Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> en-US <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> (Florence Arthur) (Albert Jackson) Tue, 12 Oct 2021 14:30:25 +0000 OJS 60 The Strategic Management Process for Innovation Activities of OMAN Telecommunication Company (OMANTEL) <p>This research will investigate on the strategic management process of the entrepreneurship and innovation activities of Oman Telecommunication Company (OMANTEL).&nbsp; It will assess the chosen organization’s (Omantel) characteristic that is facilitating innovative process, implement activities that establishes an innovative environment within the structure of an organisation and analyse the strategic approach of the company’s innovation management.&nbsp; Moreso, this will also outline a discussion on the dynamics and characteristics of Omantel company and how the ICV policy could be improved; and&nbsp; will analyse as well the strategic management process adopted by Omantel company in driving entrepreneurship and innovation. To achieve these objectives, the relevant sources of information to be utilized include online articles, books and relevant entrepreneurship, innovation and SME journals.&nbsp; Finally, recommendations were made to improve the organization’s innovation process; foremost of which&nbsp; is a program that would provide new skills and knowledge to employees to foster creativity and innovation across organization.</p> Sultan Al Abri Copyright (c) 2021 Sultan Al Abri Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Caribbean Faith-Based Organisations: Friend or Foe in the fight against the feminisation of HIV and AIDS in the Anglophone Caribbean <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The feminisation of HIV and AIDS has become a worldwide phenomenon, and the Caribbean region has not been fortunate enough to be excluded. Caribbean females had 3-4 times higher infection rates than males up to a decade ago. Studies that focus on the contributing psychosocial factors to HIV risk in the Caribbean are limited. This narrative review showcases pivotal work which addresses the reciprocally connected responsibilities of patriarchy and religious practices and how they feed into the desolate reality of Anglophone Caribbean women. The relationship between these cultural issues in the Caribbean, using an anthropological lens, sets a platform for an investigation into HIV and AIDS. This paper seeks to encourage further research centred on the religious elements, which influence heterosexual relationships, and how these relationships are predisposed to potential HIV and AIDS risk. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide English- speaking Caribbean faith-based organisations, public health officials and policymakers a public stage to consider further policy implications for the staggering and disproportionate rates of HIV and AIDS between women and men.</p> </div> </div> </div> Dr. Shivaughn Hem-Lee-Forsyth, Renee Thomas Copyright (c) 2021 Shivaughn Hem-Lee-Forsyth, Renee Thomas Tue, 12 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Philosophical Reflections on Facilitating Paradigm Shifts <p><strong>A paradigm shift by definition is a major change in scientific understanding that upends and replaces a prior paradigm. </strong><strong>Over the past 47 years, I have made a number of paradigm shifts in the geosciences, planetary sciences, and astrophysical sciences. These include the composition of the inner core and deep interior of Earth, recognizing that Earth’s early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant makes it possible to derive virtually all the geological and geodynamic behavior of our planet, including the origin of mountains characterized by folding, the primary initiation of fjords and submarine canyons, the origin and typography of ocean floors and continents (described in Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics), which upends and replaces plate tectonics theory, Earth’s previously unanticipated, powerful, and variable energy sources, namely, a terra-centric nuclear fission georeactor and the stored energy of protoplanetary compression, the nuclear georeactor origin of Earth’s magnetic field and the reasons for its variability. I also revealed a new concept that explains the thermonuclear ignition of stars and, concomitantly, the dark matter surrounding galaxies, the origin of heavy elements, and the reason why the vast multitude of galaxies in the universe display just a few prominent patterns of luminous stars. Recently, I discovered that particulate pollution, not carbon dioxide, is the primary cause of anthropogenic global warming. These are paradigm shifts which, unless successfully refuted, provide new, more-correct logical pathways for future discoveries. Here I reflect on some aspects of my personal science philosophy that has facilitated these fundamental paradigm shifts.</strong></p> J. Marvin Herndon Copyright (c) 2021 J. Marvin Herndon Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Between Between the real and the imaginary: the construction of the symbolic in the attack on New York. <p>This article examines the political participation of mythology and the imaginary and the role of the history of unexpected events. It demonstrates how the attack on the Twin Towers in New York on September 11, 2001, determined contextualization of the event and 'resymbolization.' Working with the concept of the state of cinema, this article explores the possibilities of constructing modern culture which, based on the action of images and the movies. We analyze the North American imperial discourse, and the fabrication of a picture of the world based on a cinematographic, symbolic, and media process was - in the duel against the bad guy, and the American hero.</p> José Maurício Álvarez Copyright (c) 2021 José Maurício Álvarez Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Livelihood Improvement through Entrepreneur Characteristics and Innovative Strategies: An Empirical Study of Entrepreneurs in Western Kenya <p><strong>Purpose</strong>&nbsp;This study aimed at improving an understanding of the mediating role of innovation in the relationship between entrepreneur characteristics and livelihood improvement. The study was empirical, based on primary data from the micro and small enterprises in the western region of Kenya.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology</strong>&nbsp;study adopted a quantitative approach, self-administered questionnaires were used to gather data from 382 Micro and Small Enterprises (MSEs) owners in Western Kenya, comprising Uasin Gishu and Bungoma Counties. The study examined the direct and indirect effects on livelihood improvement. A simple random sampling technique was used to select respondents for data collection. For statistical analysis, bivariate regression and multiple regression techniques were utilized with SPSS version 26 being the tool. The sopel test assisted in analyzing the effect of innovation as a mediator between entrepreneur characteristics and livelihood improvement.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong>The results reveal a statistically significant relationship between the entrepreneur characteristics and livelihood improvement under the mediating role of innovation.</p> <p><strong>Practical implications these</strong>&nbsp;findings provide useful insights for MSEs, seeking to be competitive and responsive to the changing entrepreneurial landscape by successfully introducing innovations. The study encourages an innovative culture among the MSEs owners which is likely to facilitate the introduction, adoption, and diffusion of innovations that can in turn, result in the achievement of livelihood improvement.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong>The study contributes to the existing literature by enhancing an understanding of the mediating role of innovation in the relationship between entrepreneur characteristics and livelihood improvement in the MSEs sector of a developing context.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> MSEs, innovation, mediation, entrepreneur characteristics, improved livelihood, western Kenya.</p> Prof. Bernard Kibeti Nassiuma, Dr. Pamela Chebii, Professor Jamin Masinde, Dr. David Sergon Copyright (c) 2021 Prof. Bernard Kibeti Nassiuma, Dr. Pamela Chebii, Professor Jamin Masinde, Dr. David Sergon Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessing Refugees’, asylum seekers’ and vulnerable migrants’ soft skills: The development and psychometric properties of NADINE Soft Skills Test <p>This paper aims to give an overview of the development of the NADINE soft skills test, focusing mainly on the results of the study conducted to assess the psychometric properties of it, so as to ensure that the proposed test is suitable, reliable and valid to assess the soft skills of migrant groups. The sample used for the standardization of the tools consisted of 427 persons. Reliability and validity of tools were calculated; factor analyses were conducted to ensure that each scale was measuring only one factor and further comparative analyses were made to explore whether there is statistical significant relation between demographic variables and the performance in the skills under evaluation. Results of the analyses depict that the NADINE soft skill test constitute valid and reliable instrument that can be used by career practitioners, hosting organisations and administration bodies to accurately assess the soft skills of vulnerable migrants, refugees and asylum seekers and facilitate their labour market integration.</p> Maria Tountopoulou, Nikos Drosos, Fotini Vlachaki Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Tountopoulou, Nikos Drosos, Fotini Vlachaki Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Emergent Implications of the ‘Combined School’ Phenomenon: Lessons from the Upgraded Nangula Combined School in Limulunga District, Zambia <p>This study was conducted at Nangula Combined school in Limulunga District of Western Province, Zambia. It investigated the emergent implications of the ‘Combined School’ phenomenon through experiences of selected stakeholders of the said school using qualitative methodology and Case Study design. The study sample had 25 participants who were purposively sampled. Key findings of the study revealed that the school had experienced some slight positive changes in infrastructural development. The study also revealed that the introduction of senior secondary classes in the school had been appreciated by all stakeholders as it had reduced some distances that learners cover to access education. On a negative part, the study found that the school had a critical shortage of staff accommodation. The few available houses were in a dilapidated state. Inadequate desks, tables and chairs and weekly boarding facilities also characterized the experiences in this school. Further findings of this study were that the school was understaffed, especially at the primary section, which had three teachers only. Besides, the existence of both primary school trained teachers and secondary school trained teachers in one school enhanced the superiority and inferiority complexes. The school had an inadequate supply of teaching and learning resources coupled with the absence of specialized rooms, technology facilities like mobile network and internet connectivity. Thus, it is recommended that the government should embark on infrastructural development and provide adequately trained teachers. Provision of teaching and learning resources and more desks, chairs and tables should be a priority. It is important also to facilitate the upgrading of teachers who have acquired higher professional qualifications. To curb the inferiority and superiority perceptions that exists between the secondary trained teachers and the primary trained teachers, the study recommends that the two sections be split and work independently.</p> Martin Mpofu, Fabian Kakana, Kasonde Mundende, Francina Makondo, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui Copyright (c) 2021 Martin Mpofu, Fabian Kakana, Kasonde Mundende, Francina Makondo, Gistered Muleya, Francis Simui Sat, 16 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 AN ANALYTICAL COMPARISON OF MONASTICISM IN SEMITIC RELIGION <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Monasticism is voluntary sustain and systemic program of self discipline and self denial in which immediate sensual gratifications are renounced in order to attain some valued spiritual or mental state. Monasticism demands to get away from normal sentiment &amp; human emotions particularly to attain spirituality. Purposes of monasticism are to find out the pure inner self, raise above all flaws &amp; human deficiency, spiritual excellence, liberation, and deliverance. The research paper is an approach to show the comparison between the monastic worlds as revealed through the texts of Semitic religious communities. The comparison of monastic text has the potential to yield a large amount of informative facts. In the areas of asceticism, spirituality, and the balance between sacred and routine life, analogies are numerous and propose many avenues of further comparison still waiting to be explored.</p> <p>The research paper is an approach to show the comparison &amp; in- depth analysis of the Babylonian Talmud, Bible and Quran that find literary analogues in the monastic texts, strategies’, historical examples and suggestions. These examples open the door for a reconsideration of the nature of the relationship between Jews and Christians in the ancient world. This article aimed to highlight the main features of ancient monasticism and to share information in Semitic religion regarding hermit, ascetic and monk. Likewise, this paper also focuses on several processes of changes and transformation of monasticism from a negative view to the enlightenment of identity which lead to the development of a normal and stable society.</p> </div> </div> </div> Tayyaba Razzaq Copyright (c) 2021 Tayyaba Razzaq Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Management’s Fiduciary Responsibility Towards It Governance In The Context Of The King III Code Of Corporate Governance In South Africa <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which South African listed companies trading on the Johannesburg Securities Exchange (JSE) are complying with IT governance imperatives in the context of the King III Code of Corporate Governance. Management information systems and usage of computers are now embedded in business processes to the extent that most firms will be dysfunctional should these tools become unavailable. The underlying theoretical setting for this study is anchored on the agency theory and the Porter’s competitive five forces model. Since there were inadequate constructs on the subject, a combination of research methods were used: desk-top review, exploratory study, and content analysis, by reviewing the annual financial statements of fifty JSE-listed companies (the main board) in South Africa. The general outcome of the study was that JSE-listed companies in South Africa were compliant with IT governance practices as prescribed in the King III Code of Corporate Governance. Most JSE-listed companies in South Africa utilized both generic and bespoke or owned-designed IT governance frameworks to meet IT governance requirements. The study also revealed that issues relating to IT governance were among priority issues for South African listed companies. The study concludes that JSE-listed companies in South Africa have indeed fulfilled their fiduciary responsibility towards IT governance.&nbsp;</p> Nicholas Otu Mantey Copyright (c) 2021 Nicholas Otu Mantey Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Community Use and Product Valuation of Forest Resources in Maasai Mau <p>Forests play an important role in the livelihoods of local people in most developing countries. Local communities depend on forest resources for various products such as fuel wood, construction materials, medicine, and food. The Maasai Mau forest plays an important role in supporting the livelihood of people living around the forest. Exploitation of forest resources should only be limited to active members. To reduce dependency on the forest, alternative means of livelihood should be provided to reduce dependency on the forest.</p> Charles Kiprono Koech, Jane W. Njuguna, Stephen M. Kiama, James O. Mau, Magrate M. Kaigongi, Michael M. Muganda, Stanley Nadir, John N. Kigomo, Joshua Cheboiwo Copyright (c) 2021 Charles Kiprono Koech, Jane W. Njuguna, Stephen M. Kiama, James O. Mau, Magrate M. Kaigongi, Michael M. Muganda, Stanley Nadir, John N. Kigomo, Joshua Cheboiwo Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Household food security access, and amidst Covid-19: a study case in Equatorial Guinea <p>Food is of primary importance for households. Equatorial Guinea (EG) has progressed much in income growth but less in living standard, which includes food security. To situating food–insecurity prevalence in EG, this paper researches household food security-access, and its link-cause to agriculture–considering the Covid-19– using the Household Hunger Scale (HHS). On the data, we surveyed 400 households, imparted in EG rural and urban areas of Bioko Island and the mainland. The results reveal a 2.4 mean for both rural and urban Bioko, placing households at moderate hunger level. On the mainland, rural scores 3.21 (the area most affected), yet falling in moderate hunger level; while the urban scores best 0.64 and stands in the food-safe zone. It derives that diet is rather monotonous and embrace–mainly– carbohydrates rice, bread, cassava, and plantain. A focus on boosting the productivity of staples is paramount for Food security and even national security.</p> Emilio Edu Nguema Osea, Wang Jian Copyright (c) 2021 Emilio Edu Nguema Osea, Wang Jian Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Accountancy Fresh Graduates of Wesleyan University – Philippines in the Light of the Skills Expectations of Industry Partners <p>Employers consider a graduate's achievements in the relevant discipline to be required but not sufficient for them to be hired. It is essential that we fully understand what future employers will accept and needed. &nbsp;In the past, a graduate degree would ensure the welfare of a student's future. Today, something more different. A mere college diploma is inadequate for an individual to secure a promising future.</p> <p>This study aims to determine the fresh graduates' professional accounting skills and technology skills needed by the company and demonstrated by the accounting graduates. Results of study analysis comprised twenty (20) companies showed that computing techniques, written communication, reporting skills, measurement skills, professionalism, and oral communication are what employers seek. Moreover, companies observed that accounting graduates are more knowledgeable in reporting, research, measurement, finance, strategic and critical thinking skills, and problem-solving skills.</p> <p>Regarding technology skills, companies seek employees knowledgeable in spreadsheet packages, accounting packages (SAP, Pastel, QuickBooks), word processing packages, communication software (Skype, Outlook, Slack), electronic commerce, and the worldwide web.&nbsp; However, accounting graduates possess word processing packages, communication software (skype, outlook, slack), world wide web, electronic commerce, and windows. It was revealed that students must be well-versed in Microsoft Office Applications, as this was the employers' primary skills needed both professional accounting skills and technology skills. These results provide the academicians with useful information.</p> <p>Building fundamentals, becoming competitive and continual development of abilities in accounting needs a tough knowledge foundation. Specializing in a specific area of accounting, such as financial reporting, taxation, or auditing, helps an individual become a highly sought-after professional. In a more distinct framework and profound lens, this study will convey collaborations on how Nueva Ecija industries search to hire new accounting professionals.</p> <p>In detail, the foregoing survey purposes were addressed:&nbsp; to determine the required skills the employers seek from accounting graduates, to identify the more important accountancy graduates' skills, to examine if do companies treat the professional accounting skills similar to technological skills, and to discover if there were any difference on the requirements of employers and the skills demonstrated by accounting graduates.</p> Manuel P. Castillo, Ali G. Mamaclay, Jose Arsenio R. Adriano Copyright (c) 2021 Manuel P. Castillo, Ali G. Mamaclay, Jose Arsenio R. Adriano Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Examining the Role of Economic Actors in Post-war Reintegration Processes: Case of Sierra Leone. <p>This paper examines post-conflict peacebuilding activities in Sierra Leone by critically looking at the role of economic actors in the reintegration process of its post-war Disarmament Demobilization, and Reintegration (DDR) initiative. The civil war that lasted for 11 years in Sierra Leone, put doubts on the national governments ability to effectively provide both victims and perpetuators, the necessary protection and assistance needed to fully assume responsibilities within the communities. Because of this, poverty was further entrenched, thereby increasing the countries susceptibility to return to conflict. Though reintegration processes are continuous, integrative and involve exhaustive budgetary commitments, the process, in Sierra Leone was short-termed, not well coordinated and took time to begin delivering. With the United Nations, World Bank and the weak national government leading the process, financing was often insufficient or late, in combination with the lack of a coherent planning strategy; all these factors contributed to lapses in socio-economic profiling, skills and vocational training and spread disillusionment and resentment among ex-combatants and victims. Using content analysis, the paper argues that, post-war countries need active, equitable and profitable economic sectors if they are to graduate from conflict and from post-conflict aid-dependency. Moreover, as social contracts and corporate social responsibility to communities they govern and operate in, economic actors must create enabling environments and, generate jobs to support legitimate local capacities. The utility of this paper lies in the idea that for any post-conflict country to attain long-term social and economic development, reintegration programme design and activities, must holistically incorporate critical economic actors.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> MaryAnne Iwara Copyright (c) 2021 MaryAnne Iwara Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Historicizing Fashion: Clothing, Culture, and Chores <p>The present paper is a study on the history of clothing in ancient India to historicize fashion in the Ancient Indian context. Relying primarily on textual sources of the period The <em>Kāmasūtra </em>of <em>Vatsyayana </em>( 4-5<sup>th</sup> CE) and The <em>Nātyaśāstra </em>of <em>Bharata </em>(200 BCE-200CE), the paper seeks to examine the implications on patterns of dressing: clothing and accessorizing on different social categories based on gender, class, and caste being governed by the power relations operating within the social milieu of the texts. By looking at varied range of social and gendered categories the essence of clothing and dressing has been observed and commented upon. It has been primarily argued that dressing patterns reveal homogeneity in a particular group, who were part of a heterogeneous whole.</p> Anjani Shankar Pandey Copyright (c) 2021 Anjani Shankar Pandey Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Undergraduate Students’ Perceptions of Tourism and Hospitality Career Education in Ghana <p>The purpose of this study was to explore students’ perceptions of tourism and hospitality career education in three universities that run undergraduate programmes in Ghana, namely: the University of Cape Coast (UCC), University of Energy and Natural Resources (UENR) and the University for Development Studies (UDS). Final year students totaling 128 students were contacted through questionnaire and results analyzed employing SPSS. The study revealed that 45% respondents from the UCC did not want to work in the industry after graduation. A greater number of respondents, 85% in UCC, 90% in UENR and 92% in UDS believed a decision to invest in tourism and hospitality education career was worthwhile. Contrary to the above 50% of all respondents surveyed in the three institutions did not believe one could make good income whilst working in the industry. It is suggested that career counselling sessions be organized by tourism and hospitality industry players in the universities to woo students’ interest in the sector.</p> Evelyn K. Yirbekyaa, Conrad-J. Wuleka Kuuder, Issah Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Evelyn K. Yirbekyaa, Conrad-J. Wuleka Kuuder, Issah Mohammed Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0000