19) is known to cause several health challenges such as common cold, breathing problem, severe acute respiratory syndrome and headache. Therefore, the study investigated outcome of health education intervention on the knowledge of management of coronavirus challenges in Ekiti state. The study employed pre-test, post-test quasi experimental research design. The target population was made up of residents of Ekiti State while the sample size was made up of 150 respondents purposively selected in the 3 senatorial districts of the State. The research Instrument was a self-designed questionnaire that consisted of three sections A, B and C. The research instrument was validated by experts in the field of nursing, health education and Tests &amp; Measurement. The reliability of the research instrument was carried out through a pilot study and reliability co-efficient of 0.877 was obtained. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed that Knowledge level of Coronavirus mean score at pre-test was 10.18 while after the intervention was 17.83. Knowledge of management of Coronavirus challenges mean score at pre-test was 8.21 while after the intervention was 17.31. It was also revealed that there were significant differences between the pre and post intervention knowledge level of Coronavirus (t = 24.74, p&lt;0.05) and between the pre and post intervention knowledge of management of Coronavirus challenges (t = 40.34, p&lt;0.05). It was recommended among others that Health educators, nurses and other medical officials should intensify effort in educating the populace about the management of Coronavirus.</p> OGUNRINDE Modupe Elizabeth OLOFIN-OLUPITAN Mary Ayodeji Copyright (c) 2020 OGUNRINDE Modupe Elizabeth , OLOFIN-OLUPITAN Mary Ayodeji 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 87 94 10.14738/assrj.79.8966 Politics of Local Government Administration and the Challenges of Primary Healthcare System in Nigeria <p>The degree of decentralization among federalist countries differs and this invariably demonstrates the dynamics of federalism in practice. The idea of federal system of government demands that there should be constitutional division of powers among the different tiers of government. To this end, in Nigeria, the federal, state and local government have their powers embedded in the constitution. However, the Nigerian constitution created much incertitude which allows local government to merely operate based on the reserved rights, disposition, prescription and discretion of the higher tiers of government. These constitutional uncertainties have no doubt created intergovernmental challenges and conflicts on areas of; tax jurisdiction, revenue allocation, fund transfers, illegal removal of government officials, autonomy, and inconsistent local government elections among others. Beyond these plaints which have been expressed in copious literature, this study tries to take further steps in analyzing how Nigeria’s intergovernmental status has impeded the operation and performance of primary healthcare system, which has invariably brought about poor health outcomes in the country, as evident in her pitiable health indicators. This work therefore establishes a nexus between local government decision space and primary healthcare systems in the country.</p> Olu Awofeso Kingsley Ogunne Copyright (c) 2020 Olu Awofeso, Kingsley Ogunne 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 96 108 10.14738/assrj.79.8799 Periurban housing: the genesis of a new urban identity: Case of two suburbs of Sfax city in Tunisia <p>The spontaneous periurban, peripheral, non-communal or anarchic spontaneous habitat in Tunisia is a recent phenomenon that began as early as independence and has continued to increase to the present day. This type of habitat is a new configuration of urban space in the sense that it expresses a set of signs and symbols that refers to a specific culture and a certain relationship that is established between social actors and their space.</p> <p>In this context, the question could be asked: why is this type of habitat perceived as peripheral, illegal and marginalized? Couldn't it be the focus of a sensual daily life?</p> <p>&nbsp;The space of these outlying neighbourhoods is the place of interaction through which each inhabitant writes his scenario through his actions, values and daily practices to forge an urban identity both individual and collective. This is what we have seen from fieldwork in two suburbs of the city of Sfax: Ben Saida and Erryadh district where poverty and marginality were experienced as a creative experience.</p> <p>The interactionism and sociology of everyday life thus constitute our theoretical framework through which we will use observation and audiovisual recording as investigative techniques to take a close look at the spontaneous behaviours of social actors and to deeply analyze their daily conversations of the populations of the outlying districts of Sfax.</p> <p>&nbsp;The interactionism and sociology of everyday life thus constitute our theoretical framework through which we will use observation and audiovisual recording as investigative techniques to take a close look at the spontaneous behaviours of social actors and to deeply analyze their daily conversations of the populations of the outlying districts of Sfax.</p> <p>We are trying to go beyond the classic theories that the State/Society relationship could only be a vertical relationship, that is, a determinant/determined report loaded with violence that can only be revealed from the representations of these populations towards the State in the form of attitudes and opinions because the decisions that the State makes for the benefit of the populations push them to react by opposing for the We are thus trying to go beyond the classic theories that the State/Society relationship could only be a vertical relationship, that is, a determinant/determined report loaded with violence that can only be revealed from the representations of these populations towards the state in the form of attitudes and opinions because the decisions that the State takes for the benefit of the populations push them to react by opposing to assert, on the other hand, their attachments to the peripheral space-neighbourhood itself if it was stigmatized and excluded by state institutions. The daily experience is therefore rich in meaning and symbols and it deserves a long time to make it the raw material of our sociological analysis.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Wahiba SAADELLAOUI Amor ZAFOURI Ali ELLOUMI Copyright (c) 2020 Wahiba SAADELLAOUI, Ali ELLOUMI 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 109 118 10.14738/assrj.79.8933 Research on Strategic Communication Analysis of Interpersonal Communication <p>In this paper, we have discussed interpersonal communication. Basically, communication is strategic when behaviors (utterances, nonverbal displays) are formulated in a particular way because it is projected that they will have social utility. And Strategic interpersonal communication assumes certain characteristics that are common to behavior.</p> <p>As Communication is a vehicle that organizations should use to initiate, develop, maintain, and repair mutually productive organization- public relationships.</p> <p>We discusses many aspects of Strategic Interpersonal Communication such as its multi-dimensions, Relationship negotiation and Interpersonal Communication and Public Relations.</p> <p>In methodology section we have carried out study. This study was intended to recognize and measure the perceptions of sophomore and junior semester college students toward feelings of anxiety experienced throughout foreign language learning as measured by the FLCAS scale. This study results that anxiety in foreign language university students by diminishing their indifference and disinterest in the curriculum that is distinct to their needs, educators have to give meaningful content that is similar to their particular disciplines. An instance of this approach would be to expand curricula for professional disciplines, such as health career, business, science and technology, and law, and diversely curricula for educational purposes, for example, for students majoring in the language or for those practicing their undergraduate or postgraduate studies out of the country.</p> Hua Shen Tianchen Ma Copyright (c) 2020 Hua Shen, Tianchen Ma 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 7 9 119 134 10.14738/assrj.79.8945 SYSTEMATIC MAPPING OF PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT RESEARCH: BIBLIOMETRIC STUDY WITH VOSVIEWER <p>This article aims to find a map of the development of research on performance assessment. The study was conducted by searching through the Scopus database with the keyword performance assessment. The data from the search results are then analyzed descriptively based on the year of publication, the country that published the performance assessment research, and the focus of the research. To obtain a map of research development, the data from the Scopus database is exported into a Comma Separated Values ​​(CSV) file format, then processed and analyzed using the VOSViewer application program to find out the bibliometric map of the development of performance assessment research.</p> <p>The results of the systematic mapping conducted show that the trend of performance assessment research publications indexed in Scopus from 2011 to 2020 has fluctuated. The trend based on the country that published the most articles was the United Kingdom with 77 articles. The research topic that is mostly done is the study of performance measurement with 32 articles. Then, through VOSViewer visualization, it shows that the map of the development of performance assessment research is divided into 5 clusters, namely; Cluster 1 consists of 6 research topics, namely assessment, efficiency, evaluation, performance, public service, and sustainability; Cluster 2 consists of 5 research topics, namely balanced scorecard, benchmarking, data envelopment analysis, performance assessment, and performance indicators; Cluster 3 consists of 5 research topics, namely accountability, Canada, governance, performance measurement, and public management; Cluster 4 consists of 4 research topics, namely local government, performance management, public administration, and public sector reform; Cluster 5 consists of 3 research topics, namely job satisfaction, performance evaluation, and the public sector.</p> Teguh Purwayadi Copyright (c) 2020 Teguh Purwayadi 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 7 9 151 161 10.14738/assrj.79.8984 TEACHER ABUSE AND ASSOCIATED SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC VARIABLES IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS <p>Teacher abuse is an ancient practice at different educational levels, the attacks by teachers vary from verbal and physical abuse, social exclusion, among other forms of abuse. Objective: To analyze the relationship between teacher abuse with gender, age, career, and other associated variables in students of different careers from a public university in Mexico. Methodology: A descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out in 1149 first semester university students to collect the information, two questionnaires were applied, one on sociodemographic data and the other on teacher abuse. Results: Teacher abuse was presented in 10.5% of the participants, who claim to have been mistreated by at least one teacher in the current semester, 31.4% say they are afraid of attending university, 9.6% claim to fear a teacher. No differences were found between teacher abuse and the gender of the participants, or according to age, but there were differences according to the degree they were studying. Conclusions: Teacher abuse is a common practice in the university, this can cause in the student fear of teachers, fear of attending the university, absenteeism, school dropout and low academic performance.</p> Irma Ramos rodríguez Copyright (c) 2020 Irma Ramos rodríguez 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 7 9 162 173 10.14738/assrj.79.8936 THE NARRATOR IN DORIS LESSING’S THE FIFTH CHILD <p>This paper reviewed the theoretic classification on narrator of fictions. The narrator of THE FIFTH CHILD was described according to voice and point of view. The conclusion is the narrator in the famous fiction of Doris Lessing’s was omniscient, heterodiegetic/non-character, overt and reliable in its voice. While the fiction was narrated with the shift of multifocalizers in the point of view both from a character, Harriet, who witnessed the events, and from a heterodiegetic narrator, who made comments and questions to focus the readers’ attention on what he narrates.</p> Zhenhua Cui Yanping Yang Yanping Yang Copyright (c) 2020 Zhenhua Cui, Yanping Yang, Yanping Yang 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 7 9 174 182 10.14738/assrj.79.8823 Crisis Management Policy of Natural Disaster <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>Indonesia is the country that has the most active volcanoes in the entire world. The Eurasian Plate, the Pacific Plate, and the Indo-Australian Plate are three active tectonic plates that cause collision zones to form these volcanoes. Indonesia is estimated to have 129 volcanoes, all of which are carefully monitored by the Centre for Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation. This is done because several volcanoes in Indonesia continue to show activity. Moreover, it is estimated that more than five million people live in the "danger zone" of a volcano where they must be immediately evacuated if the mountain shows significant upward activity (Indonesia-Investment, 2019). However, efforts to reduce the risk of natural hazards remain largely uncoordinated in different types of hazards and do not necessarily focus on areas with the highest disaster risk.</p> <p>This paper uses a descriptive qualitative approach as the main writing approach and uses crisis management theory by Rosenthal, that crisis management involves efforts: (1) to prevent a crisis from occurring; (2) to prepare better protection against the impact of crisis agents; (3) to make effective responses to the actual crisis; and (4) to provide plans and resources for post-crisis recovery and rehabilitation.</p> <p>The results of this study are: (1) to accelerate forest recovery, the government can engage the community with security and welfare approach; (2) natural disaster management is the main responsibility of the government; (3) In crises due to natural disasters, form a team that is responsive to critical situations. This team was formed by involving government agencies, community leaders, and NGOs; and (4) to increase the government's capacity to reduce the impact of natural disasters, assessment of potential damage, the establishment of an early warning system, and the improvement of disaster-resistant capabilities are needed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Crisis Management; Natural Disaster; Policy.</p> Aris Sarjito Copyright (c) 2020 Aris Sarjito 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 7 9 183 192 10.14738/assrj.79.8985 Assessing the Effect of Liquidity Management on the Performance Of Deposit Money Banks In Nigeria. <p>This study examines the effect of liquidity management on bank’s performance in Nigeria from the period 1980-2017. The major aim of the study was to find empirical evidence of degree to which effective liquidity management affects bank performance and how to improve bank performance and liquidity position. The cointegration and error correction technique were produced from the ARDL technique of data analysis as well as Granger causality test was employed to investigate the relationship between liquidity management and banks’ performance. The study reveals that there is a long run relationship between banks’ performance and the selected key variables, although LQR was found to be the only significant variable in the model from the individual test, however, it was jointly shown that the liquidity components significantly impact on banks’ performance in Nigeria in the long run. Based on the empirical findings, we recommend that central bank of Nigeria should ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the review and monitoring of liquidity policy tools in banks in order to stabilize deposit money banks performance and strengthen the financial sector of the economy.</p> Samuel Mbadike Nzotta Obiageri Eunice Atuonwu Copyright (c) 2020 Samuel Mbadike Nzotta, Obiageri Eunice Atuonwu 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 7 9 193 227 10.14738/assrj.79.8580 The Values outlook of Hui-neng’s Chan Culture and its Realistic Value <p>Chan culture created by Hui-neng is one of the three major components of Chinese traditional culture. The value outlook of Chan culture is one of the core values of Chinese traditional culture, which mainly manifests in Equality and Justice, good root, democracy and humanistic feelings, harmony, spiritual freedom and big-hearted. These values of Chan culture are consistent with the cultural psychology and behavior of Chinese nation, and still manifest in the daily life of Chinese people and serve a positive role in the spiritual purification and the promotion of spiritual realm of contemporary people.</p> Li Bing-quan Copyright (c) 2020 Li Bing-quan 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 228 237 10.14738/assrj.79.9004 Inclusió N School In The Regulations Under New Legal In Chile <p>Nowadays, the link between concepts of education and diversity is very far in the schools of Chile, and even more so in the educational policies of the country, which only interests the concept of inclusion as a more segregating than inclusive concept.</p> <p>Three years after it was promulgated by President Michelle Bachelet, on Tuesday, March 1 of this year, the&nbsp;School&nbsp;Inclusion Law begins to be officially applied.</p> <p>Doubts, criticisms and marked differences persist from different sectors towards the new regulations that in principle intend to end&nbsp;<strong><em>profit, selection and co-payment&nbsp;</em></strong>in subsidized private education establishments and not to the integration and inclusion of students with SEN as the focus&nbsp;principal.</p> José Manuel Salum Tomé Copyright (c) 2020 José Manuel Salum Tomé 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 238 250 10.14738/assrj.79.9011 “The resource-based paradigm – a special emphasis on work- force capital as a competitive strategy in businesses” <p>It is a known fact that organizational strategies have created a competitive advantage of organizations. However, this competitiveness can be achieved only with the proper deployment of human, physical, and organizational resources. A study on the resource-based paradigm, specifically on human assets, explores the significance of human involvement and human investment perspective in enterprises. In view of that, a mixed approach, with a quantitative and qualitative survey was conducted in randomly selected manufacture industries in the UAE. The statistical analysis, with the help of SPSS 20 confirms the correlation between this model with its latent variables, talent management and change management, towards a strategic move. Moreover, the results prove that this RBV can enhance the mobility of various resources in the organization, maintain a culture, uphold gain-sharing, and boost network opportunities for the organizational and individual competencies.</p> Hima Parameswaran Copyright (c) 2020 Hima Parameswaran 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 251 261 10.14738/assrj.79.9019 Facilitating Lifelong Learning in SMEs towards SDG4 <p>Technological innovations transform jobs, challenge existing competencies and require new sets of skills, or upskilling of old ones, particularly digital skills. In this context, Lifelong learning (LLL) plays and important role in addressing the skills gaps and means also creating and sustaining a positive attitude to learning for both professional and personal development. In this presentation, the author describes the situation of SMEs and LLL not only from literature but also from experience within the work with SMEs in some European projects. Besides other valorization activities of project results, the learning program offered to SME employees will be improved with new modules for mastering of important lifelong skills like digital ones.</p> Ileana Hamburg Copyright (c) 2020 Ileana Hamburg 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 273 282 10.14738/assrj.79.9010 American GDP Alone Predicts Human Development <p>Bechtel (2018, 2019) linked gross domestic product (GDP) to the United Nation’s Human Development Index (HDI).&nbsp; These results at the national level, and subsequent results at the global level (Bechtel, G. and Bechtel, T., 2020), induce our hypothesis that a transform of American GDP predicts global HDI.&nbsp; This hypothesis is confirmed by two distinct bilinear regressions in which global HDI is predicted by American GDP <em>alone</em>.&nbsp;</p> <p>These empirical findings contribute to the socioeconomic and philosophical debate on the nature of well-being. &nbsp;They also show that HDI computation can be carried out from American GDP without survey sampling, questionnaire interrogation, probabilistic inference, significance testing, or even HDI data. &nbsp;In view of trade-war and covid-19 shocks to all national economies, international attention to <em>American</em> GDP is now compelling. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<em>&nbsp;</em>&nbsp;</p> Gordon Bechtel Timothy Bechtel Copyright (c) 2020 Gordon Bechtel, Timothy Bechtel 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 273 282 10.14738/assrj.79.9012 The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy Shocks in Nigeria: The Interest and Exchange Rates Channels. <p>This paper examines the effectiveness of the interest and exchange rates channels of monetary policy transmission mechanism. The paper employed several statistical cum econometric methodology in a baseline structural vector autoregressive (SVAR) model to evaluate the influence of policy shocks on selected endogenous variables; gross domestic product (GDP), consumer price index (CPI), money supply (MS), treasury bill rate (TBR) and nominal exchange rate (NER) for Nigerian spanning 1981Q1 to 2020Q1. The contemporaneous coefficients in the structural model reveals that key monetary aggregates reacts positively to unexpected changes in the monetary policy instruments. Furthermore, the variance decomposition results indicate that shocks of the selected variables were found to be important for interest rate growth in the short and longer horizons. The exchange rate channel however appears to have a stronger impact on prices. These results mean that depreciation of the nominal exchange rate could be an external deflationary element, particularly for Nigeria.</p> Elias A. Udeaja Nathan P. Audu Titus O. Obiezue Copyright (c) 2020 Elias A. Udeaja, Nathan P. Audu, Titus O. Obiezue 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 283 311 10.14738/assrj.79.8927 “Jack the Stripper” – A cold case review <p>This cold case is unusual in that the full details have been embargoed for a hundred years yet it has been the source of numerous books about the killer nicknamed ‘Jack the Stripper’. &nbsp;During 1964-1965, six female sex workers were murdered and left naked scattered around London’s Hammersmith area.&nbsp; A number of males were identified as the killer although none were convicted.&nbsp; The writer has incorporated data from eight books and visits to various sites to create a profile; it challenges some of the unsubstantiated claims of the various authors who have written about the murders and who named at least five different killers. It identifies the likely characteristics and questions much that has been written by emotive authors based upon secondary data with the risk that such an approach is used.&nbsp;</p> M. J. Berry Copyright (c) 2020 M. J. Berry 2020-09-18 2020-09-18 7 9 312 328 10.14738/assrj.79.8947 ACTIVE ROLES OF NGOs AND CBOs TO PROMOTE ENTREPRENEURS’ PASSION AND DRIVE IN THE TOWNSHIPS AND RURAL AREAS OF SOUTH AFRICA <p>In South Africa, entrepreneurial spirit is regarded as fundamental to the future development of the country. To that effect, regulatory reforms have been introduced, and others are still to be introduced to stimulate and bring about change to the entrepreneurial activity. Again, for instance, in some provinces non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and community based organisations (CBOs) have been established. A point in case is that in North West Province, Chambers of commerce have been established to mobilise and facilitate relations between government and business community on issues related to the economy and enterprise development programmes. However, when one analyses these, one develops a sense that genuine aspects related to less tangible components of entrepreneurial activity, such as the drive for passion, enthusiasm, motivation and attitudes, have been partially stimulated through government programmes in South Africa, especially in townships and rural communities. Therefore, in order to position the contestation of this article, a desktop approach was adopted, where existing theoretical and empirical documents were consulted to highlight the discourse around these issues and the recent policy developments targeted to accelerate growth and development of small, medium and micro-enterprises (SMMEs), including co-operatives. The findings from the literature show the disposition of government to support entrepreneurship endeavours, and challenges related to, <em>inter alia</em>, awarding of government contacts and access to markets. Consequently, the active roles of NGOs and CBOs as government partners to ensure entrepreneurs’ passion and drive in the townships and rural areas of South Africa are recommended.</p> Malefetsane Mofolo Copyright (c) 2020 Malefetsane Mofolo 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 329 337 10.14738/assrj.79.8836 Verification of a classification prediction method for the development of musical expression in early childhood using a machine learning method based on 3D motion capture data <p>It is widely acknowledged that children take developmental steps in performing musical expression through body movement dynamics. The author presents an approach to verify the method of classification prediction by machine learning using multiple classifiers to evaluate and classify the developmental degree of musical expressions in early childhood. The author addresses this potential solution by showing statistical analysis of full-body 3D motion captured data using such statistical analysis, and applies machine learning measures to predict developmental degrees of musical expression.</p> <p>In 2016, the author extracted the feature quantities of movement based on the results of the movement analysis of the musical expressions in the MEB program regarding 3-year-old, 4-year-old, and 5-year-old children (n=76). The developmental degree of musical expression was classified into three stages based on video analysis of the musical expression of each child. The 2016 training data as the feature quantity of movement (factors) and the three-stage evaluation (categorical dependent variables) were used as the model training for machine learning. Based on the results in 2017 with 2018, the classification model training results were applied to the acquired data (n=87) in 2019.</p> <p>The result of sensitivity analysis showed that the moving average acceleration of pelvis, the moving distance of right foot and the moving distance of right hand had a strong influence on the development of musical expression in early childhood. From those analysis results, the appropriateness of the machine learning method using decision trees for classifying the developmental degree of musical expression in early childhood was verified.</p> Mina Sano Copyright (c) 2020 Mina Sano 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 338 358 10.14738/assrj.79.9028 Leadership for Improving Teaching Quality: Analysis of School Practice in Northeast China <p>Chinese education reform has vigorously advocated the improvement of teaching quality. School leaders determine the overall trend and effect of teaching quality improvement. Based on the TQM theory, Baldrige Quality Program Education Criteria for Performance Excellence framework and distributed leadership theory, we defined the concept of leadership for teaching quality. The purpose of this study is to provide new understanding of the current situation and problems of teaching quality in primary and secondary schools in the northeast of China. 908 educators from 54 primary and secondary schools participated in this study. Our findings indicated that there were significant differences among different gender, first degree, position, school level and school area. Implications for improving the leadership for teaching quality in primary and secondary schools from both internal and external perspectives were discussed.</p> YU LI WENFAN YAN HENGFU WEN Copyright (c) 2020 YU LI, WENFAN YAN, HENGFU WEN 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 359 374 10.14738/assrj.79.9022 The Role of Shadow Teacher in Improving Autistic Students Ability in Learning <p>Shadow teaching is a professional service offered to the school and family to better manage the needs of students who have a learning difference.&nbsp;&nbsp; Shadow teachers are employed by the parents to work with their child at school. This study tries to answer the following questions: what is the role of the shadow teacher in the classroom? To what extent do shadow teacher help in improving students' ability in learning? What are the key elements for successful shadow teaching?&nbsp; To achieve the purpose of the study, the researcher prepared a questionnaire concerning the questions of the study and observed the shadow teacher's performance in the class room in the American Academy Nablus. Means, standard deviations and percentages were calculated by using SPSS program. The present study revealed the following results:&nbsp; Shadow teacher plays an important role in providing additional support, throughout the school day, academically and psychologically, to those students enrolled in the Optimal Learning (OL) program that need this additional support. In the light of the present study, the researcher recommended providing Palestinian schools with shadow teachers to help students with special need.</p> Ibrahim Mahmoud Al Sabatin Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Mahmoud Al Sabatin 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 375 382 10.14738/assrj.79.6962 Problems of Communicating Through the English Language in Tanzanian Universities <p>The paper begins with a brief overview of authors who have researched the problems caused by the English language when used as the Medium of Teaching and Learning in a context where it is not spoken as the first language. The paper agrees with authors’ findings and conclusions that indeed the English problems as the Medium of Teaching and Learning in Tanzania tertiary institutions and universities have increasingly become glaring and insurmountable under the prevailing curriculum of these institutions whereby grammar is not infused in English for Academic Purposes (EAP) syllabi of these institutions or universities. To testify the preceding allegation, the paper presents ample examples of bad English from various students’ writing from three universities in Tanzania. Three recommendations to alleviate the problem have been suggested. First, the infusion of grammar aspect into EAP syllabi; second, universities to have an adequate number of EAP lectures to cater for the needs of all students; third,&nbsp; students be encourage to read various books and academic journals to enable them to acquire a variety of genres and academic registers. On switching the Medium of Teaching and Learning from English to Kiswahili, the Tanzanian government should take a bold decision to switch now, otherwise it will never happen.</p> George N. Shumbusho Copyright (c) 2020 George N. Shumbusho 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 383 399 10.14738/assrj.79.9015 Measurement Instrument of Soft Skills and Work Ethics <p>There has been an issue toward to what extent a formal education specifically embeds soft skills and work ethics, the aspects that employees must possess, and what efforts have been given to help develop them. This paper aims at developing a measurement instrument to assess, to help improve the employees’ level of soft skills and work ethics in industries and at the same time to give an insight about what universities should prepare to help their students acquire a sufficient acquisition of soft skills and work ethics. This research is a Research and Development (R&amp;D), aimed at developing a measurement instrument on skills and work ethics. Partial Least Square (PLS) was employed to confirm the validity and reliability of the instrument. Some observations in industries were done, and semi-structured qualitative interviews and Focused Group Discussion (FGD) were conducted with stakeholders, HR managers, and psychologists. The results show that 47 out of 56 items are valid to measure intrapersonal, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. While for the work ethics, 44 statements were valid to measure commitment, integrity, professional attitude, and hard work. For the reliability, a composite value of reliability &gt;0.70 is used, and the results show that the instrument is reliable.</p> Endang Soelistiyowati Erlin Estiana Yuanti Yohana Ika Harnita Sari Suwardo . Copyright (c) 2020 Endang Soelistiyowati, Erlin Estiana Yuanti, Yohana Ika Harnita Sari, Suwardo . 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 400 415 10.14738/assrj.79.8603 Housing Policies: The Experiences and Constraints of Housing Industry in Ghana <p>Ghana housing policies in the pre- and post- independence have not been consistent and sustainable. Whiles the colonial government adopted self-help projects and piloted research findings, policies after independence focused on social housing, affordable housing and Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects. The impact of these policies did not improve the performance of the main stakeholders in the housing industry, thereby resulting to inadequate houses in most communities in Ghana. The research sought to identify the main challenges encountered by stakeholders in relation to government housing policies. The study adopted the exploratory and thematic literature review to ascertain the experiences and constraints faced by the Housing Industry (HI) in Ghana in relation to Ghana Housing Policies (GHP). The principle of demand and supply which determine the price mechanism in the housing market constitutes the theoretical orientation of the study. As such, challenges created by the housing policies in Ghana were related to the factors of demand and supply, principle of price mechanism and experiences of the global world and well as increase in urban shelter deviant rate. A comprehensive analysis was undertaken to reveal key findings on the challenges of the individual stakeholders namely households, financial institutions, estate developers and government land sector agencies. It was realized that prices of houses in Ghana were high in relation to households’ incomes. And that, the loan requirements of mortgage institutions of payment of 30% deposit, 50% monthly mortgage and 10 years mortgage term were unbearable by most households. It was recommended that estate developers should undertake demand assessment of households and the government should implement sustainable policies, hence reduce urban shelter deviant rate.</p> Sunday Ojonugwa Ameh Benjamin Thomas Osafo Copyright (c) 2020 Sunday Ojonugwa Ameh, Benjamin Thomas Osafo 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 416 434 10.14738/assrj.79.9026 The Effectiveness of Blended and Printed Learning Resources in Improving Science Learning Outcomes of Student Teachers at a Distance University <p>Learning resources are an essential factor that determines learning outcomes, especially elementary school teacher education program students in distance education. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of blended learning and printed learning resources in improving science learning outcomes for distance education students. This study is a true experiment conducted at the Universitas Terbuka (UT) regional office of Jember, as a representation of the East Java region. Respondents of the study were 56 students using blended learning resources and 60 students using printed learning resources. The data were collected using a test of student learning outcomes and analyzed using t-test and N-gain. The results show that both blended learning and printed learning resources significantly improved learning outcomes at α = 5%, each with an average N-gain having relatively the same products at moderate levels. This study also raises information that blended learning resources are more effective than printed learning resources. This study implies that blended learning resources can be used as an innovative solution to improve student learning outcomes in distance education systems.</p> A.A. Ketut Budiastra Copyright (c) 2020 A.A. Ketut Budiastra 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 7 9 435 450 10.14738/assrj.79.9024