https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/feed Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2022-09-13T15:51:23+00:00 Florence Arthur assrj@scholarpublishing.org Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for the researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly in the domain of Accounting and Finance, Advertisement, Behavioural Sciences, Business Management, Contemporary business issues, Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance, Cultural studies, Developmental economics, Economics, Econometrics, Entrepreneurship and small business management, Finance, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Management Sciences, Operation and Production Management, Organizational Behaviour, Portfolio management, Research Methods in Business, Social ethics in various societies.</p> https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13026 Gender Through the Lens of Children’s Films 2022-08-23T16:25:23+00:00 ZoraAnn Woodsmall schare@ius.edu Sara Hare schare@ius.edu <p><strong>This content analysis study sheds light on the gender inequality in popular children’s animated films. The dataset uses the North American theater grosses to rank the most popular 150 animated children’s films from 1990-2020. We found multiple patterns of gender inequality related to speaking roles, lead characters, physical portrayals, social roles, interpersonal relationships, and even the creators of the films. Male characters had three times as many speaking roles as female characters and had the lead role in 80% of the films. Correspondingly, 80% of the film creators (writers, directors, and producers) were male. Films that passed the Bechdel test had twice as many female writers as those that failed the test. The inequality and gender stereotyping one sees in the real world is reflected in this study of children’s films. Animated films are a popular media outlet for children, and this study highlights the impact that these skewed representations can have on children.</strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 ZoraAnn Woodsmall, Sara Hare https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13019 The Rationale Behind the Influence of English on Modern Colloquial Sinhala Language 2022-08-23T05:09:56+00:00 Upul Priyantha Gamage upulpg@bpu.ac.lk Nipunika Dilani nipunika@bpu.ac.lk <p><strong>The causes of language influence that come under contact linguistics is a topic of common interest among linguistic academics nowadays. Sinhala is the majority language in Sri Lanka that has evolved over 2000 years and during this long retro, it has had both oriental and occidental language influences while the major impact has received from western languages after colonising the country. This piece of research employed two primary data collection methods: participatory observation and chunk recordings while collecting secondary data from the previous literature. As the sampling strategy, we used convenient sampling and the analytical technique of data was content analysis. The main objective of conducting this research was to find out the exact causes of the English language influence on modern colloquial Sinhala over the last 200 years. The study has established the main causes of English language influence on modern colloquial Sinhala as linguistic and cultural hegemony, colonisation, American expansion, superiority of social class, globalisation, commercial, industrial and religious factors while language contact is recognised as an umbrella term for these root causes. In conclusion, there have been two broad directions of these causes of English language influence that had taken place. At the beginning of the colonial rule, it had become top-bottom and now it has transferred to bottom-up, and the influence of English in the modern period on Sinhala has become complementary and multidimensional while the political influence behind the process in its nature is soft and arbitrary.</strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Upul Priyantha Gamage, Nipunika Dilani https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13040 An Exploration of the Personal Non-Work Factors Affecting Employee Engagement When Working from Home 2022-08-24T18:16:10+00:00 Raghu Krishnamoorthy raghuclo@upenn.edu <p class="APA"><strong><span lang="EN-US">This paper reports on the research investigating the personal, non-work factors that influence the employee engagement of those working remotely from home. As corporations moved their workers to work from home because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the dynamics of work and the workplace evolved, with new, non-work-related human variables acquiring significance. Emerging research indicates that working from home is here to stay, making it necessary to understand and factor in those non-work elements in employee-related decision making. This exploratory qualitative study examines the crucial non-work elements influencing employee engagement based on the lived experiences of twenty-three employees who began working from home during the pandemic. Findings reveal that concerns about health, well-being, and work-life balance influence employee engagement when people work from home. The paper suggests that decision-makers look at the results of this study when answering important questions about the future of work and how things that do not have anything to do with work could affect how engaged employees are when they work from home. </span></strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Raghu Krishnamoorthy https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13027 Religion and the Prevention of Hate Speech: Increasing Inclusivity through the Concept of the Malaysian Family 2022-08-24T04:26:23+00:00 Munif Zarirruddin Fikri Nordin munif@uum.edu.my <p><strong>Religion plays an important role in the prevention of hate speech through the spiritual aspect as well as the morality aspect, particularly in differentiating between good and bad, and right and wrong. In Malaysia, the latest concept, that of ‘the Malaysian Family’ (Keluarga Malaysia), which was introduced in October 2021, embraces three characteristics, namely inclusivity, common ground, and contentment. The enrichment of values under these characteristics mainly focuses on strengthening the big family of Malaysia, including the prevention of hate speech. However, what are the religious values in the concept of the Malaysian Family and how to increase inclusivity through the concept to prevent hate speech need to be studied. This study aims to (1) identify the religious values in the concept of the Malaysian Family, that pertain to the prevention of hate speech, and (2) explain the strategy for increasing inclusivity through the concept to prevent hate speech. The data of the study comprise the religious values, related to courtesy and morality, taken from the Quran, as well as the seven enriching values that fall under the characteristic of inclusivity in the concept. The findings show that there are a number of religious values related to courtesy and morality in the concept, which pertain to the prevention of hate speech. The findings also show that the seven enriching values under the characteristic of inclusivity in the concept, need effective strategies for preventing hate speech, such as enhancing the role of religious leaders and the media. </strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Munif Zarirruddin Fikri Nordin https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/12995 Perceptions of "Incurable" Diseases and Therapeutic Responses among Traditional Healers in the District of Abidjan 2022-08-20T01:20:42+00:00 Adiko Francis Adiko adiko.francis2@gmail.com Kouakou Gérard N'Goran ngorangerard@gmail.com Kouakou Adrien Koua kouakouakouadrien@yahoo.fr <p><strong>In Africa and particularly in Côte d'Ivoire, traditional medicine highlights the consideration of the association between biological, psychological and social factors within the framework of public health policies. But in reality, it is clear that there is a neglect of the psychosocial dimension in favor of the biomedical aspects, even on the part of traditional healers in the management of incurable diseases. Indeed, traditional medicine seems to be part of a process of reduction to phytotherapy drugs while ignoring its cultural basis. The question is to know which posture and which approach appear to be the most appropriate in the evaluation, prevention and treatment of complex diseases. The objective of this research is to describe and analyze the perceptions of the causes of so-called "incurable" diseases and the therapeutic responses proposed by traditional healers. The methodology was based on documentary research and semi-structured interviews with 30 traditional healers in the district of Abidjan. The results show that the perception of causes and therapeutic responses are surrounded by complexity. This research has therefore highlighted the fact that people with an incurable disease are considered by traditional healers as people in need of psychosocial care. Ultimately, it should be noted that traditional medicine offers an alternative response to the management of so-called incurable diseases in the district of Abidjan. These characteristics of the perception of causes and therapeutic responses are parameters to be considered in the management of so-called incurable diseases in African society.</strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adiko Adiko Francis, N'Goran Kouakou Gérard, Koua Kouakou Adrien https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13103 Risk Management Strategies During COVID-19 in Higher Education: A Case Study 2022-09-03T15:59:12+00:00 Areesha Siddiq areeshasiddiq@yahoo.com <p><strong>The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly impacted Pakistan’s educational sector and has induced higher education institutions (HEIs) to adopt risk management strategies to mitigate the spread of the COVID-19 virus. This study analyzes the risk management strategies employed by Pakistani higher education during COVID-19. The study employed semi-structured interviews, and the qualitative data was collected with objective findings and subjective interviews from 20 respondents working in different academic and administrative positions. This study identifies the challenges the HEIs face to maintain quality education while implementing control measures to maintain health and safety, cope with the shift to online learning, and continuously monitor mitigating measures on campus. In addition, the study provides recommendations based on the challenges perceived by the higher education institutions to implement better risk management strategies, including research-based education, staff training and sensitization, and strict control measures. Lastly, the study provides future directions that suggest analyzing the risk management processes followed by different HEIs around the globe.</strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Areesha Siddiq https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/12952 Teaching and Learning Chemistry and Physics with a Laboratory Stations Model in a Flipped Classroom – A Preliminary Report 2022-08-16T04:46:24+00:00 Isabel Ribau Coutinho i.coutinho@campus.fct.unl.pt <p><strong>This research presents the efforts, to help students, hindered during the COVID19 pandemic, to learn chemistry. With the pandemic, Portuguese students that enrolled in the 10<sup>th</sup> grade in September 2021, had lower experience in the experimental work, since practical classes at school were suspended from mars 2019 to September 2021. So, students had difficulties in measuring or working with simple laboratory apparatus. They had difficulties in giving meaning to the experimental procedure, describing an observation, collecting data, analyzing data, and interpreting the results. In this context, it was necessary to have a learning and teaching approach different from the one they had in the last three years, to develop the skills they need. The first proposal was to use “Practical work by laboratory stations but it was not enough in the present context. So, a new learning and teaching project that blended digital tools/platforms and practical work in the laboratory was conceived. This learning and teaching project uses hybrid learning environments, based on practical work by laboratory stations, developed according to the collaborative Peer Instruction approach in a flipped classroom environment. The project's main goals were to develop scientific skills (like planning, collecting data observing and measuring, classifying, quantifying, predicting, controlling variables, interpreting, forming conclusions, and communicating) and increase their motivation to learn Chemistry and Physics. But also study the impact of the flipped classroom with laboratory stations, on motivation, self-regulation of learning, the perception of self-efficacy to self-regulate learning and the perceived instrumentality of the self-regulation process. The study population is the students enrolled in the 10th grade (upper secondary school), in a school near Lisbon. The research project was implemented in two classes: one class were subject to the new approach (one in the 10 grade), and the other maintained the regular practice (the control group).&nbsp; In this paper, the results from the first year will be presented and discussed. The data were collected in two moments, in September 2021 and June 2020. The preliminary results, of this research, show that laboratory classes with the flipped room increase not only the motivation and involvement in the learning process but also, the learning outcomes as students become more involved in the tasks.</strong></p> 2022-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Isabel Ribau Coutinho https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/12944 Means of Electronic Communication and its Impact on Feelings and Behavior of Individuals 2022-08-13T13:35:37+00:00 Nihad Ibrahim Badr Barakati mag_ali45@hotmail.com <p><strong>The phenomenon of addiction to the use of social media on the Internet has become noticeably prevalent among young people and adolescents. Therefore, this study sought to find out whether there is a direct relationship between Internet addiction, psychological alienation, and emotional relationships, and whether there are statistically significant differences in (internet addiction, psychological alienation, emotional relationships) due to the economic level, and Whether there are statistically significant differences attributed to gender and educational qualification in both electronic communication addiction, emotional relationships, and psychological alienation, in addition to spreading awareness among families about the danger of excessive use of electronic means of communication on adolescents and youth and clarifying the psychological, social and behavioral problems resulting from it. The current study released on the descriptive survey method, and the study sample included (74) respondents from young people and adolescents of both sexes in the Makkah region. A questionnaire was developed to collect the data needed for this study by reviewing the relevant literature. The questionnaire consisted of two parts: the first section included demographic data for the sample members, namely gender, social status, educational level, economic level, and the number of hours of internet use per day. The second section included the next main themes of the study: The first axis: addiction to electronic media; the second axis: the impact of Internet addiction on the behavior of individuals (emotional behavior); the third axis: the impact of Internet addiction on the occurrence of psychological alienation among adolescents and young adults. Among the most important findings of the study is the existence of a direct relationship between the study variables (internet addiction, psychological alienation and emotional relationships), meaning that the greater the internet addiction, the greater the psychological alienation and emotional relationships, and vice versa. The study recommended holding training courses for parents on how to deal with children in light of the globalization of the Internet, providing oversight from a specialist to combat Internet products and markets, and providing control and control programs.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Nihad Ibrahim Badr Barakati https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13058 Basic Education Concerns Under the Double Alleviation Policy and Countermeasures: A Case Study of Taizhou City in China 2022-08-28T08:27:55+00:00 Yanyan Yu rgtian@yahoo.com <p><strong>When the Double Alleviation policy was issued, the People’s Republic of China Law on Family Education Promotion was also released. The author identifies three significant problems in primary and secondary education using the questionnaire survey: the anxiety of students, parents and teachers; the unbalanced distribution of quality educational resources; and the lack of innovative power in school education management. In this regard, it proposes to build a new system of shared governance among stakeholders through multi-party efforts, develop a systematic plan to promote the balanced development of high-quality educational resources and improve the mechanism to broaden the channels for teacher professional development in primary and secondary education. At the same time, it proposes to integrate resources for increased instructions of comprehensive courses and integrate the social welfare services of universities with the primary and secondary education off-campus activity platforms.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Yanyan Yu https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13057 Expressions and Meanings: A Phenomenological Approach to Semantics 2022-08-28T08:23:35+00:00 Desmond Auffrey LIELE MADZOU claverboundja@gmail.com <p><strong>This article aims to analyze the relationship between ''saying'' and the ''meaning of saying'' under the banner of phenomenology. It is a question of resolving the conflict between the enunciation as the communicative background of an axiom and the content of knowledge as the intention of a thing. This is the problem of language and of the ontological description of the expressed object. This research tends to put back on the table of philosophy the claim of formal logic to want, wrongly, to claim to define the fundamental meanings by semantics. This research aims to posit saying as an expression referring to something. It reveals the uniqueness that naturally exists between saying and meaning in the noema-noesis relationship. Aware that all of life is language, this article sets out to establish the distinction between modes of reasoning and forms of reasoning in order to account for meanings as the meaning of saying. By scrutinizing the notion of judgment, it follows that significations as expressed meaning are phenomena.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Desmond Auffrey LIELE MADZOU https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13035 The Protection of Movable Cultural Heritage 2022-08-24T14:07:44+00:00 José Luís Bonifácio Ramos jlr2005@sapo.pt <p>.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 José Luís Bonifácio Ramos https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13047 The Musical Orchestra Leadership: An Imagery of Participative and Relational Societal Leadership Style 2022-08-25T15:55:13+00:00 Adeola Funmilayo ODUNUGA isaac.ajenifuja@gmail.com Isaac A. Yekini-Ajenifuja isaac.ajenifuja@gmail.com <p><strong>The issue of leadership in society has been of major concern from times immemorial, this is because it is believed that the quality of leadership is one of the major determinants of societal development. The existing societal leadership style in Nigeria seems not to help the populace in meeting societal needs and satisfying human aspirations, hence there is a need for an improved leadership style that will help in the attainment of societal and individual goals. Using existing leadership theories, this paper explains the ideals of a good participative and relational leadership style using metaphoric inference of an orchestra and its conductor. &nbsp;The study is an ethnographic study that used oral interviews and other qualitative techniques to obtain its information. The research discovered that with a competent leader (conductor) at the head of a team of members (the orchestra), society is capable of doing great as long as everyone does their specific roles. &nbsp;Societies will fare well if the ideas of this imagery are adopted. The paper recommends that the younger generation should be encouraged to learn and adopt participative and relational leadership styles. </strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adeola Funmilayo ODUNUGA, Isaac A. Yekini-Ajenifuja https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13030 The Importance of Parent/Child Communications About Children’s Savings Accounts for Developing a College-Bound Identity 2022-08-24T12:22:57+00:00 Haotian Zheng zhenght@wustl.edu William Elliott willelli@umich.edu Megan O'Brien megobr@umich.edu <p><strong>Children’s Savings Accounts (CSAs) not only can help children and families to pay for expenses related to postsecondary education but also produce positive social and psychological effects, such as children’s college-bound identity. In this sense, CSAs provide a rich context for parent and child to communicate about college and ultimately for children to co-construct a college-bound identity with parents. This study examines the relationship between parent/child communication about participation in CSA and children’s college-bound identity. Using data from 506 parent/child dyads participating in the Promise Scholars CSA, we examine if parent/child communications about their CSA are associated with a stronger college-bound identity, an important predictor of future academic success. Propensity score weighting is performed to minimize the impact of selection bias. Multiple imputations are performed to handle missing data. We find evidence of higher college-bound identity scores among communicator dyads compared to non-communicator dyads and the comparison group. We also find that the difference in college-bound identity scores is not statistically significant between non-communicator dyads and the comparison group. Given this finding, CSA programs may consider interventions that may facilitate parent/child communications about their CSA as a way of encouraging children to form a college-bound identity. Further, we posit that parent/child communications about CSA are another important way for programs to understand engagement as most programs aim to increase college attendance. Until recently, CSA programs have often narrowly understood engagement as whether families make contributions or not.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Haotian Zheng, William Elliott, Megan O'Brien https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13091 Negotiated Management as a Tool to Achieve Social Control over Political Protest and Social Movement Organizations 2022-09-01T18:26:52+00:00 Tamara J. Lynn TJLynn@fhsu.edu <p><strong>Social movement scholars describe negotiated management as a process of collaboration between those in power and those in resistance.&nbsp; For this research, content analysis and critical discourse analysis are used to evaluate questionnaire responses from law enforcement agencies in communities where competing grassroots political organizations engaged in political protest.&nbsp; Findings indicate that law enforcement exercise different levels of social control toward those least likely to engage in, or submit to, a negotiated management model of policing. I argue that responses toward organizations, as reported in questionnaire responses, demonstrates a structural permanence of social control.&nbsp; Negotiated management between the state and competing grassroots political organizations is a tool used to achieve informal control.&nbsp; Organizations that fail – or choose not – to engage in informal social control of their members risk escalated force by police agencies that seek compliance.&nbsp; Results of this research increase understanding of law enforcement responses to political protest groups.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Tamara J. Lynn https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13099 Delocalisation and Psychosocial Wellbeing of Public Secondary School Principals in Selected Counties in Eastern Region, Kenya 2022-09-02T16:05:33+00:00 Munyiri Stephen jogemboh@yahoo.com John Ogembo jogemboh@yahoo.com Kinyua Susan jogemboh@yahoo.com <p><strong>The Teachers Service Commission proposed and implemented Delocalisation policy among the teaching fraternity in Kenya since 2017 beginning with Principals of Secondary schools and Head teachers of Primary schools. Aimed at giving a national outlook to the management of educational institutions, enhancing cohesion and quality of their management, implementation of the policy has been met with mixed reactions. While proponents link it with improved institutional management, critics have proposed its scraping due to what they allege are its adverse impacts on especially the Principals are Head teachers. Especially said to be adversely affected are the psychosocial wellbeing of the delocalised Principals. This means that implementation of the policy could be adversely affecting the mental as well as the social health of the personnel. However, empirical literature that could directly link the adverse psychosocial effects to implementation of the policy is still limited. This study therefore set out to establish the relationship between delocalisation process and the psychosocial wellbeing of the Principals with a specific focus on Public secondary school Principals in selected Counties in Eastern region in Kenya. A descriptive cross sectional survey was formulated for the study. Data was collected from 277 delocalised Principals, 12 Education officials and 18 Union officials using questionnaires. Data obtained was analysed descriptively and inferentially to put forward recommendations. Findings showed a negative significant relationship between delocalisation process and psychosocial wellbeing of the delocalised Principals implying adverse effect of the process on their psychosocial wellbeing. The relationship was found to be negatively stronger on older Principals compared to relatively younger ones. At the same time it was established that it was dependent on type of school, Principal delocalised to national and extra county schools having a more positive view on the process. It is therefore recommended that implementation of the process should be cautious approach to minimise its adverse effects.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Munyiri Stephen, John Ogembo, Kinyua Susan https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13064 Imperial Patchwork “Flickenteppiche” as a Historical Metaphor for Chaos, Federalism and Diversity 2022-08-29T17:51:49+00:00 Wolfgang Wüst wolfgang.wuest@fau.de <p><strong>With the recent research on the importance of the Estates, whose function often went far beyond questions of taxation, the Imperial Circles and the simultaneous deconstruction of European state formation as an absolutist top-down process the view of the “co-organizing intermediate levels” changed. This is how Johannes Burkhardt described these regional images in 2006 in “Gebhardt. Handbuch der Deutschen Geschichte.” The new view of the Old Empire has been well received by research in regional history, especially since differentiations on small-scale rule and organization in Bavaria, Baden-Württemberg, Hesse, Thuringia, Saxony and other federal states have traditionally been and still are part of the core business of this discipline. “Flickenteppiche” as colourfully woven objects of diversity are certainly still products in demand in the textile industry and consumer society, but they are just as unsuitable as an explanatory model for the coherence of the Empire and its Imperial Circles as they are for analyzing power and rule in the early modern period. In their figurative meaning of the word, patchwork carpets ignore communicative processes for decision-making just as much as they register cross-border action and design as a quantité négligeable.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Wolfgang Wüst https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13042 Modernity and the Question of the Existence of Moral Probabilities 2022-08-25T12:54:28+00:00 Salome Khizanishvili salome.xizanishvili@mail.ru Kakhaber Dzagania salome.xizanishvili@mail.ru Arkadii Butovecky salome.xizanishvili@mail.ru <p>.</p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Salome Khizanishvili, Kakhaber Dzagania, Arkadii Butovecky https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13088 Beauty and the Golden Ratio 2022-09-01T13:51:36+00:00 Luis F. Copertari copertari@yahoo.com Gloria V. Reyna copertari@yahoo.com <p><strong>The ideas of beauty and, specifically, female facial beauty, are developed in depth in this paper, in light of the adjustment of facial beauty to the golden ratio according to the parameters defined for such purpose. An experimental design of our own is made, software for carrying out the experiments is developed and the experimental results are analyzed for both male and female population from the Computer Engineering Program of the Autonomous University of Zacatecas (UAZ) and the Psychology Department, also at UAZ. It is concluded that women are more sensitive than men to the aesthetics dictated by the conformance to the golden ratio. Also, we conclude that the golden ratio does play an important role in female facial beauty perception.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luis F. Copertari, Gloria V. Reyna https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/12839 Goodluck Jonathan, The Champion of Women in the Contemporary Nigeria, 2010-2015: An Appraisal 2022-07-29T10:12:43+00:00 Juliet Chinenye Ibekwe juliet.ibekwe.pg01600@unn.edu.ng Okechukwu Christian Chidiobi juliet.ibekwe.pg01600@unn.edu.ng <p><strong>The meteoric ascendency of Dr. Goodluck Ebele Jonathan to the office of the number one citizen of Nigeria is not just seen by many as providential but could be also termed as a journey of grace. The Goodluck Jonathan’s led administration spanned from 2010 to 2015. He was elected as the 7<sup>th</sup> democratic president of Nigeria in 2011 general/ Presidential election for a four year tenure which ended in 2015 and in which he failed the bid to be reelected. The administration of President Goodluck Jonathan was characterized or bedeviled by severe criticism, a development which contributed largely to his exit in 2015 after just a tenure in office. These criticisms were apparently predicated on a number of pertinent national issues which were economic, socio-political and even religious in nature. The worst being the inability of the government to combat the upsurge in Boko Haram menace, their failure to rescue the alleged abducted Chibok Girls as well as massive cases of corruption among top public office holders and the presumed laissez-faire attitude of the president in addressing the ugly development. In spite of these avalanche of criticisms however, one major area of interest in which the Jonathan’s administration was greatly commended even by the international community was on women empowerment. The administration was adjudged to have performed well above international average of 20%, and it is in view of this that the idea behind this paper is conceived, to appraise the effort of the president in enhancing the status of the Nigerian women. Jonathan appointed many women into positions of authorities and provided avenues by which a good number of them were elected into political offices. There was also empowerment programs such as skill acquisitions and micro-credit loan schemes meant to alleviate the sufferings of the ordinary women and put smiles on their faces. Although this administration could not realize the 5% affirmative action plan recommended as benchmark in Beijing, China in 1985, it is however good to know that about 33% of this well above international average was said to have been achieved. These and a few related issues were discoursed in this paper. Feminist theory was adopted as a theoretical framework to explain the gender based discrimination against women and therefore focuses on promotion of women’s rights and interests. In view of this, measures that could help to end this unhealthy practices and that can free women from the shackles of age-long domination of men were thus suggested.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Juliet Chinenye Ibekwe, Okechukwu Christian Chidiobi https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13111 Soicial Factors and Citizens' Perception of the Police 2022-09-06T13:04:41+00:00 Mark Pullin mark.pullin@angelo.edu <p><strong>Research examining citizen perception of the police have typically looked at expanded views of how the police interact in the community. By narrowing the focus to encompass two principles that associate citizen satisfaction with and perceptions of the police, this paper will include areas that influence satisfaction directly from citizens toward police officers themselves. Moreover, recent research stresses the importance of police/citizen relationships for positive outcomes to occur after interaction. Research regarding race and ethnicity of the citizen is reviewed as well as youth and age to provide context for this article. Demographic variables have been shown to have an impact of citizen perception of the police thus affecting how they view the police and government agencies. Police literature is reviewed as to how these demographics contribute to neighborhood level changes in attitudes toward police officers. Community policing literature and the effects it has on neighborhood social cohesion and collective efficacy is also included. This will lead into a discussion of neighborhood social cohesion and collective efficacy and their impact on citizen perceptions of the police.</strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mark Pullin https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13066 En-garde: Source Evaluations in the Digital Age 2022-08-29T21:33:30+00:00 Courtney A. Denton courtney.dentonhurlbut@mail.mcgill.ca Krista R. Muis krista.muis@mcgill.ca Adam K. Dubé adam.dube@mcgill.ca Skylar Armstrong skylar.armstrong@mail.mcgill.ca <p><strong>Students have difficulty assessing the quality of information. They often rely on content-focused criteria to make reliability assessments and, as a result, may accept inaccurate information. Despite the impact of poor source evaluation skills, educational researchers have not widely examined source evaluation behaviours in authentic environments or tasks. Students’ epistemic cognition, or their thinking about the epistemic properties of specific knowledge claims and sources, is one promising avenue to better understand their source evaluation behaviours. Two studies were conducted to explore students’ epistemic thinking. In Study 1, college students (<em>n </em>= 12) reported their reliability criteria in focus group interviews. Four of these participants (<em>n</em> = 4) also examined the reliability of an online news article. Grounded theory was used to infer students’ epistemic ideals and reliable epistemic processes. In Study 2, students (<em>n </em>= 43) rank-ordered two news articles and justified how they assigned each article’s rank in a written response. Most students were able to accurately rank-order the articles using relevant epistemic processes. Cluster analysis was used to characterize the evaluation criteria used. Surprisingly, more participants who justified their decisions using relevance criteria accurately rank-ordered the articles. The role of direct and indirect indicators of reliability are discussed through the lens of the Apt-AIR framework of epistemic thinking. </strong></p> 2022-09-17T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Courtney A. Denton, Krista R. Muis, Adam K. Dubé, Skylar Armstrong https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13109 The The Chittagonian Coinage of Arakan’s Royal Sons 2022-09-06T04:15:03+00:00 Philip Hauret phauret@hawaii.rr.com <p><strong>A researcher approaching the multi-lingual coins of the former Kingdom of Arakan (circa 1430-1784) must overcome many challenges. Difficult to read specimens, incorrect translations, poor scholarship and at times deficient photography within the existing treatments, when one can find them, are some of the obstacles encountered. Despite all the recent attention the Rohingya controversy has brought to these coins, studying them can still be productive of new information about Arakan. The objectives of this article are relatively modest, nonetheless. It will focus on a particular series of multi-lingual coins issued by a number of Arakanese-appointed governors of the Chittagong region, located in present-day Bangladesh, beginning in the 1570’s and ending circa 1612, with the aim of correcting some mistranslations and errors in descriptions as well as uncovering additional information about these governors, particularly those who were sons of Arakanese kings. It will also assess the effectiveness of the numismatic evidence in approximating the succession of these governors during the subject period. We will be assisted in this endeavor by the sale at auction of a major collection of Chittagonian coins in 2011 by Stephen Album Rare Coins (SARC) of Santa Rosa, California, a numismatic dealer specializing in Asian coinage. This unmatched assemblage of over 75 specimens offers students of Arakanese numismatics an unprecedented opportunity to study these coins, as today’s on-line auctions provide quality digital photography unavailable in the past.</strong></p> 2022-09-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Philip Hauret https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/12866 Absolute Globalization: The Way to Confront the Global Challenges 2022-08-02T12:37:22+00:00 Syod Ahsanul Islam Ashik mdnazmul197@gmail.com Sahariya Afroje mdnazmul197@gmail.com Nazmul Hossain mdnazmul197@gmail.com <p><strong>The world is currently confronted with multidimensional challenges which are cause of concern for the earth’s all living creations. The most remarkable challenges are global warming and global climate changes, tremendous poverty, environment pollution, warfare, antibiotic resistance, migration problems, and the spread of contagious and deadly diseases etc. The adverse effects of these are very devastating. They will affect hydrology and biology of earth, everything including economy, eco-system, and the substances. The challenging factors are interconnected, and acceleration and minimization are interlinked. The study is to analysis the challenges the world is currently confronting with and their potential impacts, the reasons behind the challenges and the potential way to overcome the challenges. The study is based on secondary sources of data and information including scientific and academic journals, scholar articles, research papers, books, and other relevant sources to make a deep analysis, interpretation and re-interpretation and describe and explain the issue of this proposed study. The study recommends <em>‘Absolute Globalization’</em>, an absolute integration of global economic, education, political, and social institutions where regionalism will be the cornerstone of the integration, as the way to confront the challenges. </strong></p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Syod Ahsanul Islam Ashik, Sahariya Afroje, Nazmul Hossain https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13153 Children Playing Video Games During COVID-19 In Spain 2022-09-13T11:48:00+00:00 Carolina Escudero escuderoc@missouri.edu <p><strong>As has been verified, those who spend more time playing video games are children and adolescents. The lockdown caused by the COVID-19 pandemic increased the prolonged use of video games in this population. In this context it is possible to observe some risks of this use, one of them the symptoms of gaming disorder (GD). The objective of this study is to analyze video game habits and the possible impacts on children - aged between 7 and 10 years – gaming for more than 4 hours daily during confinement - the lockdown was announced on March 14, 2020 and lasted approximately three months.- in Spain. Likewise, this study examines how families have acted after the detection of possible dependencies. According to the (10) families interviewed, the children have modified their routines, changed their mood, their symbolic games and –some of them– developed a clear dependency on the screen(s). Faced with this reality, the majority of the families created various strategies in order to modify these new habits and reduce the exposition to video games; others they decided to contact professionals to receive some assistance with their children’s behavior. The lack of knowledge of families about the use of video games is observed in three specific areas: first, knowing if it is an appropriate game for their child's age; second, set time limits; finally in being able to evaluate the dependency to the game. Based on the results, the study of video games in children requires the development of broader, complex and coherent approaches that focuses on the intra-family experience and parents’ skills to be with their children in this context. In addition, approaches that include spaces for the effective education of families about video games, including workshops and tools represent a clear need that could be addressed from schools or related institutions.</strong></p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Carolina Escudero https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13113 The Influence of Academic Stress on Academic Burnout among Middle School Students in Guangdong 2022-09-06T18:30:29+00:00 Hou Yongmei 2184456621@qq.com Wen Dan 2184456621@qq.com <p><strong>Objective To explore the characteristic of academic stress and academic burnout, and analyze the impact of academic stress on academic burnout among middle school students in Guangdong Province, China. Methods A stratified cluster sampling method was used to select 1011 students from 6 middle schools in Guangdong province. Academic Stress Scale for Middle School Students (ASSMSS) and Academic Burnout Scale for Middle School Students (ABSMSS) were used to investigate them. Results ⑴ The total scores of ASSMSS and ABSMSS were (60.86±9.31) and (231.43±37.54), respectively. ⑵ The students with rather serious, serious, general, light academic burnout accounted for 13.60%, 20.53%, 24.43% and 41.44%, respectively. The students with serious, general and light academic stress accounted for 66.32%, 3.81% and 29.87%, respectively. ⑶ the result of multivariate stepwise linear regression showed that the scores of competitive stress, task requirement stress, frustration stress and expectation stress were positively correlated with the total score of ABSMSS (<em>β</em>=.258-.459,all <em>P</em> &lt;.001). Conclusions The academic stress and academic burnout of middle school students in Guangdong are rather serious. Academic stress may be an important influenced factor of academic burnout.</strong></p> 2022-09-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Hou Yongmei, Wen Dan https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13098 Effectiveness and Safety of Acupuncture to Treat Sleep Difficulties in Women on Hormone Replacement Therapy for the Treatment of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial 2022-09-02T15:45:58+00:00 Eva Mazzotti eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Fabrizio Jacoangeli eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Claudia Sebastiani eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Alessandro Scoppola eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Massimo Cerutti eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Patrizia Castellucci eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Franco Menichelli eva.mazzotti@gmail.com Paolo Marchetti eva.mazzotti@gmail.com <p><strong>Sleep difficulties are commonly reported by cancer patients as consequences of cancer or its treatments. Aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture to treat sleep difficulties in breast cancer women on hormone replacement therapy. Methods: 58 breast cancer women were randomized to once weekly acupuncture session for 8 weeks (acupuncture group) or to a standard care session once a week, for 8 weeks (control group). The primary endpoint was change in sleep difficulties and insomnia, as measured by the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), administered at baseline and 8 weeks later. Results: Random assignment produced equivalent groups regarding demographic and clinical characteristics at baseline. After 8 weeks, the changes in sleep quality and quantity were significantly different in the two groups. In the acupuncture group 43.33% go into complete remission (absence of insomnia), but none in the control group, and the mean ISI score decreased from 15.87 (standard deviation, SD= 3.95) to 9.80 (SD= 6.22), in the acupuncture group <em>versus</em> 17.46 to 15.39. No patient reported any problems or discomfort associated with acupuncture. Conclusion: A weekly session of acupuncture may have beneficial effects on quality and quantity of sleep among breast cancer women on hormone replacement therapy, after 8 weeks. The results could have important implications for Public Health to prioritize promotion of healthy sleep and acupuncture may be considered as alternative intervention in healthcare setting to ameliorate cancer patients’ sleep and quality of life.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Eva Mazzotti, Fabrizio Jacoangeli, Claudia Sebastiani, Alessandro Scoppola, Massimo Cerutti, Patrizia Castellucci, Franco Menichelli, Paolo Marchetti https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13071 Increasing Cost and Decreasing Affordability of Higher Education in Bangladesh 2022-08-30T18:21:27+00:00 Mushfek-ul-alam Chowdhury raj2619781@gmail.com Aynul Islam raj2619781@gmail.com <p>.</p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Mushfek-ul-alam Chowdhury, Aynul Islam https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13141 Research on the Establishment and Development Strategy of Calligraphy Characteristic School 2022-09-10T17:44:16+00:00 Pei Liu 592947743@qq.com <p><strong>Calligraphy art is an excellent traditional treasure of China. For Chinese people, calligraphy education is not only the teaching of Chinese character writing skills, but also the cultivation of Chinese culture. It is also the process of experiencing and practicing the rules of square and round, cultivating self-cultivation, aesthetic perception and other spirits in the writing practice. Carrying out characteristic construction reform in schools is an important way to achieve quality education, and creating calligraphy characteristic schools is also an important part of school characteristic construction. The establishment of calligraphy characteristic schools can not only improve students' traditional cultural accomplishment, cultivate their moral sentiments, and cultivate their recognition of the excellent traditional culture of the Chinese nation and national spirit; Moreover, it can promote the development of schools, balance educational resources and promote educational equity. This paper will take school A in Tianfu New District, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China as an example, sort out the construction and development of its calligraphy characteristic schools, refine and form characteristic, effective and referential calligraphy education experience, explore effective strategies, provide strong support for the construction and development of calligraphy education characteristic schools, form templates and paradigms, and further improve the comprehensive quality of calligraphy education characteristic schools as a whole, Promote the comprehensive popularization and high-quality development of calligraphy education.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pei Liu https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13142 Transmitting Values of Acceptance Towards the LGBTQ+ Community Through the Use of Digital Tools in the EFL Classroom 2022-09-11T02:26:02+00:00 Max Goddard maxbg593@gmail.com <p><strong>Studies on teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) have become more and more extensive as the global importance of the English language has increased over the past decades. In a similar way, studies on the topic of the use of digital tools in the EFL classroom have also increased. However, these studies have a strong tendency to focus solely on the linguistic acquisition that can be enhanced in the EFL classroom relevant training should be given to teachers regarding different family types with the use of technology and it being incorporated into lessons. Nonetheless, it is thought that digital tools can also be used for other reasons and purposes, like to promote values of acceptance and diversity towards certain collectives, like the LGBTQ+ community. This paper aims to show the results and findings of a study carried out in the University of Alicante to show the efficiency of using Digital Storytelling the EFL classroom in order to promote values of acceptance as well as improve communication skills.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Max Goddard https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13112 A Plethora of Roles Played by Teacher Unions in Fostering Improved Learning Environment in Schools in Zambia 2022-09-06T13:39:26+00:00 Henry Sinkala henrysink74@gmail.com Francis Simui simuifrancis@gmail.com Gistered Muleya gistered.muleya@unza.zm <p><strong>The study explores a myriad of roles played by Teacher Unions in fostering improved learning environment in selected schools of Lusaka, district, Zambia. A case study design was employed on a target population that comprised 28 participants from primary and secondary schools and teacher unions. Expert Purposive sampling technique was applied to sample participants from teacher union officials in Lusaka District. Data generated through interviews; Focus Group Discussion; and Document Review were thematically analyzed. Emergent from this study is a plethora of roles played by teachers’ unions such as participation in education policy making process, defending teacher members, presiding over disputes between member and the employer and improving peaceful learning environment in schools among others. In addition, Unions were actively engaged in fighting for professional recognition for teachers as well as fairness in promotion. Unions were involved in advocacy in relation to education reforms and teachers’ professional output as well as learner achievement in examinations. Thus, it is recommended among others that, Teacher Unions should enhance their knowledge and skills set to effectively deliver on various divergent mandate areas on behalf of their membership.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Henry Sinkala, Francis Simui, Gistered Muleya https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13148 Dynamics in the Pursuance of Higher Education’s Mandate Amidst Workload Policy: The Optimism for Academics’ Career Growth 2022-09-12T17:05:10+00:00 Maria Kaguhangire-Barifaijo mbkaguhangire@umi.ac.ug <p><strong>The paper explores multiple challenges encountered by academics in an attempt to fulfil the mandate of higher education institutions in Uganda of; teaching, research and service to community.&nbsp; Whereas teaching is the core function of any university, research and the third mission had majorly been used to inform most personnel decisions, thereby threatening not only quality but academics’ enthusiasm and growth. Two HEIs; Makerere University and Uganda Management Institute (UMI), were purposively selected to unravel the underlying dynamics using a descriptive design. It was revealed that university teaching was the most gratifying profession, and a cardinal role why universities exist, but research was a prerequisite for exception instructional delivery, evidence based teaching, institutional and individual visibility. Similarly, masterly through research was provided effective service to the community. Nonetheless, as individual academics strive to balance the three roles of teaching, research and service, the policy on minimum workload that majorly focuses on teaching load, has remained a hurdle, thereby jeopardizing academics’ career growth and progression. Paradoxically, even those who have endeavored to publish, suffer not only serious burnout and lack of adequate time to prepare for teaching, but their contract renewals that are constantly in jeopardy due to workload deficits. These stringent benchmarked evaluation tools, is threatening not only individual and institutional profiling, but also, diminished professorial collegiate. &nbsp;Further, it is recommended that institutions review their workload perimeters to take into consideration other aspects such as; number of students one has supervised, program development and review, representation on professional bodies and leadership.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Kaguhangire-Barifaijo https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13155 The Mediating Effect of Psychological Contract and Job Satisfaction on the Relationship between Leadership and Job Performance: A Proposed Framework 2022-09-13T15:51:23+00:00 Salem Ali Algathia Salem01230@gmail.com Rosmah Mohamed m_rosmah@upm.edu.my Yee Choy Leong yee@upm.edu.my Abdul Rashid Abdullah rashidabdullah@upm.edu.my <p class="Boody1"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Today, more than ever, achieving Job Performance is one of the most challenging objectives for companies. The main objective of this paper is to investigate the role of Psychological Contracts and Job Satisfaction as mediators in leadership and Job performance relationships in the Saudi hospital sector. Moreover, the direct effect of leadership practice on Job performance. Simultaneously, the literature background of variables of study under the psychological contract theory would be discussed to propose the research model. The study depends on the secondary resource, the nature of the study, therefore, is exploratory, and the analysis relies on critical content analysis and theming procedure to construct its findings. The study found that both psychological contracts and job satisfaction have a mediating role in the relationship between leadership and job performance.</span></strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Salem Ali Algathia, Rosmah Mohamed, Yee Choy Leong , Abdul Rashid Abdullah https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13150 Efficient and Effective Management of Organizations Require Appropriate Ethical Relations Between Stockholders and Stakeholders. What Should be Their Morality (Ethics) on the Organization and the Relationship with Employees? 2022-09-12T18:42:47+00:00 Francis Kwadade-Cudjoe kwadadecudj@yahoo.com <p><strong>Peaceful co-existence of stockholders and stakeholders, comprising customers, consumers, employees, managers, suppliers/vendors, shareholders, etc. has always been problematic for organizations to thrive. Stockholders and owners of entities normally invest a lot of money into business with the sole aim of recouping their funds, and with interest. However, managers and employees also accept to work in organizations with the aim of earning good emolument to be able to live and survive. For the organization to be able to achieve competitive advantage, there should be understanding by employees to work hard and co-operate with stockholders by observing the laid down rules, and the owners equally providing good working conditions. This would enable managers and employees to give their best for the success and sustenance of the organization. Unfortunately, the globe is experiencing hard times due to the upsurge of Covid-19 which affected development and destroyed lot of lives, and currently the Russia and Ukraine war, which has also exacerbated the situation and escalated prices of goods. Both stockholders and stakeholders have the moral rights to co-exist peacefully for the success of organizations, which would benefit all parties.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Francis Kwadade-Cudjoe https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13151 Privatization of State-Owned Enterprises Has Been Endorsed Globally Since 1990, but There are Still Many Companies in Government Hands. What Should be the Appropriate Corporate Governance Strategies for Managing These Companies and Those in Private Hands? 2022-09-12T18:47:10+00:00 Francis Kwadade-Cudjoe kwadadecudj@yahoo.com <p><strong>The introduction of ‘information technology’ in the late 1950s brought in its wake increase in workflow efficiency which led to better performance of businesses to achieve organizational goals. Privatization of State-Own-Enterprises (SOEs) was championed by the formation of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in the early 1960s to enable governments concentrate on their core mandate of managing their economies well. This has helped the OECD nations to perform better. However, there are still many companies in government hands, as these regimes still run, control and have oversight management of SOEs. The OECD, therefore, developed the Guidelines on Corporate Governance for SOEs to favour both the SOEs and privatized companies of nations in such a way that organizations would give better account of their stewardship to their citizenry. The guidelines introduced by the OECD are also to enhance the achievement of competitive advantage by organizations in the global economy of intense competition, especially during this technological age of business. For efficient management of all businesses, the OECD has also produced guidelines/principles for non-listed companies.</strong></p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Francis Kwadade-Cudjoe https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ASSRJ/article/view/13110 Dwindling Resources and Funding: Superintendents' Leadership and School Board Members’ Decision-Making and Students’ Well-being and Academic Outcomes Remain a Challenge 2022-09-06T09:09:10+00:00 Ann Toler Hilliard ahilliard@bowiestate.edu Renee A. Foose ahilliard@bowiestate.edu Charles H. Talbert Jackson ahilliard@bowiestate.edu <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>Superintendents have many challenges in performing the job in most school districts. A high percentage of superintendents see the most challenging tasks are to improve the performance of diverse underprepared students, how to help students who come to school from high poverty areas who need so much help and recruiting and maintaining quality teachers to work in schools. Other challenges for superintendents are strengthening academic rigor, budget shortfalls, recruiting and retaining principals/teachers, and rising demands for assessment from the state and federal levels. Superintendents are concerned about students being safe in schools, being successful in careers and education in post- secondary settings in a rapidly changing economy and a highly technologically driven society (Noonoo, 2018).</strong></p> </div> </div> </div> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ann Toler Hilliard, Renee A. Foose, Charles H. Talbert Jackson