Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2021-06-12T18:16:36+00:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> The Moderating Influences of Emotional Pretensions and Dogmatic Behaviors on the Relationship between Leadership-Induced Stress and Mental Well-Being 2021-06-01T18:55:25+00:00 Folusho Ayodeji Olufemi A. Lawal <p>This study examines the moderating influences of emotional pretensions and dogmatic behaviours on the relationship between leadership-induced stress and mental well-being. 253 employees across several branches of four major banks in Nigeria, all of which were at the final stages of their merger to or acquisition by another bank at that time, participated in the study. A moderated regression analysis confirmed the main propositions of the study that leadership-induced stress will jeopardize mental health. Analysis showed that leadership-induced stress negatively predicted mental health. Emotions Hiding and Dogmatic Behavior also predicted mental health. While emotions hiding negatively predicted mental health, dogmatic behaviour predicted it positively. As expected, leadership-induced stress*dogmatic behaviour interaction significantly predicted mental health. But contrary to expectation, leadership-induced stress*Emotions Hiding interaction did not predict mental health. This suggests that the adverse influence of employees’ high emotions hiding on their mental health (found in this study) did not depend on their experience of leadership-induced stress. These results were discussed in the light of reviewed literature.</p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS:</strong>&nbsp; <em>Leadership-Induced Stress, Mental Wellbeing, Emotional Pretensions, Dogmatic </em><em>Behaviours, Emotions Hiding</em></p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Folusho Ayodeji, Dr. Adefemi Lawal Examining the Effect of Budgetary Controls on the Financial Performance of Oman Telecommunication Company. 2021-05-30T18:16:59+00:00 Raya Mohammed AL Mahroqi <p>The budgeting process and budgetary control are one of the most important activities that have great importance in the techniques used for planning and monitoring activities and all the administrative and financial functions of the organization. This study aims to assess the effect of budgetary control on the financial performance of the Oman Telecommunications Company and verify the effectiveness of budgetary control techniques in the company, in light of the support and role of top management for budgetary control techniques in the company.</p> <p>This study will allow financial managers in various companies to understand the nature of the work of budgetary control techniques, their importance, and the extent of the impact of each technique, and thus managers will be able to determine the best-used and appropriate techniques that will lead to raising efficiency in financial and organizational performance.</p> <p>As for the research methodology used in the study, the survey method based on questionnaires and interviews was used. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution, correlations, and regression analysis. Microsoft Excel was used to analyze the collected data. As for the interview, they were analyzed by descriptive and explanatory methods.</p> <p>The results indicated that there is a positive relationship between budgetary control and the financial performance of the company, the differential impact of budgetary control techniques, and the confirmation of the company’s use of the technique of variance analysis and accounting responsibility, as well as the importance of budgetary control procedures. The results also indicate the importance of support and the role of top management for budgetary control techniques.</p> <p>Several recommendations were made through the results of this study. The recommendation was made on the need to understand and implement the company’s adjustment of funds technique for its importance in improving and raising the company's financial performance significantly in the company.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Budgetary Control, Organizational Financial Performance,</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Budgetary Control Techniques, Budgeting&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Raya Mohammed AL Mahroqi #StopTheSteal on Twitter: Social Media and Political Communication 2021-05-28T09:27:06+00:00 Jeremy Harris Lipschultz <p>.</p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jeremy Harris Lipschultz A Survey of the Nexus between the Group Theory in Public Policy-Making; and Diplomacy and Diplomatic Practices; and Its Impact on International Public Administration 2021-05-24T05:08:55+00:00 Peter SAKWE MASUMBE <p>This article seeks to discern the nexus between the group theory in public policy-making in domestic politics; and diplomacy and diplomatic practices in international relations. Apparently, diplomacy and diplomatic practices, though strands of international relations, pivot on group theory’s doctrines. Herein, I argue that, there exist a nexus between the group theory, diplomacy and diplomatic practices, which fashions the character of international public administration. Given the literature dearth in this domain, I offer a framework based on Charles Lindblom’s Incrementalism and the Realist Theory to show how the nexus between the group theory of domestic politics; and diplomacy and diplomatic practices impacts international public administration. The research purpose is to boost deeper theoretical and empirical understanding of public administration, since the group theory aims at causing group equilibrium amongst competing groups in domestic politics;&nbsp; while diplomacy promotes group’s (state) &nbsp;interest (power) over another group’s (state) interest (power) in international politics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Peter SAKWE MASUMBE Life According to Popular Children's Films 2021-05-14T07:25:10+00:00 Sara Hare Mariah Benham <p>This content analysis uses data gathered from the 150 top-grossing children’s animated films from 1990 to 2020 (based on North American theater sales) to examine the gender disparities and stereotypes in children’s media. The study shows that female characters are underrepresented in lead roles (14%), main gangs (28.1%), and speaking roles (27.2%). The central female characters are portrayed stereotypically. When female characters appear, they are more likely to be portrayed in a romantic and family relationship than male characters. However, films with a greater percentage of women writers are correlated with more speaking roles for female characters. The impact of media on children’s development is indisputable due to the way technology has become ingrained in day-to-day life. The lack of representation of female characters reinforces the stereotypical portrayals that negatively affect the self-esteem of girls and train boys to expect an androcentric world. The skewed and stereotypical portrayal of female characters fails to accurately represent the diversity of other parts of the world. While many of these films are produced in the West, they are widely distributed and consumed all over the world.</p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Sara Hare, Mariah Benham REMEDYING THE POLLUTION OF ATHI RIVER IN KENYA 2021-05-12T08:56:19+00:00 TAKAWIRA CHIMBINDI CHIMBINDIROY@GMAIL.COM <p>The Athi River, which is 390 km before entering the Indian Ocean, is the second-longest river in Kenya. As it flows through the grasslands and valleys of Kenya, the river forms the majestic Fourteen Falls, meanders through Nairobi, and eventually passes through Tsavo National Park, the largest in Kenya. Here, hippopotamus, crocodiles, and pythons are attracted to the river’s waters and the life it carries. Millions of Kenyans rely on the Athi River for drinking water and irrigation. However, the Athi River also receives large amounts of pollution from Nairobi–an area with a population of over four million people. Along with population growth and rapid urbanization, poor solid waste management is emerging as a key risk for health in Kenya. The river is increasingly choking with uncollected garbage; human waste from informal settlements; industrial waste in the form of gaseous emissions, liquid affluence, and solids waste; agrochemicals, and other wastes especially petrochemicals and metals from microenterprises – the hot sun and overflowing sewers. This situation has occasioned the spread of waterborne diseases, loss of sustainable livelihoods, loss of biodiversity, reduced availability and access to safe potable water, and various toxic substances and heavy metal poisoning, affecting human productivity. The paper is not empirically grounded and its content is a result of desktop research and content analysis of literature, images, and news related to pollution. The paper hopes to provoke further deliberations and empirical research on the river.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 TAKAWIRA CHIMBINDI Effect Of Human Resource In Accounting Information System On Management Decision-Making In Seventh-Day Adventist Institutions In Eastern Nigeria 2021-03-18T09:21:06+00:00 Edet Eyibio Okon Chima Evans Otuza Samuel A. Dada <p>The constant changes in the business environment, both domestic and international, have brought about great challenges on management of business organizations. Despite huge investments in accounting information systems, several organisations have not realized the full potential benefits of using these systems because of persistent failures. This study therefore investigated the effect of human resources in accounting information system on management decision-making in Seventh-day Adventist institutions in Eastern Nigeria Union Conference. This study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. The population of this study was 250 accounting officers (Management, and General Administration) in the 24 entities. The sample size was total enumeration of all the 250 employees. A structured and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The response rate was 84.4%. Data was analyzed using inferential statistics (simple linear regression analysis). The findings revealed that human resources in AIS has a positive and significant effect on management decision-making in Seventh Day Adventist Institutions in the Eastern Nigeria. Based on the findings of this study, the study recommended that institutions should give devoted attention on factors that will promote human resource development in the institutions, as this is capable of contributing positively on the management of the organization, which include informed decision-making.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Edet Eyibio Okon, Chima Evans Otuza, Samuel A. Dada Ship Handling Training for Collision Avoidance: Education via Group Work 2021-06-02T07:30:22+00:00 Yoshiaki Kunieda Asami Shimada Hideyuki Kashima Koji Murai <p>In shipping, which is one of the drivers of the world’s economy, many marine accidents continue to occur, such as ship collisions and grounding. To prevent marine collision accidents, there is a strong demand to improve seafarers’ skills through training. Therefore, practical and simulation training sessions are carried out. However, these cannot be considered sufficient because of cost and time constraints. Therefore, the authors proposed a training method in which a group of students set the situation themselves by adding restrictions on actual cases of ship handling for collision avoidance and then discuss and present it. In this training method, ship training instructor assessment and an anchoring experiment were carried out, both of which obtained good evaluations. The anchoring experiment showed a difference of up to 27.5% in the achievement rate between the proposed training and previous training. Regarding ship handling for collision avoidance, as much as a 45.5% difference in achievement rate was observed. These are considered to have the effect of encouraging active thinking by the proposed training method. In addition, the effect of considering the ship handling for collision avoidance for many situations can be thought. Furthermore, it was considered to be the effect of discussions in group work.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yoshiaki Kunieda, Asami Shimada, Hideyuki Kashima, Koji Murai Voter Participation and Electoral Integrity in Nigeria’s 2019 General Elections 2021-06-01T06:28:02+00:00 Mike Omilusi Olorunfemi Gbenga <p>This paper examines the inclusivity and legitimacy of elections in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic amidst, concerns continually expressed over the zero-sum nature of Nigerian politics, which manifests in the rising tide of contentious elections.&nbsp;&nbsp; Issues such as logistical failures and delays, misconduct and irregularities, violence, challenges of internal party democracy, corruption and a biased judiciary, have almost become permanent features of electioneering in the country. The paper explores the value mechanisms and processes that can enable an electoral process that guarantees transparency and accountability based on Nigeria’s electoral laws and regional instruments, such as the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights, provides a credible opportunity for broad based participation, enables significant roles for the judiciary, anticorruption bodies, civil society organisations, and political parties as well as provide the strategic tools to ensure the credibility and integrity of each stage of the electoral cycle. The context of the 2019 elections, which recorded the participation of only a third of the 84 million eligible voters, will provide a barometer to measure the overall health of Nigeria’s electoral democracy, drawing extensively from secondary sources.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mike Omilusi, Olorunfemi Gbenga Security and Intelligence Challenges in Guinea-Bissau, Africa’s Narco-State and Issues Beyond Borders 2021-05-29T10:40:42+00:00 Dr. Temitope Francis Abiodun Dr. Joshua Olatunde Fajimbola <p>This paper focuses on the international security concerns in relation to the disquiets in the tiny West African state, Guinea-Bissau since independence. The country famously known as “narco-state” faces formidable challenges with weak governance negatively impacting on intelligence services. Intelligence and security reform is a building block of democracy, but this has been habitually weakened in Guinea-Bissau during the last four decades. The state remains one of the most fragile nations in the world having had its security culture totally perturbed, occasioned by the military rule since independence from Portugal in 1974. With over nine coup d’états that have been staged with a number of state administrations toppled coupled with an avalanche of internal conflicts, and prevalence of transnational phenomena (cocaine trafficking), and other traditional state-based challenges, the African narco-state has been left with a very weak governance structure, security, and intelligence services. The study examines Guinea-Bissau’s intelligence culture drawing from secondary sources to understand how intelligence has been shaped and how intelligence has influenced the country in the context of poverty and authoritarianism. The study examines the various factors that have shaped the state’s intelligence, analyzing the transformation and reform in the state’s defense and security sector. It provides recommendations so the Bissau-Guinean intelligence community can be more effective. This study uses secondary sources and makes use of descriptive and content analyses techniques.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dr. Temitope Francis Abiodun, Dr. Joshua Olatunde Fajimbola The Contribution of Community Education towards Minimizing the Spread of COVID-19: Ethnographic Research Approach 2021-05-24T12:29:41+00:00 Avhurengwi Samson Mabade <p>Although the Government put protocols in place to minimize the spread of COVID-19, it remains the community’s obligation to adhere to the protocols and drive reform. It is the community’s responsibility to communicate succinctly and elegantly all the protocols in a morally unobjectionable manner. It is however a community-based problem although it is a worldwide pandemic to be fought holistically. Unless an individual community understands the impact of COVID-19 in the community, community members would hardly understand its impact in the entire community. If community members could heed the super spreading ways, almost all community members would advise one another on the best ways to mitigate the spread of this pandemic. The transformation brought about by community itself would result the transformation of each community member. Community leadership remains responsible to advocate this community education. The researcher adopted an Ethnographic Research Approach to provide an in-depth description of community members towards adhering to the protocols in place for minimizing the spread of this horrifying and deadly disease. The researcher employed qualitative technique for the collection of data. The responses of the community members were audio recorded and transcribed by the researcher and then analyzed for presentation as a report.</p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Avhurengwi Samson Mabade Does team cohesion always positively influence team innovation? A chain mediation model 2021-05-20T12:33:05+00:00 Hua Zhang Kun SHI Haoxiang HU <p>This study explores the chain-mediating mechanism between organizational climate and team job crafting on team cohesion and team innovation behavior, based on the input-mediator-outcome-input (IMOI) theory .Using 229 valid samples, the result shows that team cohesion, organizational climate and team job crafting can significantly positively predict team innovation behavior; team job crafting plays an intermediary role between team cohesion and team innovation behavior; organizational climate and team job crafting play a chain mediating role between team cohesion and team innovation behavior. When other factors are taken into account, team cohesion is not always a positive factor in team innovation behavior This research attempted to combine the organizational factors with the mediating mechanism of team job crafting on team innovation behavior, and provide theoretical and practical guidance for the organizations on team innovation.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hua Zhang, Kun SHI , Haoxiang HU Homophily Groups, Social Capital and Community Development in Cameroon 2021-05-13T11:19:37+00:00 Lema Catherine Forje <p>Social groups have contributed enormously in community development in Cameroon. Such contributions have very often been overlooked by policy makers, as such; is not included in policy formation.&nbsp; Social capital generated by groups has been discussed at length in the literature, but its effects on the society remain unclear, thus often only associated with poverty. Such association discourages creative endeavours as well as distorts its meaning and functioning. It also misleads future studies and distort their information searching path. This study discusses how homophily groups in Cameroon get funds from members, the diasporas and well wishers and use to provide services&nbsp; to the community.&nbsp; Some of the projects provided by these social groups include: school buildings, hospitals, water supply tanks; church buildings and equipments.&nbsp; They also provide individual security in the form of supporting vigilantic&nbsp; groups that help maintain law, order and peace in the community at large.&nbsp; The paper discusses the bases of their group formation which is the core of group sustainability.&nbsp; Data was collected from two large homophily groups, one ethnicity and one alumnae base with an average of one hundred and twenty five members per group in one region in Cameroon, and twenty five related Cameroonian in the diasporas.&nbsp; The result shows that the homophily groups are very devoted and committed in carrying out developmental projects in their various communities.&nbsp; The implication is that this study will encourage policy makers to recognise the activities of such groups which could motivate the emergence of others&nbsp; to imitate the approach to the overall communities. The recommendation is that they need to invest in money generating activities to enable them achieve their objectives without the strain of constantly dipping into their personal budget and depending on external sources for sustainability. The society needs to be educated to know the contributions of groups in the community.</p> 2021-06-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lema Catherine Forje Determining The Factors of Employee’s Commitment and Loyalty in A Malaysian Internet-based Company 2021-05-10T09:11:45+00:00 Muhamad Khalil Omar <p>One of the main challenges faced by most organizations is to encourage their workers to dedicate themselves towards their organizations. Organizations realized that to reach its goals, it is very important for them to have a group of committed workforce who are highly efficent, motivated and loyal. With the current high competition between companies, employee’s loyalty is one of the factors that will determine the success of organizations as well as maintaining their competitiveness in the market through improved productivity. Thus, organizations are constantly finding ways in maintaining and retaining their employees, for example, by looking back at their compensation and benefits, management styles, working environment, job security, employee’s performance, employee’s satisfaction and career development. This study main objective was to investigate the impact of compensation and benefits, career development, management style and working environment towards employee’s commitment and loyalty in an organization. Using the data collected from 108 employees of an internet-based company in Malaysia and analyzed using SPSS Statistics, this study has established that all four factors have a critical impact on employee’s loyalty with the management style as the most influencing factor. It is hope that this study can provide a huge understanding on some of the factors that could influence employee’s loyalty in organizations and hence, preparing them to be a productive entity.</p> 2021-06-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Muhamad Khalil Omar