Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2020-11-24T10:54:50+00:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> Corporate governance, corporate social responsibility and performance with the moderating role of board equity ownership: Evidence from Indonesia’s oil palm companies 2020-11-19T08:11:55+00:00 Asna Asna <p>The Oil Palm Companies is one of the highest contributions towards Indonesia economic development. However, the company performance in the oil palm companies is far from expectation which is related to how they responsible on their shareholders as well as stakeholders. Thus, the study purpose is to examine the relations between corporate governance mechanisms, corporate social responsibility and board equity ownership on performance in Indonesia’s Oil Palm Companies. The findings highlight a positive relationship between board equity ownership, corporate social responsibility and company performance. Furthermore, the moderating role of board equity ownership has a significant positive on the relationship between independence director and company performance as well as corporate social responsibility. The relationship between female director and company performance shows the same result with the interaction of board equity ownership. Currently studies have found that corporate governance mechanisms, corporate social responsibility have significant effect on company performance. Nevertheless, this evidence showed that direct relationship between corporate governance, social responsibility and company performance have mix results. Admittedly, the indirect relationship revealed that board equity ownership contributes significant effect on the relations between corporate governance, social responsibility and company performance particularly in Indonesia’s oil palm companies. Based on the author knowledge, a few studies have been done in oil palm companies which it provides a prominent issue in corporate governance mechanism particularly on board equity ownership which majority is held by family member ownership.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong> Corporate governance, social responsibility, board equity ownership, company performance</p> 2020-11-15T09:51:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Asna Asna Climate Variability and peasant agriculture in Kélo in the south of Chad 2020-11-19T08:11:53+00:00 Abdoulay Mfewou Julius Tata Paul Nadji <p>With its Sahelian climate, Chad presents climatic parameters which have a very negative impact on its agricultural productivity. Faced with this natural problem for peasant society, political decision-makers do little to support local adaptation mechanisms. The study in Kélo, southern Chad, (606.9 mm; 28.9 ° C) was carried out for five months. The survey was conducted with 140 heads of households randomly chosen from this area to collect information relating to the damage caused by climatic vagaries on the yields of cultivated plants and the analysis of meteorological data collected at the Kélo station by l 'Chad Institute of Agronomic Research for Development (ITRAD) on climate variability which shows the irregularities of the rains at their beginnings and / or at their ends, the shortening of the rainy season and, a slight rise in temperature. These rainfall irregularities, the main crops are experiencing yield reductions of the order of 70¨% of the average, approximately: 20-25 bags of paddy per hectare against 7-12 bags of paddy for rice, 4-5 bags / ha against 2-3 bags / ha for sorghum and pearl millet, 10-13 bags / ha against 6-9 bags / ha for peanuts, 600-900 kg / ha against 250-600 kg for cotton, etc. . In 2018, rainfall over time shows linear correlations established between cereal and cotton yields on the one hand, and those of annual rainfall on the other. The result also shows that there are no explicit linear relationships between these variables. This shows that, mere knowledge of the rainfall regime is not enough to explain the decline in agricultural production; because poor agricultural production can result from both poor and surplus water conditions and / or poor distribution of rains. It is recorded that food production per capita also decreases; this decline occupies a very important place in all policies of local development projects but weakly applied by rural decision-makers. Consequently, there is recurrent food insecurity, putting the farmer in a dependency on assistantship from outside the region.</p> 2020-11-15T09:52:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abdoulay Mfewou, Julius Tata, Paul Nadji Statistical Methods Used In Educational Technology Research 2012-2013 2020-11-19T08:11:51+00:00 Nicola L. Ritter <p>This article provides a content analysis of the research methodologies used in quantitative and mixed-methods articles in the top five educational technology journals between 2012 and 2013. These articles represented a total of 32,131 sampling procedures and statistical techniques recorded from 1,171 articles – the largest research synthesis of research methodologies in field of educational technology to date. Results indicate quantitative methods continue to dominate the field as a whole, yet specific journals appear to favor certain research methods over others. Most authors did not report the type of sampling procedure used in their investigations (617 articles). Fewer researchers reported score reliability estimates using their own data – with only 420 articles reporting reliability coefficients. Findings also suggest few authors reported informationally-adequate statistics. Recommendations for best statistical practices and implications for the field of educational technology are discussed.</p> 2020-11-15T09:52:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nicola L. Ritter Influence of Household Income on Retention among Pupils in Public Day Primary Schools in Isiolo County, Kenya. 2020-11-19T08:11:49+00:00 Jackson Muchunku Jagero Nelson Mburugu Beatrice <p>Retention of pupils in primary schools remain a problem in both developed and developing countries (UNESCO, 2011). Socio-economic status characteristics of households, in particular parental income have long been known to be a major determinant of pupils’ retention. The study used correlation research survey design. The population of the study consisted of 4142 that comprises of 546 standard seven teachers and 3594 standard seven pupils in the 91 public day primary schools in Isiolo County. Class seven pupils in the sampled schools were chosen by simple random sampling technique from total number of pupils (3594 pupils). A reliability coefficient of 0.91 for the pupils and 0.92 for the teachers was arrived at. Content validity was ascertained through experts. This study used inferential statistics to analyze the data that was obtained. This study yielded data that required both qualitative and quantitative analysis. Inferential statistics was used to infer sampled data from the population before drawing conclusions. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 aided in data analysis.&nbsp; To establish the overall relationship between the independent and dependent variables, regression models were used. Findings reveal that parental income and pupils’ retention shows positive and significant results at .05 levels. This implies that pupils’ retention is dependent on the income of their parents. Based on the summary of the findings, the household income, was found to be strongly associated with retention of pupils in public day primary schools in Isiolo County. The major conclusion that can be deduced from the findings is that, pupil’s retention in public day primary schools in Isiolo County is strongly associated with household income.</p> 2020-11-15T09:52:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jackson Muchunku, Jagero Nelson, Mburugu Beatrice Impact of e- interactivity features on the behavioral and attitudinal loyalty to Egypt air airline 2020-11-19T08:11:46+00:00 Tarek Sayed Abdel Azim Ahmed <p>This paper investigated the impact of e-interactivity features on the behavioral and attitudinal loyalty to the Egypt air airline. The goal of the investigation is to examine perceived interactivity in a model which includes most commonly practiced by Egypt air website. More specifically, a model is constructed to confirm the relationship of e-interactivity (responsiveness, personalization/customization, playfulness, ease of use, connectedness) with e-satisfaction and loyalty. About 1500 questionnaire was downloaded on the Website of (Google forms) during the period (15 August -15 November 2017). It has been electronically sent to users of Egypt air website, at their Facebook accounts. Only 127 questionnaires were returned completed and useable packets. With a response rate 8.5%. The results revealed that all variables selected of einteractivity are correlated significantly with level of e-satisfaction. In addition, it was found that e-satisfaction contributes strongly to predict the loyalty in general and particularly the attitudinal loyalty.</p> 2020-11-15T09:52:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Tarek Sayed Abdel Azim Ahmed Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Coping Strategies: A Case Study of a Family of a War Stricken Soldier 2020-11-19T08:11:45+00:00 Gamal Abdulhamed Gado <p>The current study aimed to knowing the level of PTSD among a family of a War Stricken Soldier (the wife and eldest daughter), and knowing the clinical indications for PTSD symptoms to the cases, also it aimed to search about the coping strategies which the wife and the eldest adopted and study the effect of these coping strategies on relieving PTSD symptoms, and it aimed to knowing the dynamic motivations for the cases responses on the TAT cards, that underlie the emergence of PTSD symptoms and the adoption of specific coping strategies.</p> <p>Several tools were used, Semi Structured interview, Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), Davidson Scale for Post-Traumatic Stress, Post-Traumatic Coping Strategies Scale.</p> <p>The study results indicated to the existence of mild level on PTSD to the wife, and moderate level to the daughter, Problem-solving strategies have emerged as the wife's strongest coping strategies, and avoidance strategies have emerged as the daughter's strongest coping strategies. The responses of the two cases on TAT and the analysis of their latent dynamic motivations are discussed.</p> 2020-11-15T09:53:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Gamal Abdulhamed Gado The Complexity And Compatibility Of ICT Integration In The Teaching And Learning Of Agriculture In Swaziland 2020-11-19T08:11:43+00:00 Mzomba Nelson Dludlu Nomsa Mndzebele <p>In Swaziland, ICT integration in teaching and learning is at the infancy stage. Learning opportunities provided by the increasing use of technology in classrooms are not being harnessed in secondary schools. The purpose of the study was to describe ICT integration in the teaching and learning of Agriculture in relation to complexity and the compatibility of the ICT tools in Swaziland. Specific objectives were (1) to describe the complexity of ICT tools as perceived by the teachers and (2) to further describe the compatibility of ICT tools in relation to the teachers’ experiences. A descriptive correlational design employing a mixed method approach was used to conduct the study. Data was collected using a Semi-structured interview guide and a survey questionnaire. The population for the study was (N=325) involving all secondary school Agriculture Teachers (N= 312) and key informants who were Agricultural Education Administrators (n=13). The Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) guided the study. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse data. With regard to complexity findings revealed that (1) computers make teaching of complex concepts easy, (2) computer use fits well in my curriculum goals, and that (3) learning to use ICT in teaching is a challenge. In overall findings indicated that the ICT tools were less complex to use by the Agriculture Teachers while teaching. The study further revealed that complexities of ICT use by Agriculture teachers were brought about by the age of teachers and the frequent changing of technologies. In relation to compatibility of ICT usage findings revealed that Agriculture Teachers agreed that (1) ICT is quick in meeting information needs, (2) Working with computers make them feel comfortable, (3) ICT use in teaching was very convenient, (4) Agriculture requires more ICT assistance, (5) computers brought positive changes in the schools, and that (6) computer use suits the learners needs. The study further indicated that Agriculture teachers perceived that ICT devices were (7) compatible with existing practices, (8) ICT philosophy was compatible with the subject content, and that (9) ICT integration allows well demonstration of real situations<strong>. </strong>It is recommended that a policy articulating the need and usage of ICT integration to support teaching and learning be enacted, thus, compelling Internet service providers to extend their bandwidth of Internet to all schools. It is further recommended, that ICT integration pedagogical skills be part of all pre-service and in-service teacher preparatory programmes.</p> 2020-11-15T09:53:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mzomba Nelson Dludlu , Nomsa Mndzebele HBCU Trains Communities of Color 2020-11-19T08:11:41+00:00 Yolandra Plummer <p>In June 2020, the University of the District of Columbia began a dual virtual skills certificate program in response to the COVID-19 pandemic.&nbsp; The historically black college and university’s (HBCU) introductory program prepared individuals for careers as Contact Tracers and Community Health Workers.&nbsp; A sample of 55 students participated in the pilot program to learn how to investigate the spread of the COVID-19 virus.&nbsp; The program targeted District residents who received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) benefits. The TANF program provided work readiness training to low-income families to enable them to move from public assistance to self-sufficiency. &nbsp;Program participants earned a dual certificate in Contact Tracing and Community Health Worker after completing the 20-hour program. The UDC work readiness program created a career pathway in healthcare which combines education, training, credentialing.&nbsp; The program includes support services to assist individuals with advancing in a high-demand occupation while earning a living wage. The demand for contact training demonstrates that HBCUs are a viable option to engage communities of colors to reduce the transmission of the COVID-19 virus.</p> 2020-11-15T09:53:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Yolandra Plummer Analysis Of Functions And Applications Of Siaran Mobile (Reporting And Assignment Application System) As A Communication Facility Of South Tangerang City Towards Smart City 2020-11-19T08:12:53+00:00 Enjang Pera Irawan Tasya Aulianisa <p>This study entitled analysis of functions and applications of siaran mobile (reporting and assignment application system) as a communication facility of South Tangerang City towards smart city. The purpose of this study was to analyze the functions and benefits of the <em>SIARAN</em> Mobile application as a facility of public communication in supporting South Tangerang City towards smart city. Supporting concepts and theories in this research were communication, public relations government, and smart city. This research method was to use a descriptive qualitative approach. The findings showed that the <em>SIARAN</em> Mobile application was a South Tangerang City reporting media based on the mobile application that was officially launched by the government since March 9<sup>th</sup>, 2017. The function of this application was to become a reporting application for technical problems such as waste problems, damaged public facilities, actions which was detrimental to the community. The benefit of this application was to make it easier for the public to report various problems in the South Tangerang area, and make it easier for the government in handling various problems that were complained of by the community.</p> 2020-11-15T09:53:53+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Enjang Pera Irawan, Tasya Aulianisa Unpacking Routine Program Monitoring-Sustainability of Agricultural Projects Funded by Non-governmental Organizations Nexus. An empirical Study in Bungoma County, Kenya 2020-11-24T10:54:50+00:00 E. K. MULI K. D. Kyalo N. R. Ondeko <p>Guided by systems theory, this study investigated how routine program monitoring influences the sustainability of agricultural projects. The analysis included the following tests: means, frequencies and standard deviations for descriptive analysis while inferential statistics was conducted by the use of correlations, and linear regression. The study had the following findings: Sustainability of agricultural projects had a general mean (GM) of 24.7080 and a general (SD) of 4.30998 showing that agricultural projects were not sustained. Small standard deviation showed a consensus among participants on this issue. For routine program monitoring, the general mean score for all items was 31.2336 with a general standard deviation of 4.82984. The implication of this mean score and standard deviation in respect to the study is that there was general agreement in opinion among participants that organizations utilized monitoring and evaluation system in terms of routine program monitoring. The results from interview guides supported the quantitative results, by agreeing that organization indeed utilized monitoring as required. Project managers were convinced that organizational monitoring system was in good condition, the only challenge that was expressed by project managers concerning monitoring system is poor utilization of collected data to take corrective measures. It was said that data collected from monitoring was rarely used to make project improvements. Routine program monitoring was found to have a very small positive correlation with the sustainability of agricultural projects which was not statistically significance. H0: was not rejected with r= 0.059, . This shows that the regression model was not fit.</p> 2020-11-15T09:54:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 EMMANUEL MULI, Dorothy Kyalo, Raphael Nyonje