Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Society for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> en-US <p>Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.</p> <p>All authors of manuscripts accepted for publication in the journal&nbsp;<em>Transactions on Networks and Communications&nbsp;</em>are required to license the&nbsp;<em>Scholar Publishing</em>&nbsp;to publish the manuscript. Each author should&nbsp;sign one&nbsp;of the following forms, as appropriate:</p> <p><strong>License to publish</strong>; to be used by most authors. This grants the publisher a license of copyright.&nbsp; Download forms (MS Word formats)&nbsp; -&nbsp; (<a title="SSE Copyright Manuscript" href="/Repository/Forms/SSECopyright-Manuscript.docx" target="_blank" rel="noopener">doc</a>)</p> <p><strong>Publication agreement</strong>&nbsp;— Crown copyright; to be used by authors who are public servants in a Commonwealth country, such as Canada, U.K., Australia.&nbsp; Download forms (Adobe or MS Word formats) -&nbsp; (<a title="SSE Copyright Manuscript Crown" href="/Repository/Forms/SSECopyright-Manuscript-CrownAuthor.docx" target="_blank" rel="noopener">doc</a>)</p> <p><strong>License to publish</strong>&nbsp;— U.S. official; to be used by authors who are officials of the U.S. government.&nbsp; Download forms (Adobe or MS Word formats) – (<a title="SSECopyright Manuscript US Official" href="/Repository/Forms/SSECopyright-Manuscript-US-Official.docx" target="_blank" rel="noopener">doc</a>)</p> <p>The preferred method to submit a completed, signed copyright form is to upload it within the task assigned to you in the Manuscript submission system, after the submission of your manuscript. Alternatively, you can submit it by email&nbsp;<a href="mailto:copyright@scholarpublishing.org?subject=Copyright : International Journal of Medical Imaging and Graphics!">copyright@scholarpublishing.org</a></p> assrj@scholarpublishing.org (Florence Arthur) assrj@scholarpublishing.org (Albert Jackson) Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:19:30 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Family Vulnerability in Adolescents from Copacabana, Colombia https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7167 <p>Objective: to determine which vulnerability-related items from the scale <em>¿Cómo es tu familia?</em> (How is your Family?) were the most problematic ones in Copacabana (Colombia) during 2010. Methods: a random sample of 406 students aged 11 to 19 was taken. Frequency tables were made to determine the items whose vulnerability values were higher than 40%. Such items were thus classified as problematic (issues). Contingency tables were made with the sex and age group variables. Then, the odds ratio, OR, was found in order to compare vulnerability proportions for each case. The following statistics software was used in this study: SPSS 19.0 and Epiinfo 6.0. Results: there is vulnerability in the following items: communication with the father, family routines, no search for support when the adolescent has problems, poor support provided by the adolescents' families, a great deal of importance placed on having power over others, having money, and having an active sex life. Conclusion: given the severity of the issues in question, they may be considered public health problems.</p> Ramón Eugenio Paniagua-Suárez, Carlos Mauricio Gonzalez-Posada Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7167 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:24:29 +0000 Fārābi's "Utopia" and its relevance to the Greek Theory of Emanation (As an Islamic civilization perspective) https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7190 <p>"Utopia" is the expression that recalls the dreams of wise men and philosophers from Plato to Thomas Moore to the modern age, as each has his own view about that hopeful virtuous life. Fārābi, nicknamed “The Second Teacher” was the first developed an integrated concept of the "utopia" as an Arab-Islamic perspective. This book includes thirty-seven chapters, in which Fārābi dealt with five main topics, namely: The divine Self is represented as the first existent. The world with its assets; inanimate objects, living beings, celestial bodies, human soul, ethics and its basic principles, and finally the human need to the society. Fārābi formulates a perfect image of the cooperation among the members of the society where the justice prevails and its inhabitants are happy, opposite to the ignorant cities. He mentions some of the qualities of the first president, the founder of utopia succeeds by the second presidents, including: He must be a wise and philosopher, along with the other qualities in the knowledge of laws and Sunnah, must have the ability to diligence and devise the judgments and be prepared with his body and apparatus to protect the country and conduct the war. We can say that this president is "Plato in the dress of the Prophet Muhammad. This book: "Views of the people of the utopia" played a fundamental role in the history of Islamic thought, although he apposed in the first part of his book, especially on the subject: Neoplatonism and distinction between the wisdom and Sharia.</p> Salahuddin Mohd. Shamsuddin, Arman b. Asmad , Siti Sara Binti Hj. Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7190 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:24:48 +0000 The Contribution of the Government and other Stakeholders in enhancing the Socioeconomic Status of the Widows in Kenya https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7249 <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Worldwide, the number of widows continue to increase. According to the World Widows Report, there are an estimated 258.5 million widows globally, having increased by 9% between 2010 and 2015. The increase is mainly attributed to conflict and disease. One in seven widows, about 38 million, lives in extreme poverty. The ratio of widows to that of widowers is as high as 4:1. The loss of a spouse precipitates disruption of the family, yet the consequences of losing a spouse is not the same for men and women. In most African communities, widowhood is not only a personal status but also a social one. The widows face social and economic hardships in the area of social participation, decision making and property ownership. Kenya has an estimated 8 million widows and is placed at position 33 in the list of countries in the world that have a harsh environment for the widows. In Nandi county, the female-headed households account for 26.2% of the total households. The existing studies have concentrated on cultural issues such as burial rites. Limited research has been done on opportunities available for the widow to sustain and enhance their livelihood. The role of the government and other stakeholders such as Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), religious organizations and the family, in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows have not been exhaustively explored. The paper is guided by three questions; What is the contribution of the Kenyan government and other stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the challenges faced by the stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the strategies put in place to increase the capacity of the stakeholders? The paper is grounded on Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Redefinition by William Thomas. Survey Research was utilized. A sample of 250 widows was proportionately distributed across the population to ensure equal representation across Nandi county. Primary data was collected through focussed group discussions, key informants and case histories. The outcome contributes to the already existing body of knowledge on widowhood. It will also create an awareness to the government and other stakeholders on the unique needs of the widows. It will also help identify equity gaps which policy may help close. Therefore, this study will provide information on widows as one of the social groups for the purpose of having the right policies and providing specific strategies on how best to assist them.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words: Contributions, Government, Stakeholders, Socioeconomic status, Widows, Kenya.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Worldwide, the number of widows continue to increase. According to the World Widows Report, there are an estimated 258.5 million widows globally, having increased by 9% between 2010 and 2015. The increase is mainly attributed to conflict and disease. One in seven widows, about 38 million, lives in extreme poverty. The ratio of widows to that of widowers is as high as 4:1. The loss of a spouse precipitates disruption of the family, yet the consequences of losing a spouse is not the same for men and women. In most African communities, widowhood is not only a personal status but also a social one. The widows face social and economic hardships in the area of social participation, decision making and property ownership. Kenya has an estimated 8 million widows and is placed at position 33 in the list of countries in the world that have a harsh environment for the widows. In Nandi county, the female-headed households account for 26.2% of the total households. The existing studies have concentrated on cultural issues such as burial rites. Limited research has been done on opportunities available for the widow to sustain and enhance their livelihood. The role of the government and other stakeholders such as Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), religious organizations and the family, in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows have not been exhaustively explored. The paper is guided by three questions; What is the contribution of the Kenyan government and other stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the challenges faced by the stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the strategies put in place to increase the capacity of the stakeholders? The paper is grounded on Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Redefinition by William Thomas. Survey Research was utilized. A sample of 250 widows was proportionately distributed across the population to ensure equal representation across Nandi county. Primary data was collected through focussed group discussions, key informants and case histories. The outcome contributes to the already existing body of knowledge on widowhood. It will also create an awareness to the government and other stakeholders on the unique needs of the widows. It will also help identify equity gaps which policy may help close. Therefore, this study will provide information on widows as one of the social groups for the purpose of having the right policies and providing specific strategies on how best to assist them.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words: Contributions, Government, Stakeholders, Socioeconomic status, Widows, Kenya.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Worldwide, the number of widows continue to increase. According to the World Widows Report, there are an estimated 258.5 million widows globally, having increased by 9% between 2010 and 2015. The increase is mainly attributed to conflict and disease. One in seven widows, about 38 million, lives in extreme poverty. The ratio of widows to that of widowers is as high as 4:1. The loss of a spouse precipitates disruption of the family, yet the consequences of losing a spouse is not the same for men and women. In most African communities, widowhood is not only a personal status but also a social one. The widows face social and economic hardships in the area of social participation, decision making and property ownership. Kenya has an estimated 8 million widows and is placed at position 33 in the list of countries in the world that have a harsh environment for the widows. In Nandi county, the female-headed households account for 26.2% of the total households. The existing studies have concentrated on cultural issues such as burial rites. Limited research has been done on opportunities available for the widow to sustain and enhance their livelihood. The role of the government and other stakeholders such as Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), religious organizations and the family, in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows have not been exhaustively explored. The paper is guided by three questions; What is the contribution of the Kenyan government and other stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the challenges faced by the stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the strategies put in place to increase the capacity of the stakeholders? The paper is grounded on Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Redefinition by William Thomas. Survey Research was utilized. A sample of 250 widows was proportionately distributed across the population to ensure equal representation across Nandi county. Primary data was collected through focussed group discussions, key informants and case histories. The outcome contributes to the already existing body of knowledge on widowhood. It will also create an awareness to the government and other stakeholders on the unique needs of the widows. It will also help identify equity gaps which policy may help close. Therefore, this study will provide information on widows as one of the social groups for the purpose of having the right policies and providing specific strategies on how best to assist them.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words: Contributions, Government, Stakeholders, Socioeconomic status, Widows, Kenya.</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>Worldwide, the number of widows continue to increase. According to the World Widows Report, there are an estimated 258.5 million widows globally, having increased by 9% between 2010 and 2015. The increase is mainly attributed to conflict and disease. One in seven widows, about 38 million, lives in extreme poverty. The ratio of widows to that of widowers is as high as 4:1. The loss of a spouse precipitates disruption of the family, yet the consequences of losing a spouse is not the same for men and women. In most African communities, widowhood is not only a personal status but also a social one. The widows face social and economic hardships in the area of social participation, decision making and property ownership. Kenya has an estimated 8 million widows and is placed at position 33 in the list of countries in the world that have a harsh environment for the widows. In Nandi county, the female-headed households account for 26.2% of the total households. The existing studies have concentrated on cultural issues such as burial rites. Limited research has been done on opportunities available for the widow to sustain and enhance their livelihood. The role of the government and other stakeholders such as Non-governmental organizations (NGOs), religious organizations and the family, in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows have not been exhaustively explored. The paper is guided by three questions; What is the contribution of the Kenyan government and other stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the challenges faced by the stakeholders in enhancing the socioeconomic status of the widows? What are the strategies put in place to increase the capacity of the stakeholders? The paper is grounded on Social Exchange Theory and the Theory of Redefinition by William Thomas. Survey Research was utilized. A sample of 250 widows was proportionately distributed across the population to ensure equal representation across Nandi county. Primary data was collected through focussed group discussions, key informants and case histories. The outcome contributes to the already existing body of knowledge on widowhood. It will also create an awareness to the government and other stakeholders on the unique needs of the widows. It will also help identify equity gaps which policy may help close. Therefore, this study will provide information on widows as one of the social groups for the purpose of having the right policies and providing specific strategies on how best to assist them.</strong></p> <p><strong>Key Words: Contributions, Government, Stakeholders, Socioeconomic status, Widows, Kenya.v</strong></p> Jeniffer Kosgey Birech Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7249 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:25:05 +0000 Language Competency, Preparedness and Attitude toward Literature Subject: A Case of Secondary Schools in Arusha City, Tanzania https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7216 <p>While literature is an important subject in secondary school curriculum, it is optional in Tanzanian secondary schools. This leads to limited number of students who choose it even though the subject has numerous advantages. Using a sample of 197 form two students, the study sought to describe and establish relationships between students language competency, preparedness and attitude toward literature through descriptive and inferential statistics. The study concluded that students had positive attitude toward literature subject and believed that literature is one of their favorite subjects. They considered their teachers to have played their role effectively in preparing them to opt for the subject. Students further perceived that they perform very well in English subject. Furthermore, it was established that when teachers prepare students for literature subject, students’ interest in and attitude toward literature will increase. Based on conclusions above, it is recommended that teachers should use students’ positive attitude toward literature as a loop hole to guide them to opt for literature subject. There is need for teachers to continue encouraging students to take literature subject as it has been proven that the subject increases proficiency in English. Lastly, in order to increase the number of students who will take literature subject in the future, it is necessary for teachers to increase the level of preparedness for literature subject by encouraging form two students to read various literary works.</p> Baraka Manjale Ngussa, Anagrolia Faustino Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7216 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:25:23 +0000 Challenges In Managing Records For Effective Service Delivery In Agricultural Firm A Case Of Kenya Agricultural And Livestock Research Organization (KALRO) Headquarters, Nairobi. https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7056 <p>Records are important sources of both information and knowledge, they ensure that an organization makes timely, accurate, relevant and informed decisions. Therefore, records should be maintained and enhanced throughout their life by establishing appropriate records management programs. Effective and efficient service delivery to the Kenyan public still remains an issue of great concern. This is due to the slow, inefficient and deliberate or uninformed delivery of service to the public. It was the impetus of the study to identify the challenges experienced in managing records for effective service delivery at KALRO. Government institutions face various challenges with regard to the management of records. African countries have tried to undertake civil service reforms, but they have not been successful as anticipated.&nbsp; The study adopted both quantitative and qualitative research design. The population which was studied includes managers of various departments, registry staff, records managers, and staff in every relevant department or division at the headquarters of KALRO in Nairobi. Purposive sampling was used for the study. The finding of the study reveals that respondents disagreed that there was poor working conditions (M=1.89; SD=.762);&nbsp;&nbsp; files retention by action officers (M=1.59; SD=.591) and about Others( mix up of current , semi-current and noncurrent records in the registry) (M=1.90; SD=.549). On the hand the respondents strongly disagreed that there was lack of adequate facilities and equipment (M=1.23; SD=.421), users do not understand roles and importance of the registries (1.43; SD=.591), registry staff lack adequate training (M=1.18; SD=.382) and lack of proper implementation of records management policy (M=1.30; SD=.680). The study concluded that there was a positive relationship between record management practices and service delivery (r=.967; p value &lt; 0.05).&nbsp; Best record management practices will enhance service deliver and improve efficiency and effectiveness in storage and accessing of information at any time it is required by any user. The study recommended that in order for the records management staff to update and improve their skills there was need for the organizations to identify and develop programs in records management in form of short-term courses, workshops and advanced education for those without records and archives knowledge.</p> Ndenga Atieno Benta, Kibiwott Kurgat, Mbenge T. Ndiku Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7056 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:25:43 +0000 Electronic Permanent Establishment: An Option For International Taxation On Profits Of Cross Border Business Transactions In The Context Of Digital Economy https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7184 <p>This paper bases on the fact that the desire to tax businesses by the source countries is diminishing in increasing volumes to the developed nations which require more standard economic ties. The policies that have been proposed in this paper are flexible and can be extended into use in the future. Utilizing the software that are used in these digital business transactions for the purpose of source taxation can only be done temporarily for some given period of time. When the Internet platforms have fully matured, then the developing countries will be capable of benefitting from the new mediums and thus grow economically. The extent to which e-commerce and Internet platforms will continue to grow is not yet determinable but there is some reliable estimation that can help in the formulation of tax policies. The role of e-commerce to the global economy is clear and indispensable; hence all the countries understand the importance of having a reliable and stable consensus that would set forth the tax policies bounding to all international transactions. However, the process would not be as easy as perceived since the technological and economic growth amongst nations is not uniform. Hence the policies as discussed earlier have to harmonize all the challenges that are experienced by different countries.</p> Mohammad Abdul-Jalil Hamdan Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7184 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:26:03 +0000 Transfer of Land Functions and Social Functions of Land Rights in Indonesia https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7200 <p>This paper discussed understanding the social function of land rights, existence of land in the context of social change and social shift, relationships, social functions of land rights with public interests, land procurement in relation to social functions, and the role of enforcing the social function of land rights. In addition, agrarian reform in Indonesia is also discussed includes understanding, objectives, subjects and objects, principles, mechanism and failure in implementing agrarian reform. Moreover, this paper discussed the practice of diversion function of agricultural land, including the understanding of land and transfer of functions land, factors that drive the transfer of use functions land, abuse of land use change and transfer impacts the function of agricultural land on people's lives.</p> Suriansyah Murhaini, Yetrie Ludang Copyright (c) 2019 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/7200 Sat, 12 Oct 2019 15:26:23 +0000