Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> en-US <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> (Florence Arthur) (Albert Jackson) Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Understanding Inflation Policy <p>..</p> Clark Johnson Copyright (c) 2021 Clark Johnson Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Responsible Writing of Violence: A Study of Select Partition Stories <p>This paper analyzes select Partition stories such as Bhisham Sahni’s “Pali,” K. S. Duggal’s “Pakistan Zindabad,” Ishmat Chughtai’s “Roots,” S.H. Vatsyayan’s “The Avenger,” and Atin Bandhopadhyay’s “Infidel” which realistically portray the cataclysmic times of the Subcontinent in 1947. The paper shows that though the stories depict some chilling scenes, they concentrate more on the psychological impact of violence on the characters and the positive aspects of humanitarian gestures seen during the dismal days in South Asian history. With much tact, the authors approach the subject and document the dreadful events of the Subcontinent’s painful past. Also, while dexterously registering the public resistance to the unspeakable horrors of Partition violence, the authors also honestly present their own ethical stance on the events. The article argues that the authors have documented the tragic history in a mature and convincing manner by presenting its balanced and holistic picture by employing an impartial and unbiased perspective. The texts stand as testimonies to the writers’ sense of responsibility at recording tragic incidents not only because of their objective and holistic approach but also because of their cautious use of language so that they do not trigger any further violence through their writing.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Devi Prasad Gautam Copyright (c) 2021 Devi Prasad Gautam Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Significance of Cyberlearning in Economic Education <p>We analyze the potentials of web-based and mobile-based digital technology to disseminate, inform, transmit, instruct, and exchange course content in the teaching of economics. Cyberlearning is the use of networked computer technology to enhance the mode of educational content delivery to learners, and involves personal, social, and distributed learning that is mediated by a variety of rapidly evolving computational devices such as computers, tablets, and smart phones, and involving other media such as the Web, and the Cloud. Yet cyberlearning is not only about learning to use computers or to think computationally; social networking has made it clear that the need is much more encompassing, including new modes of collaborating and learning for the full variety of human experiences mediated by networked computing and communications technologies. Educators have continued to search for answers about how new digital tools and environments can be utilized to enhance learning among students of our contemporary “New Age” generation. In the present paper we examine the potentials of cyberlearning&nbsp;and the opportunities it offers for promoting and assessing learning, made possible by new technologies; and how it can help learners to capitalize on those opportunities and the new practices that are made possible by these learning technologies. In particular, we examine ways of using technology for economics education to promote effective learning that result in deep rooted grasping of content, practices, and skills that will ultimately shape attitudes and contribute to enhanced policy and progress in economic matters of society.</p> Fidel Ezeala-Harrison Copyright (c) 2021 Fidel Ezeala-Harrison Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Effects of “USAID- MARKETS” Capacity Building of Farmers on Rice Output in Kebbi State, Nigeria <p><em>Poor yield and low quality of locally produced rice despite many capacity building interventions for rice farmers necessitated this study entitled </em><strong>Effects of “USAID- MARKETS” Capacity Building of Farmers on Rice Output in Kebbi State, Nigeria.</strong><em>Taking an empirical survey, the study comparedoutput and income of the project participants against the non-project participants. Using multi stage sampling techniques, primary data were collected from 240 rice farmers who participated in the training and 240 farmers who did not, through semi-structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The study revealed a significant difference between the output of the project participants and the non-participants. In conclusion, “USAID-MARKETS” capacity buildingsignificantly increased farmers’ rice production and income in the study area, however findings from this study also showed that there was a drop in these variables when compared to what was obtained before the capacity building project ended due to inadequate asses to farm inputs, extension services and ready markets. The study strongly recommends the need to scale up the “USAID-MARKETS” capacity building project in a sustainable manner, improve agricultural input sector and extension services in order to strengthen the capacity of rice farmers for increase output and income.</em></p> Tope Alabi Copyright (c) 2021 Tope Alabi Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Mr. PhD Candidate <p>Across the world, refugee hosting has been associated with costs and benefits to the hosting nations. However, in Kenya, hosting Somali refugees is majorly considered costly rather than beneficial to the nation. The county’s high insecurity is one of the major effects that Somali refugees are associated with. No objective research has indicated the specific benefits of Somali refugees in Kenya. Using mixed research method, this study focused on establishing the costs and benefits of Somali refugees. The findings show that Somali refugees pose positive and negative effects on the Kenyan state. These effects are economic, social, and environmental. The study recommends policy implementation and technological adoption strategies as ways of enhancing Somali refugee contribution to Kenya’s socio-economic development.</p> Haithar Somo, Dr., Professor Copyright (c) 2021 Haithar Somo, Dr., Professor Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Rhythm: Types, Hierarchy and Language Diversity <p>This article deals with the factors which cause the emergence of rhythm, its types, hierarchy and the relation of rhythm to life and the human language diversity. According to Aristotle “all types of rhythm are measured by certain movements”. So all events and processes connected with rhythm are rhythmical in nature. Rhythm is a regular reiteration of identical cases, processes and events within the boundaries of time and space. Rhythm is the form of regular motion. However, rhythm is not the result of motion. It is just the movement itself. All types of rhythm or movement, to our mind, are based on energy the absence of which excludes movements, rhythms, accordingly then life, human language, as well as language diversity. Thus, studying rhythm, its types and systemic hierarchy, to our mind, enables us to reveal the mechanism of transition from inanimate nature to animate one, on the one hand, and creation of the styduing diversity principle of nature, as well as language diversity, on the other hand.</p> <p>The main task of a linguistic scholar, as defined by David Crystal, is great interest. To this linguist <em>“the main task of the linguistic scholar is not to improve the language teaching situation … etc., his task is basically to study and understand the general principles upon which all languages are built. What are the “design features” of human language? What are the differences between languages? How can we describe and classify this? How far are they fundamental? What concepts do we have before we can begin to talk about language at all”</em> (D.Crystal, 1997).</p> <p>Our aim, accordingly, is to make an attempt to study the types of rhythm, its systemic hierarchy and the relation of rhythm to emergence of life and language diversity.</p> Farman Zeynalov Copyright (c) 2021 Farman Zeynalov Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pet Attachment and Its Relevant Factors among Undergraduates <p><strong>Objective&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;To explore the characteristics of pet attachment and its relevant factors among</p> <p>&nbsp;undergraduates.&nbsp;<strong>Methods</strong>&nbsp;547&nbsp;undergraduate pet owners were&nbsp;selected by&nbsp;stratified random sampling</p> <p>&nbsp;from 7 universities in Guangzhou&nbsp;City. They were investigated with Lexington Attachment to Pets Scale</p> <p>&nbsp;(LAPS), College Students Interpersonal Comprehensive Diagnostic Scale (ICDSCS),&nbsp;Revised UCLA</p> <p>Loneliness Scale-Version 3 (UCLALS), Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire&nbsp;(SCSQ) and a self-edited</p> <p>questionnaire on the general personal information. <strong>Results </strong>⑴ The total score of LAPS, ICDSCS and</p> <p>UCLALS, as well as score of coping style disposition were (41.71±10.05), (9.12±5.62), (44.51±7.87) and</p> <p>(-.22±1.50), respectively. ⑵ 20.9% of undergraduates were moderate to severe pet attachment. ⑶&nbsp;Multiple</p> <p>stepwise linear regression analysis showed that the total score of LAPS was positively correlated with 7</p> <p>factors such as total score of UCLALS and ICDSCS, school category, how many pets have you kept, origin,</p> <p>gender and monthly family income (<em>β</em>=.119 to .668, all <em>P</em> &lt; 0.05), while the reasons for keeping pets and</p> <p>coping style disposition were negatively correlated with the total score of LAPS (<em>β</em>=-.537 and -.621, <em>P</em> &lt;</p> <p>0.05). <strong>&nbsp;Conclusion</strong> College students' pet attachment is a common behavioral problem, which is closely</p> <p>related to such factors as family rearing, community cultural atmosphere, school education and the personality</p> <p>of the undergraduates.</p> Yongmei HOU, Wanhui HUANG, Yongxin LIANG Copyright (c) 2021 Yongmei HOU, Wanhui HUANG, Yongxin LIANG Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 BEST PRACTICES FOR VIRTUAL EVENTS DURING THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC - FOCUSING ON ATTENDEE ENGAGEMENT <p>The COVID-19 pandemic constitutes a severe hazard: not only to human health but also to the economy on both a national and a global level. The pandemic has particularly affected the event industry, which relies on mass gatherings. This research aims to analyse the impact of COVID-19 on the event industry and propose best practices for virtual events in terms of attendee engagement. A qualitative research approach was applied to generate insights from industry experts in real contexts in Vietnam. The study drew on interviewees with four participants engaged in virtual events: two from the event industry, and two from the education sector. This research focuses on three key elements to enhance the level of attendee engagement in virtual events: the four realms of experience, storytelling and attendee objectives when joining a given event. The study also highlights the relationships among these three critical elements while offering theoretical contributions and suggesting best practices.</p> Ton Nu Ngoc Han, Le Kim Ngoc Copyright (c) 2021 Ton Nu Ngoc Han, Le Kim Ngoc Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Reflective examination of the educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania: Intricacies for curriculum development in Africa. <p>The central focus of this paper is to undertake a reflective examination of the educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Julius Nyerere of Tanzania and these educational philosophies intricacies for curriculum development in Africa. The educational philosophies of Dr. Kwame Nkrumah (Consciencism, Socialism, Africanism, Humanism, and Communism) as well as that of Julius Nyerere (Self-reliance and Liberation) were of importance to the distinct countries at the time yet, its relevance can still be felt and their foundational legacies within the educational front solidified and modified to meet current changes in education. African curriculum developers must not lose sight of the implications of these educational philosophies of these great Africanist scholars rather synchronize contemporary educational philosophies to meet the standards and vision of education of these two great Pan-Africanist.</p> Clarke Ebow Yalley, Andrews Acquah Copyright (c) 2021 Clarke Ebow Yalley, Andrews Acquah Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Modeling of the solidarity banking system in Congo: towards human development based on traditional African values <p><strong>Among the institutional instruments likely to participate in the economic development of a country, banks occupy a crucial place, as their role affects means of payment, exchanges, credit, financial transactions and advice.</strong> <strong>The analysis of paradigms and mechanisms of the banking system makes it possible to intervene in the heart of the economic system. Congo's banking system, like that of almost all African countries, is characterized by half a century of failure, several bankruptcies, endemic corruption, the embezzlement and exclusion of so-called poor populations and rural. This article proposes a model of the endogenous financing of the real economy through solidarity banks. Our objective is to formulate a decision-making tool for economic and financial governance, in terms of financing local development. We propose to explain the importance of monetary policy and the renovated banking system on endogenous bases, according to traditional African values. </strong></p> Claver BOUNDJA Copyright (c) 2021 Claver BOUNDJA Fri, 09 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Electoral Violence and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges <p>The study examined the effects of electoral violence on the democratization efforts and democratic consolidation in Nigeria since the beginning of the Fourth Republic in 1999. The nation’s elections, at all levels of governance, are characterized by violence. Violence mar as high as 70 percent of Nigerian elections resulting in deaths, destruction of properties, maiming, etc. Successive governments have made frantic efforts to institutionalize and consolidate democracy in the country, embarking on various electoral reforms with little or no result with respect to curbing electoral violence. Thus, the main objective of this study is to show that the high rate of electoral violence witnessed over the years has weakened and discredited the democratic consolidation drive of the Nigerian state. The theoretical framework adopted in this study is the “State Fragility Theory”. However, the author’s modified version of “State Compromise Theory” was used to analyze the nature, character and reasons for electoral violence in Nigeria and its effects on the institutionalization of democracy in the country. The study used both primary and secondary data. The primary data were mainly drawn from mainly the authors’ observations during elections, over the years, while secondary data were drawn from existing literature on the subject matter. The study revealed that the pervasive violence at different elections has greatly discredited and emasculated democratic governance in the country. Violence has become both physical and cathartic. It manifests in form of wanton shooting by political thugs to intimidate voters and electoral officials, so as to snatch election materials, disruption of voting, vote suppression, cancellation and annulment of elections in opposition strongholds, etc.&nbsp; The paper concluded that, to ensure the consolidation of democracy in Nigeria, election management bodies must adopt an electoral system that drastically reduces congregation of people at a voting point(s) so as to reduce violence. Some of the recommendations are that election management bodies should deploy appropriate technology to reduce congregation of people at a voting point, transmission of results should be done electronically to minimize human involvement, contacts error and manipulations.</p> Deinibiteim M. Harry, Samuel B. Kalagbor Copyright (c) 2021 Deinibiteim M. Harry, Samuel B. Kalagbor Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Assessment of the Adequacy of the Methods Of Domestic Solid Waste Management in Kisii Town, Kenya <p>Urban domestic solid waste is increasingly being generated in many urban centres including middle sized towns. In many urban areas in developing countries there’s a growing need and awakening for meeting the waste disposal for the ever increasing population. This paper examines and analyses the varied treatment and disposal methods of domestic solid waste employed in Kisii town. The specific objective of the study include: to assess the adequacy of the available management systems of handling domestic solid waste (DSW) in Kisii town. A mixed methodology approach was taken into consideration. A sample of 110 households was obtained using the multi stage stratified sampling method. Data collection methods of the sampled size involved the use of questionnaires to 110 householders and direct interviews to 2 county officers in charge of DSW and observation integrated with photography. Data analysis was carried out using methods such as use of tables and graphs through SPSS. The results indicate that the storage facilities are inadequate for the residents, the collection times are not only insufficient but also irregular, the transportation means employed are limited, and disposal and treatment of the DSW is limited to mainly open dumping at the overfilled Nyambera dumpsite. In conclusion, the management methods of the DSW are inadequate and pose severe health risks to the residents of Kisii. It is recommended that, for effective domestic solid waste management adequate bins should be provided in the town, collection should be regular and indiscriminate in all estates, recycling, re-use, reduce and energy recovery should be introduced to move from challenges to opportunities. Finally, an integrated model of integrating CBOs and private groups in management of DSW is suggested to ensure sustainable solid waste management.</p> Mecheo O. Naftal Copyright (c) 2021 Mecheo O. Naftal Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL MATHEMATICS TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This study sought to determine the Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ level of professional and personal characteristics in Maguindanao Division I. Specifically, it determined the Junior High School Mathematics Teachers’ level of Professional and personal characteristics; the Junior High School Students’ level of academic performance in Mathematics; and the significant relationships of the teachers’ level of Professional and personal characteristics and their Junior High students’ level of performance in Mathematics. The study used the descriptive-correlational survey method. It determined the level of teaching practices of twelve (12) Junior High School Mathematics teachers of Maguindanao Division I in terms of professional and personal characteristics. Pearson’s Product - Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the significant relationship of the level of professional and personal characteristics of the junior high Mathematics teachers to the students’ level of academic performance. Based on the findings of the study, it is concluded that Junior High School Mathematics teachers’ professional and personal characteristics is very satisfactory. It is further concluded that the outstanding professional and personal characteristics of the teachers have no bearing on the academic achievement of the students. The students must work hard to get higher grades and the teacher must develop professional and personal characteristics to perform tasks exceedingly.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Professional and Personal Characteristics, Junior High School Mathematics Teachers, Level of Academic Performance</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> ELISA M. ABELLAR Copyright (c) 2021 ELISA M. ABELLAR Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of Personal Computer on Students’ Academic Performance <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p>This study aimed to determine the effects of Personal Computer on students' academic performance of the Grade 11 Senior High School students at MSU-Maguindanao. Specifically, this study identified the uses of Personal Computers as rated by the students in their studies, the academic performance of respondents with Personal Computer, the academic performance of respondents without Personal Computer, and the significant difference in academic performance of respondents with and without Personal Computer. Survey questionnaire was used as an instrument in gathering data. The questionnaire contains ten (10) related to the uses of computer in the students’ studies. The 10 questions are measured in terms of a 4- point scale such as: 1 for always, 2 for often, 3 for seldom and 4 for never. The statistical tools used in the analysis of data are the frequency count and the mean to describe the effects of personal computer on Senior High School students’ academic performance. The data gathered were consolidated and tabulated. The computations were done manually with the aid of scientific calculator. Findings show that the academic performance of the students with personal computer is generally higher than those without personal computer. Therefore, personal computer has effects in improving the students' academic performance.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Impact, Personal Computer, Students’ Academic Performance</p> Sadat G. Blah Copyright (c) 2021 Sadat G. Blah Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AUTONOMOUS REGION IN MUSLIM MINDANAO (ARMM) PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS FOR MORO NATIONAL LIBERATION FRONT (MNLF) COMMUNITY IN MAGUINDANAO PROVINCE <p>This study aims to determine the ARMM programs and projects implementation to MNLF identified communities in the province of Maguindanao during the year periods of 2013 to 2017. Specifically, this study attempts to determine the programs and projects of ARMM to MNLF identified communities; how the implementing offices and agencies of ARMM implement these programs and projects to the MNLF-respondents; the extent of benefits do MNLF respondents have obtained from these programs and projects in terms of: (a) Livelihood (b) Health and (c) education; the problems encountered by the MNLF-respondents during the implementation of these programs and projects; and the prepared alternatives/solutions to these problems. This study further used the combination of “Quantitative and Qualitative” analysis of data. The respondents were the MNLF-Field Commanders and identified MNLF community leaders in Maguindanao Province. The Purposive Sampling was used because only One Hundred Fifty-Six (156) MNLF Commanders and Leaders under Prof. Nur Misuari were used as sample respondents. The findings show that there are serious problems that need to be addressed by the national government on the implementation of the MOU signed by the OIC-GPh-MNLF tripartite process structure to monitor the implementation of the 1996 Peace Agreement and the security, governance, economic activities, including the delivery of social services in the conflict-affected areas. Thus, the government specially, ARMM is tasked to formulate and oversee programs and projects implementation in the cities, provinces and municipalities to improve the lives of the Moros and MNLF combatants regardless of race, tribes and group or faction organization affiliation. Hence as concluded further, various socio-economic activities of the ARMM government found out failed or maybe failed again.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Implementation, Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), Programs and Projects, Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF), Maguindanao Province</p> Samsiya D. Mayasa, Abdulmanan S. Manalasal, Margie D. Fiesta, Omar S. Butuan Copyright (c) 2021 Samsiya D. Mayasa, Abdulmanan S. Manalasal, Margie D. Fiesta, Omar S. Butuan Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF FACEBOOK IN THE ACADEMIC LIVES OF STUDENTS AT MINDANAO STATE UNIVERSITY – MAGUINDANAO <p>This study covered the contributions of Facebook in the lives of students particularly at Mindanao State University-Maguindanao. The descriptive-qualitative survey design/method of research was used in this study. Respondents of the study are the 200 selected students from the six Colleges/Department of Mindanao State University – Maguindanao which are as follows: College Arts and Sciences (16), College of Education (46), College Public Affairs and Governance (72), College of Forestry and Environmental Studies (4) College of Fisheries (6) and College of Agriculture (56). Purposive sampling was employed by the researcher in this study in getting the 200 students of Mindanao State University – Maguindanao. The statistical tools used in the study are: frequency distribution, weighted mean, and ranking. On the basis of the findings of the study, the contributions of Facebook in the academic lives of the student at Mindanao State University-Maguindanao were often. However, on problems encountered by the respondents it needs to motivate some aspects under the tips to safe online and policy to secure in the use of Facebook by the respondents/students.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Contributions, Facebook, Academic Lives of Students</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sari K. Pilot, Datuali P. Abdula, Datuali P. Abdula, Sadat G. Blah Copyright (c) 2021 Sari K. Pilot, Datuali P. Abdula, Datuali P. Abdula, Sadat G. Blah Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON MAGUINDANAON TRADITIONAL MARRIAGE AND ISLAMIC MARRIAGE SYSTEM <p>This study aimed to find out the Comparison of the Maguindanaon Traditional Marriage and the Islamic form of Marriage. Specifically, the study seeks to find out the Socio-demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, Marital Status and educational attainment.&nbsp; The Requisites of the Maguindanaon Traditional form of Marriage and the Requisites of Islamic forms of Marriage are identified in this study. Also, the factors to a successful marriage in terms of Cultural / familial, Economic, Spiritual factor and the difference between the Maguindanaon Marriage and that of the Islamic Marriage system are the focused of this study.</p> <p>This study made use of expost facto research design particularly descriptive ethnographic in approach. This study was conducted in the thirty four barangays of municipality of Datu Odin Sinsuat, Maguindanao. The respondents of this study were individuals who have sufficient information on Traditional Marriage of the Maguindanaon and Islamic form of Marriage. There were 200 respondents for the entire municipality. 100 respondents are those members of the Al-Hiqma organization, and one hundred (100) respondents were from Maguindanaon local folk who had sufficient information about Maguindanaon traditional marriage, and used the simple random sampling procedures. A survey questionnaire was used for the respondents who can read and write and for the respondents who have no knowledge on reading and writing used interview method.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Based on the findings of the study, the beliefs and practices of the Maguindanaon in terms of marriage were handed to them by their forefathers through series of generations down to present. These beliefs and practices were counted as legacies of the past that remained a living heritage of the present generations. The Maguindanaon tradition on marriage is still primitive in many aspects like the negotiation of third parties, imposition of dowry, man’s servitude to his in-laws and many of the rituals of the past are still seen in the present time. Education, both Islamic and Western have influenced the marriage practices of some Maguindanaons in the urban society as some of their marriage ceremony are held in hotels and restaurants. The augmentation of the materialistic nature of maguindanaon traditional marriage has been maintained and increased due to the devaluation of the Philippine currencies.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Key words: Comparative Study, Maguindanaon, Traditional Marriage, Islamic Marriage System</p> Omar S. Butuan, Elisa M. Abellar, Samsiya D. Mayasa, Sadat G. Blah, Margie D. Fiesta, Osmeňa M. Kasim Copyright (c) 2021 Omar S. Butuan, Elisa M. Abellar, Samsiya D. Mayasa, Sadat G. Blah, Margie D. Fiesta, Osmeňa M. Kasim Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PRE DISASTER COMMUNICATION ON ONLINE NEWS PORTAL TRIBUNNEWS MARCH 2020 EDITION AS DISASTER MANAGEMENT SUPPORT <p>Covid-19 has become an issue that has been written about in the media since the end of 2019. Since the emergence of the first case in Indonesia in March 2020, efforts are needed to manage disasters that occur. The role of various parties is needed to provide information and communication to the public, one of which is through the mass media. Information on pre-disaster is important for the formation of security and community capacity in dealing with disasters. The mass media becomes a self-warning system in providing information and education to the public. Currently the media continues to grow, the internet makes it easy for every audience to access various information in the mass media, one of which is disaster information. This study aims to provide an overview of how disaster information is packaged in the mass media as a form of disaster communication to the public. The concepts used in this research are disaster management, and disaster journalism. This research method uses descriptive qualitative using literature studies and framing analysis on the online news portal Tribunnews during March 2020. The results of this study indicate that disaster communication determines community attitudes in dealing with disasters. The role of disaster communication in the mass media is very important, and can determine the success of the government in providing information for public safety and overcoming disasters that occur. This research contributes that the optimization of disaster communication is important in disaster management. The government is the main source of the media in finding news sources. Therefore, the government must provide information intake actively, periodically and with a positive frame.</p> Rohmah Nia Chandra Sari, Rachmat Kriyantono, Desi Dwi Prianti Copyright (c) 2021 Rohmah Nia Chandra Sari, Rachmat Kriyantono, Desi Dwi Prianti Mon, 19 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Between the Therapist’s Vulnerability and the Client’s Vulnerability: Building a Therapeutic Intervention Through the Regressive Regions of the Mind <p>The article expands Winnicott ,Balint and other theoretical conceptions in order to describe what happens in a therapist‘s mind so that an intervention can take place. It stresses not only the need to identify the psycho-developmental region where the patient operates, but also how intervention arises in the therapist’s mental regions and engages the relevant mental regions of the patient. It explains the process in which the therapist’s subjective communication with his own mental regions helps the patient establish an initial connection with his regressive areas and even gradually draw closer to them symbolically. The article offers an analysis based on a detailed clinical illustration.</p> Noga Keini Copyright (c) 2021 Noga Keini Thu, 22 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Research on the Theory and Practice of the Fair Competition Review System in China <p>On June 1, 2016, the State Council of the People’s Republic of China released its Opinions on Establishing a Fair Competition Review System in the Development of the Market System. It shows the determination of Chinese center government that firmly protect the Market System. Actually, the Chinese government is always making the effort to decrease the inappropriate intervention to Market System which from the public rights. Up to now, remarkable results have been achieved. And the stable and rapid growth of China's economy is the best proof. The release of the document about Fair Competition Review is conducive to consolidating the previous achievements of the Chinese government. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the content of this system and put forward some suggestions based on the actual situation in China.</p> Yanling Peng, Pinguang Ying Copyright (c) 2021 Yanling Peng, Pinguang Ying Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Learning from the past: from incubation in ancient Egypt and Greece to modern hypnosis <p>The origin of hypnosis can be dated back to ancient philosophies and medicines. Incubation had been used in ancient Egypt and Greece for some three millennia with the same indications of modern hypnosis and was well-known by both Hippocrates and Parmenides. Then, it was dismantled by Christian hagiographic propaganda in 4-5<sup>th</sup> century AC and buried to the oblivion. Again, the birth of the new sciences in 17<sup>th</sup> century was the result of a compromise with Church, forcing them to limit their field of interest in the Cartesian <em>res extensa</em> only, leading to consciousness and mind-body relationship being neglected for political-religious will, rather than scientific grounds, and to Hippocrates’ teaching being betrayed. As a result, the history of hypnosis was marked by its outstanding results paralleled by misunderstanding and prejudicial refusal, a fact endowed with deep epistemological implications.</p> Enrico Facco, Silvano Tagliagambe Copyright (c) 2021 Enrico Facco, Silvano Tagliagambe Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Code-switching in Intercultural Communication and English Language Teaching <p><strong>Code-switching is the interplay between two languages. Code-switching happens when the speakers switch between two or more languages or linguistic varieties in the context of a particular discussion or conversation. Many people engage in code-switching or mixing practises by speaking a different language and their mother tongue when talking with other individuals who comprehend various languages. There are multiple reasons why people tend to code-switch during interaction with others. One important reason is that people consciously and unconsciously&nbsp;code-switch because they want to fit in. Code-switching is also implied in the language teaching context, where L2 learners cod switching between their mother tongue and the other language to get involved in the learning process. The practice of code-switching in Foreign language classroom has been examined thoroughly in the literature. This paper will introduce the concept of code-switching, its types and the reasons for code-switching. It will offer some implication of code-switching in English as a second or foreign language (EFL) classroom. </strong></p> Samar Alharbi Copyright (c) 2021 Samar Alharbi Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Intentional Destruction of Life on Earth <p>.</p> J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside Copyright (c) 2021 J. Marvin Herndon, Mark Whiteside Thu, 29 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Innovative Environment Within Organization’s Structure- Case of Oman <p>In today’s age of modernization, the concept of innovation is considered as one of the key factors for organizational growth. At the same time, organizations are expected to adapt culture and environment where innovation can continue to develop. It requires a coordinated efforts by different actors in organization in making sure that the activities and integration process meets the conditions for an effective application. In order to put together the various moving parts of an innovation integration, the organization also needs to evaluate its structure in order to ensure that the activities entailed in the innovation process are not interrupted by organizational bureaucracy. In the case of Oman, the conception of an innovative environment is challenged by a prevailing organizational structure that constitutes hierarchical attributes. The problem with hierarchical structure is that innovation and development are slow. In addition, there is not enough room for creative inputs to be recognized because the decision points rely on the center of authority within the organization. This empirical research highlights the concept of innovative environment within the organizational structures in Oman.</p> Maria Teresa Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Teresa Matriano Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Organization’s Characteristics that Facilitate the Innovation Process and Techniques- Case of Oman <p>Many global organizations today have shown tremendous growth year after year and the measure of their success is beyond what the competition has achieve. The most common characteristic of the globally successful organizations is their continuous engagement in innovation that not only changes the playing field in the competition, but also creates a disruption in which the influence of the innovation impact social, economic, and political dynamics of the modern world. Facilitating innovation requires strategic approach by organizations in the processes of implementation. Some of the key characteristics of an organization that successfully facilitates the innovation process includes flexibility, openness, agility, adaptiveness, and cultivation. In the case of Oman, facilitating innovation and strategically applying the techniques to achieving positive outcome is a challenge that organizations are striving to overcome. Notable examples of innovation process approach by Omani organizations include creating a network of other organizations that are willing to partake in information exchange. Another example is collaboration in which a less capable organization collaborate with larger firms creating a mutually beneficial partnership to facilitate innovation and development.</p> Maria Teresa Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Teresa Matriano Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Strategic Approach to Innovation Management and Strategic Changes to Improve Innovation Management <p>Innovation can be described as developing new ideas and processes that aims to create new products or improving business processes. Organizations today looks into the concept of innovation as a way to increase value and develop new ways of doing business. On the other hand, adopting an innovation requires strategic management approaches in order to ensure that the current innovation implementations will yield significant improvements. With innovation comes change and organizations will need not only to adopt innovative processes, but should also be able to implement change; this is when innovation management becomes apparent. Every organization adopt innovation approach of varying scale such modest, moderate, and strong. From each approach strategies can be derived depending on the how the innovation will be used and how it will impact the organization as a whole. In the case of Oman, different strategies were created to leverage on the capabilities of an organization. Some organizations form partnerships to achieve a common goal and to create a platform in which managing the implemented innovation becomes a shared responsibility of the partnering organizations. In some cases, strategies employed in innovation management is being done to accelerate development as a form of innovation improvement outcome.&nbsp;</p> Maria Teresa Matriano Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Teresa Matriano Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 An Investigation on Sharia Governance in Islamic Banking A Case of Islamic Banks in Oman <p>The concept of Sharia governance in Islamic banks in Oman was highlighted by presenting the conceptual framework for Sharia governance and regulating the Islamic banks through Sharia governance. Finally, the study explains the role of Sharia governance in raising the efficiency of Islamic banks. As this research paper concluded that Sharia governance has a major role in Islamic banks, through the existence of a Sharia supervisory body on all transactions that take place inside these banks, which prevents the occurrence of any activities that violate the provisions of Islamic law, as happens in other banks.</p> <p>The Sharia Supervisory Board for Muzn is the highest authority in the bank with regard to all matters related to Islamic law. It ensures that the commission’s decisions are strictly followed. The Sharia Supervisory Board reviews product papers, structures, policies, and legal documents and all other tasks. The board also provides decisions based on Sharia in all matters and related banking issues, including opinion on all aspects of the bank's commitment to Islamic law. The findings indicated that Sharia governance laws must be applied by Islamic banks and they need to make updates through the SSB and AAOIFI boards. Sharia was found to be a regulatory and supervisory component that Islamic banks must operate under to ensure the religion has been applied within the establishment of the banks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ziyad Juma Al-Musheifri Copyright (c) 2021 Ziyad Juma Al-Musheifri Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 PRO INDIGENOUS COMMUNITY FORESTRY POLICY: A SOLUTION <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The Papuan people have always lived and interacted with the forest. The forest is a place to live where almost all of their needs are taken from the forest. Today's forest management has far-reaching impacts on increasingly marginalized communities. The purpose of this paper is to present thoughts on a community-friendly forest management model by taking into account the advantages and disadvantages when forests are managed by communities to improve their welfare. This paper generates an idea about the importance of collaborative management to increase the role of the community as a solution. Taking into account the communal nature of the forest tenure system in Papua, it is necessary to take strategic steps to protect forest resources in a targeted manner.</p> Alfred Antoh Copyright (c) 2021 Alfred Antoh Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 How to Leave Afghanistan <p>..</p> Clark Johnson Copyright (c) 2021 Clark Johnson Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Sixth Sector Industrialization of Agriculture and the Relay Shipping of Vegetables in Japan <p>This paper aims to extract lesson from the experiences of Japan for escaping from the middle income trap which many countries in Asia and Africa confront. This paper will review in detail the efforts to increase the income levels of rural and agricultural firms by establishing a value chain under an almost zero growth economy in the 2000s in Japan. After referring to the condition of Japan agriculture and the framework of structural reform of agricultural policy of Japan, the core action schemes of the Sixth Industrialization and Relay Shipping are focused on. The mechanisms of relay shipping of vegetables and the institutions for facilitating the scheme are reviewed in detail. It is revealed that institutional capacity for greater inter-sector and government coordination are essential for implementing the schemes to establish effective and efficient value chain. These are institutional reform and capacity building efforts in Japan. Experiences in Japan reveal that various executing agencies with good governance are required to establish the mechanism of effective resource mobilization and implement reform of value chain. There have been no detail studies on implementing such reform for establishing sustainable value chain in countries where escaping middle income trap is needed. This study should be useful lesson for countries confronting the middle income trap.</p> Hitoshi Yonekura Copyright (c) 2021 Hitoshi Yonekura Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A Discourse Analysis of Zuckerberg’s Pragmatic Identities’ Construction based on Adaptation Theory <p>People construct different pragmatic identities in everyday talk and the process of building identities usually adapts to the context. To be specific, entrepreneurs represents himself and the company when uttering to the outside society and the construction of entrepreneur’s identity is related to the company’s image. They are inclined to use intertextuality resources to build connection with the potential audience. Therefore, in this research, the author analyzed an entrepreneur’s speech discourse to describe what pragmatic identities are constructed and how does the construction adapt to the speaking context. To answer these questions, the author conducted a discourse analysis to illustrate relationship between the language use and physical, social and mental world based on Adaptation Theory. The results presented that the entrepreneur builds various master identities, interpersonal identities, and personal identities with intertextuality language resources to adjust to the speaking context. This study suggested that entrepreneurs are supposed to improve the skill of manipulating their discourse strategies to build close connection with potential listener.</p> Yuxin Li Copyright (c) 2021 Yuxin Li Fri, 30 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Developing Students’ Prosocial Behavior Through Collaborative Teamwork Teaching <p><strong>Developing students’ prosocial behavior is a very important program in the living situation that increasingly complicated, individualistic, and hedonistic. It is important because prosocial behavior refers to voluntary actions that intended to help or benefit another individual or group of individuals. The present study was designed to examine the effectiveness of a collaborative teamwork teaching to develop the prosocial behavior of elementary school students. It was an experimental study with one group pretest-posttest design. The experiment was carried out in three elementary schools. They were Islamic Al-Azhar Elementary School (SD Islam Al-Azhar), State Elementary School 34 (SD Negeri 34), and Muhammadiyah Elementary School (SD Muhammadiyah) Pontianak. There were four aspects of the students’ prosocial behavior to develop. These aspects were sharing, helping, cooperating, and caring. The results of the study showed that the collaborative teamwork teaching was effective to develop the prosocial behavior of students in three elementary schools. All of the investigated aspects got improved. They were categorized “high”, except the aspect of caring. It was classified as “medium”.</strong></p> Asrori Muhammad, Chairil Effendy Copyright (c) 2021 Asrori Muhammad, Chairil Effendy Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Impacting Sumatran Private Medical Students Inclination to Work In Rural Areas <p>At present the progress of Indonesia's health currently has significant problems with the unequal distribution of doctors in rural areas;&nbsp; doctors are only concentrated in urban areas.&nbsp; The environment and policies at private universities have a big influence on the educational process, which causes the low interest of private medical students to work in rural areas.&nbsp; Getting the right results on the pattern of interest in private medical students to work in rural areas will ultimately help policymakers to resolve differences in the distribution of doctors in Indonesia.&nbsp; This quantitative analytical study was conducted at 12 private medical faculties on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia.&nbsp; The total sample obtained was 446 active private medical students in 2016 from a total population of 5,106 students.&nbsp; Data were collected by questionnaire and analyzed using software namely SPSS.&nbsp; From the results of the binary logistic regression analysis, there are four dominant factors of private students that affect the interest in working in rural areas.&nbsp; Then a multivariate logistic regression analysis using the enter method was conducted that the tendency of medical students to work in rural areas was 58% for private universities.&nbsp; By using patterns and student acceptance variables, it is expected to increase the interest of private medical students working in rural areas, and ultimately be able to distribute doctors equally in Indonesia.</p> Mariatul Fadilah Copyright (c) 2021 Mariatul Fadilah Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Social Welfare at The Grassroots and Contributions to National Development <p>Globally, social problems are taking different dimensions, which keep evolving. Approaches to tackle these problems cannot only rely on improved economic power and privileges, whereby some global citizens cannot participate economically. This could be because of failed biological organs, weak institutions, or social disorganization. The consequences manifest in poverty, mortality, and vulnerability. While it is important for societies to develop economically, it is likewise important that they develop socially, by inclusion and social security. This is the essence of social welfare, as gaining increased attention across the globe. This paper looks at the concepts of social welfare and social development across continents and argues its importance to the achievement of sustainable development goals, especially for developing nations like Nigeria. It relies on a traditional review of the literature and a framework of models of welfare put forward by Titmus to include the residual, achievement-performance, and institutional models.</p> Ugwuoke Paulinus Jeremiah Copyright (c) 2021 Ugwuoke Paulinus Jeremiah Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Cause and Benefits of GDP <p>It has recently been shown that world GDP FP-Causes world life expectancy at birth, where FP denotes fractional polynomial (Bechtel, 2021).&nbsp; This article shows that American and Chinese GDPs FP-Cause world life expectancy <em>even more strongly </em>than world GDP does.&nbsp; These striking results beg the question: what FP-Causes American and Chinese GDPs?&nbsp; The answer is globalization, which is also shown here.&nbsp; Furthermore, it is demonstrated that American and Chinese GDPs also FP-Cause world literacy and employment rates.&nbsp; It remains to be seen if the World Bank or International Monetary Fund can show that the GDPs of the other (less affluent) 18 nations in the G20 Fp-cause their country’s life expectancy, as well as their literacy and employment rates.&nbsp; Yearly, pre-pandemic, <em>within-nation</em> increments in these variables can then be compared with subsequent decrements to assess an endogenous viral effect on each country’s well-being.&nbsp; These comparisons will expose inequalities across nations due to the varying wealth of nations.<strong>&nbsp; </strong>The results in this article are brought by Royston and Altman’s (1994) generalization of polynomial regression, which <em>estimates</em> <em>both</em> <em>coefficients and their &nbsp;powers</em>.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Gordon Bechtel Copyright (c) 2021 Gordon Bechtel Sat, 31 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge of Artificial Fruit Ripening Among Consumers in Rivers State <p>The study investigated the knowledge of artificial fruit ripening among consumers in Rivers State. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey design. Four research questions and three null hypotheses tested at .05 alpha level guided the study. The population for the study was 2,617,600 respondents in fruit markets in Rivers State. A sample size of 1,024 fruit consumers was drawn suing multistage sampling procedure. Data were collected using a validated self-structured questionnaire titled "Knowledge of Artificial Fruit Ripening (KAFR)”. Guttman Split-Half Coefficient of 0.881 was obtained using Pearson Product Moment Correlation in conjunction with Spearman Brown correction statistics. Data were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, z-test, and One way Analysis of Variance. It was found that consumers had moderate knowledge of artificial fruit ripening in Rivers State. Also, male consumers, those within 31-40 years and those with tertiary education had higher knowledge of artificial fruit ripening. More so, the study revealed significant difference in knowledge among consumers in Rivers State based on gender, age and level of education. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that; community health workers in Rivers State should organize regular heath education campaigns concerning the dangers of using chemicals for fruit ripening among consumers in Rivers State.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Elizabeth E. Eze, Emmanuel. U. Asogwa Copyright (c) 2021 Elizabeth E. Eze, Emmanuel. U. Asogwa Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 INSTRUCTIONAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF HEADS OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOLS IN GHANA <p>A non-experimental survey was conducted to investigate the instructional leadership practices of senior high school heads in Ghana. Data were collected using a closed-ended Likert type items from a simple randomly selected sample of a defined population of school heads of senior high schools in Ghana. Data collected were analysed using rank-ordered means and independent samples test of differences of means. The study findings revealed that the school heads frequently adopt major key practices of instructional leadership. However, the school heads most frequently adopt the practice of communicating the school’s goals. The study further revealed that differences exist the frequency at which heads of high performing schools and those of non-high performing schools adopt instructional leadership dimensions of defining the school’s goals and promoting a positive school learning climate.</p> Michael Amakyi Copyright (c) 2021 Michael Amakyi Wed, 04 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000