Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2021-09-20T11:59:36+00:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> KAVA CONSUMPTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE 2021-09-20T11:59:36+00:00 Malakai Ofanoa Samuela Ofanoa <p>Kava drinking has become an intrinsic part of Tongan culture. It involves regular participation and high consumption of kava drink in kava clubs and other kava venues in Tonga and New Zealand. However, mounting evidence has indicated that the reasons for, and perceived effects of kava consumption are yet to be fully understood (Nosa and Ofanoa, 2009, Ofanoa, 2010). A qualitative study to explore the issues related with Tongan men abusing kava consumption was conducted in Tonga and Auckland, New Zealand (Ofanoa, 2010).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The study used culturally safe, Pacific qualitative research approaches of Kakala (Thaman, 1997) and Talanga (Ofanoa, 2010) to obtain information related to the issue. There were focus group interviews conducted with a convenience sample of 104 Tongan men across 5 kava clubs each in Tonga and Auckland, New Zealand. The analysis of the focus group interviews in both places involved a general inductive approach.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The findings reported that kava use is socially sanctioned and easily accessible in both countries. &nbsp;Further, kava presents concerning health and social issues. It increases poor family relationships that leads to family violence. Usually the family violence happens after kava sessions. The Kava men sleep long hours; they spent a lot of their family income in Kava sessions and makes many excuses.</p> <p>Moreover, kava men are usually very lazy to work, and slow to recover in the next day. Hence, the poor wives usually shoulder everything in the family. In many instances, some of them behave violently and aggressively.&nbsp; When such practices happen consistently, family violence starts, and many husbands physically abuse their wives. Evidently, one end up in the hospital with serious injuries or both husband and wife appear in court.</p> <p>The study concludes that Tongan men in both countries cannot continue to hide the truth that their abusive consumption of kava contributes to family violence. Hence, there is a tremendous need for urgent actions to prevent and minimize this practice. Further, since addressing the issue is sensitive and complex, a call for multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary effort with the Tongan society in both Tonga and New Zealand is required to minimize the risks and optimize the benefits of kava use.</p> 2021-09-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Malakai Ofanoa, Samuela Ofanoa Issues and Challenges Faced by SME’s in Sultanate of Oman during COVID-19: A Case Study of the Tourism Sector 2021-08-31T16:17:49+00:00 Yasser Alhanai Dr. Maria Teresa Matriano <p>The world economy has been greatly affected by Covid-19 and Oman has been among the countries facing challenges in the operation of SMEs in handling of business needs and meeting regular fixed costs. The SMEs most affected are those in the tourism sector where travel restrictions and lockdowns could not allow the businesses to receive visitors as expected who are the customers to the services and products offered. Using the sample size of 187 participants who own or work at the SMEs in tourism sector, it was established that the applied legislations and restrictions of movement had a positive correlation to SMEs business operations with a positive correlation coefficient of 0.478. However, a recommendation to the issues and challenges were issued stating that SMEs should invest in technology &amp; tools, creation of an oversight of SME financial status, prioritising of value over culture, and trusting &amp; empowering the people that deal with SMEs.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Yasser Alhanai, Dr. Maria Teresa Matriano Predictors of Satisfaction With Childbirth Services Amongst Postnatal Women in Two Selected Teaching Hospitals in Ogun State, Nigeria 2021-08-10T11:13:10+00:00 Eunice Abimbola OJO Lawrence Adewale AGBONJIMI Rachel Omolara AINA Praise Oladeji ALABI <p>Satisfaction with childbirth service is a multi-dimensional construct embracing satisfaction with self (personal control), and with the physical environment of delivery ward and quality of care. Maternal health care service encompasses family planning, preconception, antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. Goals of preconception care include providing&nbsp; education, health promotion, screening tests for various health problems and&nbsp; interventions&nbsp; for women&nbsp; of reproductive&nbsp; age&nbsp; to&nbsp; reduce&nbsp; risk&nbsp; factors&nbsp; that&nbsp; might&nbsp; affect&nbsp; future&nbsp; pregnancies. Women&nbsp; who&nbsp; begin prenatal care&nbsp; early&nbsp; in&nbsp; their&nbsp; pregnancies&nbsp; have&nbsp; better birth outcomes than&nbsp; those&nbsp; who receive&nbsp; little or&nbsp; no&nbsp; care&nbsp; during&nbsp; their&nbsp; pregnancies. This study was conducted to identify predictors of satisfaction with childbirth services and the factors influencing them. A well-structured questionnaire was used to get responses from 81 postnatal women in OOUTH and BUTH. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analyzing the research questions and hypotheses respectively. Majority of the participants revealed good level of satisfaction with most child birth services rendered by the two selected teaching hospitals, but more than two-third of the respondent’s claims, dissatisfaction in pain control and baby care after birth in the two hospitals. Findings revealed more satisfaction towards child birth services in BUTH than OOUTH, this might be as a result of inadequate equipment, structural facilities and poor waiting areas in the public hospital. It was recommended among others that Government should facilitate focused antenatal care, institutional delivery and postnatal care in terms of reducing maternal and neonatal mortality.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Olofin S. O. , Lawrence Adewale AGBONJIMI, Rachel Omolara AINA, Praise Oladeji ALABI Possibility of realizing Green Innovation by Urban Social Enterprises in Indonesia 2021-07-09T11:56:28+00:00 Filipus Priyo Suprobo Arsono Laksmana Fenika Wulani <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This study examines environmental innovation as a prominent strategic issue in the current development of business practices. According to preliminary studies, profit-based business practices are used to determine the success of environmental innovation as superior competitiveness. Countries in Asia prioritize business development based on economic development, with social and environmental functions included in other agendas. However, this is contradictory with the phenomenon of Surabaya, where environmental-based urban social enterprises actors actually complement the role of the city government by carrying out the function of a hybrid organization (profit and social) with environmentally friendly practices. Therefore, this study aims to determine the possibility of urban social enterprises in Indonesia to obtain green innovation. This is a systematic research with 4 (four) strategic factors and conceptual models that makeup 6 (six) propositions formulated based on the scope of knowledge management theory and resource-based view. This conceptual model that connects green knowledge sharing, entrepreneurial orientation, dynamic capability, and innovation performance is still relatively rare and needs to be tested to determine its theoretical resilience. The novelty of this model is formulated from contextual urban and regional social enterprises in Indonesia, therefore, it is expected to provide ready-to-test opportunities to be duplicated in other urban areas in the world that have the same contextual organizational functions and environmentally friendly business base.</span></p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Filipus Priyo Suprobo, Arsono Laksmana, Fenika Wulani Survey and Assessment of Covid-19 Pandemic on the Economy of Tra Vinh Province, Viet Nam and Policy Implications 2021-07-31T16:35:31+00:00 Ha Hong NGUYEN <p>This study aims to evaluate the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on the business performance in Tra Vinh province, Viet Nam and suggests a feasible policy to overcome the challenges in the coming time. By collecting secondary data from the surveyed results report, the authors evaluate the impacts of Covid-19 on the business performance in Tra Vinh province via two surveys announced by Tra Vinh Statistical Office in April 2020 and September 2020; at the same time, by the method of evaluation, comparison and analysis, the current affairs and business activities of Tra Vinh province in the Covid-2019 pandemic period will also be effectively assessed; the effects of the epidemic on the business activities of the local enterprises. At the same time, we propose the implications of policies in the coming time, towards the dual goal of "Preventing of pandemic and ensuring the economic growth in Tra Vinh Province".</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ha Hong NGUYEN Insidious Trauma – Between the Political and the Psychoanalytical 2021-08-25T09:49:18+00:00 Noga Keini Eyal Klonover <p>The article attempts to understand the affliction known as insidious trauma and its link to social and political situations. The medical establishment finds itself hard pressed to provide an adequate response to traumas of social and political origin, rooted in oppressive regimes or environments. To the best of our knowledge the psycho-political model of recovery should take into account active resistance on the part of the individual suffering from insidious trauma. Subjectivity that is exposed to insidious trauma, but is not at the same time exposed to representations of resistance, remains external to the discourse. By assigning a name, a language and a voice to insidious trauma, the discourse is shifted from intrapsychic psychopathology to social psychopathology, thereby imparting to it both a social and a political context.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Noga Keini, Eyal Klonover Ancient Giant Sequoias Are Dying: Scientists Refuse to Acknowledge the Cause 2021-09-06T12:31:28+00:00 J. Marvin Herndon Dale D. Williams Mark Whiteside <p>California’s Giant Sequoias and Coast Redwoods, long symbols of strength, longevity, and resilience, have survived natural climate change for as long as 3,000 years, but are now succumbing to human manipulation of the natural environment. Scientists concerned with the wellbeing of these magnificent trees blame their recent die-offs on climate change, drought, and insects while turning a blind eye to the primary underlying cause: environmental modification by jet-emplacement in the troposphere of toxic particles evidenced as coal combustion fly ash. Said aerosolized particulates cause droughts and deluges, heat the troposphere, contaminate rain, snow, and fog with plant-killing toxins including chemically-mobile aluminum, coat foliage, and exacerbate forest fires. The aerial spraying depletes stratospheric ozone, allowing damaging ultraviolet radiation B and C to reach Earth’s surface. These environmental stressors weaken the trees to the point they are attacked by insects and pathogenic fungi. Here we disclose the unspoken, underlying cause of the die-offs of Giant Sequoias and Coast Redwoods. Through a diabolically-deceptive, <em>Trojan horse</em>, United Nations’ International Treaty the governments of sovereign nations were coerced to wage environmental warfare against their own citizens and the natural environment under the guise of peaceful environmental modification. Remaining trees, and indeed much of the life on Earth, can only be saved if this environmental modification is halted.</p> 2021-09-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 J. Marvin Herndon, Dale D. Williams, Mark Whiteside Facilitation and Service Delivery in the National Police Service in Nairobi County, Kenya 2021-08-25T09:40:35+00:00 Bernard Kibeti Nassiuma Humphrey Young Ogola David Mwangi Kung’u <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of facilitation on service delivery in the National Police Service (NPS), Nairobi County, Kenya. The study was anchored on the New Public Management Theory; it heralds the transformation of citizens into customers of public services who deserve feedback on police service delivery.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Pragmatic philosophical approach was used to support this study. The qualitative and quantitative methods of inquiry were used to generate evidence to support the evaluation. The target population for the study was 2100 police officers in Nairobi County from which a sample of 215 respondents was selected using simple random sampling techniques. While the members 105 of the public were purposely selected. Questionnaires and key informant interview guides were the main data collection tools used in the study. The qualitative data were thematically analyzed while the quantitative data were analyzed using frequency counts, means, standard deviation, multiple regression, chi-square tests, and Pearson and Spearman rank correlation.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong>&nbsp; The majority of the respondents in the study were males aged between 26-35 years and over 60% of the respondents were of the opinion that police reforms had increased police mobility. Equally, the majority (64%) indicated that the infrastructure was poor, in addition to poor feedback mechanisms, which affected effective service delivery.</p> <p><strong>Contribution to Theory Practice and Policy:</strong>&nbsp; The study points out the key factors which hinder effective service delivery in the Kenya Police service despite the implementation of police service reforms.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> <em>Facilitation, Service Delivery, Police Reforms, National Police Service</em></p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Professor Bernard Kibeti Nassiuma, Mr. Humphrey Young Ogola, Dr. David Mwangi Kung’u ORGANIZATIONAL CAPACITY AND UTILIZATION OF EVALUATION RESULTS 2021-04-19T09:26:51+00:00 Edwin Ochieng Okul <p>A major concern in programme management, given the potential of programme or project evaluations to inform decision-making, has been how to ensure the results or findings of an evaluation are used for the intended purpose. How information from an evaluation process and/or the products are used in practice and decision making is equally a concern for evaluators. This article presents a research that sought to explore the extent to which organizational capacity impacts the utilization of evaluation findings for programme improvement. Guided by the pragmatic paradigm and informed by the Utilization Focused Evaluation Model and Knowledge Use Theory, the research adopted a descriptive and correlational design using mixed methods. The sample size for this study was 232 project staff from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in Kisumu Central Sub-County, Kenya. To analyze qualitative data, the open ended responses from key informant interviews were recorded and coded appropriately for further analysis for themes through content analysis and comparative analysis. Frequencies and percentages were calculated to describe the basic characteristics of the quantitative data. To ensure validity and reliability of the research instruments, pilot testing was conducted. Cronbach’s alpha at α = 0.908 was attained as the reliability coefficient of the pre-test instruments. Tests of statistical assumptions were carried out before data analysis to avoid invalidation. A hypotheses H0<sub>1</sub>: Organizational capacity does not significantly influence utilization of evaluation results was tested at α = .05 level of significance and was rejected since P = 0.000 &lt; 0.05. The study findings demonstrate that there is a significant relationship between organizational capacity and the utilization of evaluation results. This research therefore reinforces literature and helps to understand the ways in which organizational capacity influences the utilization of evaluation results. It thus informs the evaluation field of study, fills gaps in the evaluation use literature and contributes to the appreciation of factors that predict and enhance the utilization of evaluation results.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Edwin Ochieng Okul Peer Variables and Academic Identification of Senior Secondary School Students in Uyo Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State 2021-08-19T12:15:12+00:00 Hannah Bassey Isong victor Ugochukwu Cornelius Christopher Okoro Nsika-Abasi Udofia <p>The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate the relationship between peer variables (peer acceptance, peer support and peer loyalty) on young adolescents’ academic identification. The sub variables; PA, PS and PL were examined using a researcher made instrument titled&nbsp; School Peer Variable Questionnaire ( α=0.86). Academic Identification was measured using the standardized Osborne (1997) Identification with Academic Scale which has (r 0.92). Sample selected was (N&nbsp; = 544). Responses were scored and hypotheses tested at .05 level of significance using the PPMC. Findings revealed the importance of peer relationship on both academic and emotional adjustment of adolescent learners. Peer acceptance, support and loyalty were found to improve learners' chances of achieving positive academic outcomes.&nbsp; The&nbsp; implication for educators and other stakeholders in adolescent care giving and teaching is for them to understand the importance of maintaining healthy peer relationships for young learners as&nbsp; teacher and peer&nbsp; acceptance, peer support and peer loyalty&nbsp; help them meet psychogenic needs and promote their academic motivation, self-concept, participation, classroom engagement, and feelings of belongingness in the school .Thus, findings have immense significance for educational research and practice, and also bodes well for teachers and counselors in Nigerian secondary schools. urban, ethnically</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hannah Bassey Isong, victor Ugochukwu, Cornelius Christopher Okoro, Nsika-Abasi Udofia Criticism of the Concepts of Diversity and Inclusion in Western Countries 2021-09-01T13:01:01+00:00 Carl H. D. Steinmetz <p>This article answers the question, "is the use of the words inclusion and diversity an expression of institutional racism?" In almost all Western countries, immigrants and refugees barely penetrate all levels of organizations. Immigrants and refugees are mostly found in the lower echelons of an organization. To put it irreverently: the dirtier and heavier the work, the more immigrants and refugees are found there. Also in governments and parliaments immigrants (not even the second, third and fourth generation) are hardly to be found. So the good example is lacking. This article starts with an etymological examination of inclusion and diversity. The outcome is briefly summarized: " we want YOU -immigrant and/or refugee- to come and work for us because we are not allowed to hire only natives". That human rights are violated in this way does not seem to be an issue. Furthermore, we argue that it is precisely the words inclusion and diversity that prevent the recruitment of immigrants and refugees, as well as expats who have lost their jobs, from being given a high priority. This article proposes two new terms as just and equitable alternatives to inclusion and diversity. First, the statistical concept of representative and second, in support of the static concept of representative, the concept of wanting to be a mirror of the population from the neighbourhood, city or country that the leadership of the company or institution believes should be part of the work organization and from low to high. To further support this argument to replace the concepts of inclusion and diversity, Moscovici's (2001) concept of social representation is used. This article also looks at existing toolboxes and toolkits that Western countries have developed to ensure that organizations of governments, institutions independent of government, and businesses are representative of neighbourhoods, cities, and countries. Companies in particular are committed to this because they understand better than anyone that their paying customers are also immigrants, refugees and expats. This knowledge of toolboxes and toolkits was helpful in developing a guideline for organizations of governments, institutions independent of government and companies and therefore also parliaments and governments. The guideline also addresses violations of this guideline. To address violations, it proposes a self-learning model for teams in organizations that is also consistent with enforcing the Working Conditions Act in Western countries.</p> 2021-09-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Carl H. D. Steinmetz The NCP 5 – Tangible Fixed Assets 2021-08-24T15:15:33+00:00 Adalmiro Andrade Pereira <p>2015 saw an important step in the accounting reform in Portugal. On September 11, 2015, the Accounting Standardization System for Public Administrations (SNC-AP) was approved through Decree-Law No. 192/2015, which revokes the Official Public Accounting Plan (POCP) and establishes an accounting standard aligned with international accounting standards.</p> <p>The development of this work is based on content analysis focused on Public Accounting Standard 5, NCP 5, which was broken down into the respective chapters of the regulations.</p> <p>In this way, to reach the objective of the study, work was developed on several themes, which are essentially based on the chapters of NCP 5. In this way, the topics covered are: Objectives, Scope and Definitions, Measurement, Recognition and Derecognition; and, in order to better contextualize and exemplify the practical application of the standard, we will find, at the end of this work, some practical situations.</p> 2021-09-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adalmiro Andrade Pereira Critical Analysis on the Women Employees Work-life Balance during Covid-19 Pandemic in the Airline Industry in Sultanate of Oman. 2021-09-11T19:57:59+00:00 Ghalia AlRaiisi <p>It has always been a difficult challenge to achieve a satisfactory work-life balance for everyone working in different industries. Still, it is a lot difficult to maintain, especially for women. The purpose of this paper is to find out the problems encountered by women employees of the Airline Industry in Sultanate of Oman to keep up the work-life balance during pandemic while upholding their physical and mental health status at best. This study intends to perceive how the women employees of the Airline Industry in the Sultanate of Oman maintained the work from home because it is not easy to do the house chores and office work at the same time (Moosa, 2017). The existing problems because of the pandemic pushed women employees' mental and physical health at the edge. However, pandemics also open a new gate for women employees to go beyond their limitations and to fight and compete in such situations. The paper has also covered some restrictions about the study with a detailed discussion on the background, scope, and significance of deconstruction. The ongoing research is also about seeking out some solutions for women employees to balance work and life. Further, the paper also includes a few bits of advice for the Airline Industry in the Sultanate of Oman that what steps it should take to make life easy for women employees to attain work-life balance.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ghalia AlRaiisi Moon Triggers “Menstrual Clock” 2021-08-21T12:12:56+00:00 Y. V. Subba Rao <p>The study presents that Human Basal Ganglia situated underneath the Human Brain is a plausible reflection of the Solar System wherein the nine celestial bodies are the cosmic counterparts of the nine Basal Nuclei Orders in many aspects such as their orbital location and their significations in astrology of their organization and functions. Moon, the cosmic counterpart of Hypothalamus, together with the other messengers, namely the pituitary gland and the ovary, plausibly regulate human female menstrual cycle. The releasing of hormones by Hypothalamus and its messengers in a rhythmic fashion appear to be the result of variation in the intensity of lunar magnetism. Human females plausibly have an internal ‘menstrual clock’ that helps them anticipate and adapt to the regular rhythm so that it is synchronized with the Moon’s revolutions.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Y. V. Subba Rao Implications of Freire’s Pedagogy for Almajiri Education System in Nigeria 2021-09-07T17:39:36+00:00 Taofik Hussain <p>..</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Taofik Hussain Alea Ke Pau or Negotiated Evaluation: A Vital Concept in Pacific Health Promotion 2021-08-31T15:18:09+00:00 Malakai Ofanoa Samuela Ofanoa Stephen Buetow <p>For Pacific peoples, health promotion, community nursing and community development initiative over many years, has often been conducted within a framework of one-sided decision-making. There is always an imbalance between the power relationships of the community being studied and those of the researchers or health practitioners. As a result, there is lack of understanding on the part of the researchers and the health funding agencies of the need to negotiate processes with members of the community being studied or engaging with. All of this are within an overarching lack of understanding of, and respect for, Pacific cultural values, frameworks and Pacific ways of doing things. This paper seeks to explore an alternative concept whereby these values are acknowledged. This concept is metaphorically called “<em>alea ke pau” (</em>or, negotiated evaluation). This approach is forward-looking and one that respects a ‘bottom-up’ view rather than the traditional ‘top-down’ view of health work and funding agencies.</p> <p>However, using two Pacific research methodologies called <em>Talanga</em> and <em>Kakala</em>, to explore the concept of <em>alea ke pau </em>were held with five men’s focus groups operating within Kava Clubs in Auckland, New Zealand, and five focus groups in Tonga. The results from these discussions are presented demonstrating the development and application of the “alea ke pau” or “negotiated evaluation” approach.&nbsp;</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Malakai Ofanoa, Samuela Ofanoa, Stephen Buetow Impact of Online Promoting Techniques on Moving Forward the Status of Businesses within the covid-19 Circumstance: Ghana as the Merging Point. 2021-09-01T11:46:36+00:00 ELVIS SELASE APHU Ekor Sophia Enyonam Abra <p>The expanding improvement of data innovation and communication has delivered a wide impact on commerce processes. The Web has made it conceivable to reach universal markets as the foremost successful means of electronic showcasing or marketing with worldwide scope. Be that as it may, in Ghana, numerous companies were ignorant of the need of utilizing different showcasing and online promoting strategies and their impacts on companies' circumstances until basic circumstances such as this so-called pandemic. This article looks at the definitions and standards of showcasing and online deals, e-commerce, their pros and cons to thrust companies and teach to utilize this kind of marketing and business. This ponder demonstrates that this sort of promoting and exchange as a vital and competitive advantage has contributed altogether to deals development and expanded the share of the inner and outside market share to Ghanaian companies within the competitive age. With the expanding world competition and the predominance of the Coronavirus, get to worldwide markets has gotten to be more complicated, and the require for modern worldwide devices and strategies can be of incredible offer assistance in this respect. The shrewd utilize of e-commerce innovation can offer assistance Ghanaian companies move forward exchange proficiency, make more dynamic cooperation within the worldwide exchange field and offer assistance fortify the country’s position on territorial and worldwide markets.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ELVIS SELASE APHU, Ekor Sophia Enyonam Abra 21st Century Skills of Junior High School Science Teachers: A Training Needs Assesment 2021-08-28T18:37:21+00:00 Alibai Unsi SAMER G. MENTOK SOLAYHA A. SAM <p>Classroom teachers need to be familiar with 21<sup>st</sup> century skills and integrate them throughout the curriculum as these directly impact teaching and learning. This study assessed the 21<sup>st</sup> century skills of Junior High School Science teachers of Cotabato City Division as a form of training needs assessment for professional development. This study also answered the level of proficiency of the respondents in terms of Learning and Innovation Skills, information, media and technology skills, and career and life skills. This study used descriptive quantitative approach using a questionnaire adapted from framework developed by the Partnership for 21<sup>st</sup> Century Learning (P21). The analysis and interpretation used descriptive and inferential statistics. The Learning and Innovation Skills got the lowest grand mean, while the information, media and technology got the highest grand mean. There is no statistically significant difference between the mean ratings of the proficiency of the skills of the teachers and the administrators. This study concludes that the Junior High School Science teachers of Cotabato City Division have highly practiced/ applied 21<sup>st</sup> Century Skills. The means revealed that the respondents are most proficient information, media and technology skills and are less proficient in Learning and Innovation Skills.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alibai Unsi, SAMER G. MENTOK, SOLAYHA A. SAM Impact of Covid-19 HRM Challenges on HRM Practices for Routing the Post Pandemic: A Study with Special Reference to Oil & Gas Companies in Oman 2021-09-09T05:22:13+00:00 PORKODI S <p>Human Resources Management is an important element to the success and progress of any organization, the uniqueness of HRM practices is considered as a possible competitive tool and the central value of the company. In this research, an attempt was made to study the impact of HRM challenges on post-COVID-19 HRM practices. The practices include health and safety, work schedule, cooperation communication, training, and recruitment and selection. The respondents of the study were different levels of managers working in oil and gas companies in Oman. An online questionnaire was used to collect data from 130 respondents. &nbsp;This research concludes that the level of HRM challenges has highly significant with the age group of the respondents. In addition, multiple linear regression was applied and the study revealed that three variables are highly significant with the post-COVID HRM practices. Those variables represent health issues in the Pandemic situation, difficulty in balancing between work and life, and difficulty in strategic focus during this pandemic. These variables underwent most of the post-COVID HRM practices in the Oil and gas companies in Oman.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 PORKODI S Informed Consent as a Challenge to Social Research Execution in Nigeria 2021-08-27T10:38:38+00:00 Edebiri Stanley Egharevba Sunny Osayande Osahon Odemwingie <p>..</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Edebiri Stanley Egharevba, Sunny Osayande, Osahon Odemwingie Antecedents and Consequences of Employee Well-Being: Empirical Study on Saudi Aramco 2021-09-08T15:38:59+00:00 Mansour Alghamdi Siew-Imm Ng Jo Ann Ho Akram Abdulsamad Sridar Ramachandran <p>This study addresses how employee well-being and knowledge sharing behavior can be managed within challenging work factors in the workplace environment. Besides identifying antecedents to well-being, it also seeks to examine the impact of well-being (psychological, physical, and social) on knowledge sharing behavior (tacit and explicit). The methodology of research in the present study is quantitative. The survey technique was used in data collection, it was conducted among 362 Saudi Aramco employees using the judgmental sampling method. Smart PLS was used for analyzing data. The findings illustrated that 1. Job hazards were found to affect the physical well-being of employees significantly. 2. As a result of improvement in physical and social well-being, better knowledge-sharing behavior in both tacit and explicit dimensions was demonstrated. In specific, tacit knowledge-sharing behavior is motivated more by physical well-being while explicit knowledge-sharing behavior is by social well-being. 3. Workplace conflict is found positively related to social well-being, contradicting hypothesized relationship. This seems to indicate Saudi Aramco employees embrace differences in view, beliefs, and feelings at work, and open discussion of conflicts enhances their social well-being. This study provides ideas to human resource management on strategies to enhance employee well-being for improved knowledge sharing behavior. Also, managers are encouraged to use open debates of differing views to resolve work matters professionally. This study deviates from current employee well-being studies by recognizing three different types of employees well beings (psychological, physical, and social) that contribute differently to knowledge sharing behavior. Also, it identifies factors that determine employee well beings.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mansour Alghamdi, Siew-Imm Ng, Jo Ann Ho, Akram Abdulsamad , Sridar Ramachandran Interrogating Factors Affecting the Choice and Utilisation of Online Learning Technologies for A Higher Education Institution 2021-09-08T08:58:17+00:00 Cosmas Maphosa Talent Rugube Khetsiwe Eunice Mthethwa-Kunene Patience Dlamini <p>ABSTRACT&nbsp;</p> <p>This desktop review paper advances the view that the utilisation of technology for online teaching and learning needs to be based on sound considerations. Online learning technologies are defined and the purpose of utilising such technologies is explored. Among the different considerations in online technology utilisation is the need to consider how the technologies assist in solving pedagogical challenges for teaching and learning. The context in which the learners and the course instructors find themselves using the technologies may promote or negate the effective use of the technology. Technology may be costly to procure and maintain, and this factor should be considered before the technology is procured for use in an institution of higher education. In many contexts, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, the digital divide is real in terms of access to technologies and the skills in technology use. The use of technology may perpetuate social differences as learners from disadvantaged backgrounds end up being left out of the learning process. Organisational and infrastructural issues are other important factors to consider in technology utilisation. The paper concludes that technology utilisation for online teaching and learning should be deliberately planned to consider numerous factors and address avoidable challenges in the implementation of online learning.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Prof., Talent Rugube, Dr, Patience Dlamini The Ripple Effects of Maritime Piracy and Armed Robbery in the Gulf of Guinea 2021-09-07T18:40:33+00:00 Nana Boateng <p>The acts of piracy had bedeviled mankind for many centuries though the modus operandi of this sinister act keeps changing over the years. The core concept still remains the same. It usually involves an armed attack at sea for a vessel, its cargo, crew or all of the three. The stage is set at sea, but the fall out effects are far reaching than we can imagine. There are political, economic social, security and environmental implications. All these aggregates or determinants are intertwined and have adverse consequences on all the stakeholders. Failed states political instability has become fertile grounds for pirates or sea armed robbers. Economically, the disruption of free movement of vessels, capture of crew for ransom has adversely affected the prices of goods at its final destination. This paper seeks to examine the relationships and effects these attacks have on the various facets of the marine logistic chain. The socio-economic model of Dr Kenneth McLeroy is used to explain the various linkages existing between these determinants viz economic perspective, social perspective, environmental perspective and political instability. Finally, the relevance of maritime security in the sphere of governance and the ability of institutions which would use the safety of our oceans is examined.</p> 2021-09-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nana Boateng