Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2021-03-06T05:37:36+00:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td align="left" width="90%"> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly;</p> <ul> <ul> <li class="show">Accounting and Finance</li> <li class="show">Advertisement</li> <li class="show">Behavioral Sciences</li> <li class="show">Business Management</li> <li class="show">Contemporary business, issues</li> <li class="show">Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance issues</li> <li class="show">Cultural studies</li> <li class="show">Developmental economics</li> <li class="show">Economics</li> <li class="show">Econometrics</li> <li class="show">Entrepreneurship and small business management</li> <li class="show">Finance</li> <li class="show">Human Resource Management</li> <li class="show">Marketing</li> <li class="show">Management Sciences</li> <li class="show">Operation and Production Management</li> <li class="show">Organizational Behavior</li> <li class="show">Portfolio management</li> <li class="show">Research Methods in Business</li> <li class="show">Social ethics in various societies.</li> </ul> </ul> <!-- <div style="font-family: arial; font-size: 16px; text-align: center;"><a title="View Recent Issues of the Journal" href="/index.php/ASSRJ/issue/archive" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Recent Issues</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Policies" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Policies</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Editorial Board" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Editorial Board</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Submit Manuscript Online" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Submit Manuscript</a> <strong>| </strong><a title="Abstracting / Indexing" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Indexing</a></div> --></td> <td align="right" width="10%"><!-- <img src="" alt="" height="330" border="1" /><br /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> <img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /><img src="" alt="" height="3" align="right" /> --></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr> Exploring Barriers to International Trade Faced by Sri Lankan Exporters to the Indian Market 2021-02-08T09:16:23+00:00 Ayoma Sumanasiri <p>In recent decades, India has emerged as a major economy in the world. Although Sri Lanka is situated in close proximity to India and has entered into trade agreements with India to boost its international trade, it has still not been able to achieve the expected level of growth in exports to India. Based on the 2019 United Nations COMTRAD data, India is the third largest export destination of Sri Lanka, and the export revenue from trade with India amounted to US $ 759 million in 2019. However, the statistics in the past years indicate a drop in Sri Lankan export revenue to India from $ 767 million in 2018 to $ 759 million in 2019. In spite of different bilateral and multilateral trade agreements entered into between the two countries, Sri Lankan export performance still remains unsatisfactory. This indicates that apart from tariff reductions, certain other non-tariff barriers influence international trade performance between the two countries. Therefore, this study aims to explore barriers to Sri Lankan exporters which undermine their international trade performance in the Indian market. The study follows a qualitative research methodology and has collected data using face-to-face unstructured interviews with twenty (20) respondents representing different stakeholders engaged in the process of exporting from Sri Lanka to India. The collected data was coded and analyzed through template analysis. Findings revealed thirty-five (35) important factors which influence successful penetration into and performance in the Indian market. The results reveal that host market and home market characteristics have a greater impact on successful performance in the Indian market than product or firm characteristics.</p> 2021-02-08T02:57:34+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ayoma Sumanasiri The Violence against Women and Domestic Violence and the right to liberty and security of person 2021-02-08T09:16:21+00:00 Ariana Qosaj Mustafa Bistra Netkova <p>International human rights instruments specifically dealing with protection of women from violence, include the UN Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the Council of Europe Convention on protection from violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention), provide enhanced protection for women from all forms of mental and physical violence and maltreatment. These conventions pose international obligations to state parties to protect the rights of women that are victims of violence including the right to security of person. With respect to violence against women, the article analyses the scope of application of the right to liberty and security of person, by discussing also the possibility of the use of the right of security of persons to the action of other individuals with respect to violence against women, in particularly the state obligations related to domestic violence.</p> 2021-02-08T02:57:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ariana Qosaj Mustafa, Bistra Netkova Assymetric effect of fiscal and monetary policies on the stock market performance in Nigeria 2021-02-08T09:16:18+00:00 Oluwayemisi Adeleke Olusola Oyeleke <p><em>This study investigated the asymmetric effect of fiscal and monetary policies on stock market performance from 2000:q1-2018q3 in Nigeria. The study used Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Bounds Test technique of cointegration to determine the equilibrium relationship among the series. After the long run relationship has been established, Vector Error Correction Model was used to analyse the data. The results showed that only anticipated fiscal policy had a negative and significant effect on the stock market performance in the third and fourth quarters of the year. In contrast, anticipated and unanticipated monetary policy as well as unanticipated fiscal policy did not exert effect on stock market performance in Nigeria. Government in Nigeria should reduce its expenditure which has the capacity to negatively influence the performance of stock market in Nigeria.</em></p> 2021-02-08T02:58:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Oluwayemisi Adeleke, Olusola Oyeleke How Did We Get Here? An Examination of Opioid Addiction from A Historical Perspective 2021-02-08T09:16:16+00:00 Ralph Gallo <p>America is facing a drug crisis that is rocking the nation at the cost of one trillion dollars since former President Richard Nixon declared war on drugs more than 40 years ago in 1971.&nbsp; This latest opioid crisis can be identified as the war on drugs 2.0. Research supports that the American public is not interested in fighting the war on drugs; it is interested in creating viable intervention programs that are effective in treating drug addiction and education programs for the drug prescribing medical community. Results revealed statistically significant differences between socioeconomic status and race, family status and criminal background, family status and criminal background related to a drug background, and family status and equally offering drug treatment options.</p> 2021-02-08T02:58:17+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ralph Gallo Linguistic Aesthetics in the Market: Evidence from Oral Business Nepali 2021-02-08T09:16:14+00:00 Kamal Kumar Poudel Kushmila Acharya Netra Prasad Sharma <p><em>Communication in business is usually supposed to be precisely and directly targeted at the message. The present study was instigated to answer whether, as generally assumed, communication in business excludes the artistic or poetic use of language meant for entertainment. Using observation, recording and field notes as the study techniques, a corpus of 24000 words was collected in Nepali from the major open market sites and business hubs located within Nepal. The corpus was then translated into English. As a delimitation of the study, the aesthetic aspect of language use and usage was particularly focused and analyzed. The exploration suggests that the users of oral business Nepali (OBN) commonly entertain themselves and others side by side as they speak while conducting business transactions. They commonly achieve this end by creating art and imagination, expressing and creating humor, and making associations. A future direction would be to extend the study in terms of its scope and methodology.</em></p> 2021-02-08T02:58:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kamal Kumar Poudel, Kushmila Acharya, Netra Prasad Sharma Fostering Collective Efficacy?: What School Leaders Should Know 2021-02-16T17:22:30+00:00 T.J. Hoogsteen <p>Statements claiming that efforts of policy makers, system and school leaders, and staff developments toward education reforms might be better served&nbsp; by strategically and intentionally considering how to foster collective efficacy throughout the conceptualization, design, delivery, and assessment of change initiatives (Donohoo, 2018, p. 340) have led schools and districts to attempt to do just that.&nbsp; However, such conclusions may not be justified.&nbsp; The present review examines available research using a framework inspired by Willingham (2012) which is meant to guide leaders in evaluating the trustworthiness and value of research.&nbsp; Willingham (2012) notes that leaders should be able to recognize the change when it happens, know how large the change should be, and estimate the length of time the change will take. This framework is applied to CTE literature to gauge whether the research base surrounding collective teacher efficacy is useful to school and district leaders when making decisions regarding school improvement and organizational change initiatives.&nbsp; The article concludes with suggestions for future research.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2021-02-16T17:22:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 T.J. Hoogsteen National Regulations and Local Rules - A Hybrid Regulatory Model of Intelligent Connected Vehicles in China 2021-02-16T17:22:48+00:00 Huichun Liu <p>This paper investigates the laws and regulations of China on the intelligent connected vehicles (ICV). After analyzing the current Chinese laws that are related to the ICVs, this paper makes a list of challenges that the current legal framework needs to face if (1) the ICV-related laws are not revised or new laws are not passed, and (2) there are no regulations or rules made to govern the legal issues of the ICVs. Then this paper starts to focus on the research into the national regulations and local government rules. In this part, literature review of the regulations of the central government and the rules of the local government is completed to investigate how this hybrid model works for the development of ICV industry in China. Detailed analysis of text of provisions is provided. The results indicate that the interaction and interconnection of the regulations at the national level and local government level form an underlying framework for the Chinese ICV industry by providing guidance, policies, and implementation rules. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-02-16T17:22:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Huichun Liu An FORMAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN ENABLEMENT 2021-02-16T17:23:11+00:00 TAKAWIRA CHIMBINDI CHIMBINDIROY@GMAIL.COM <p>Universally, there is concern for women enablement and United Nations Educational Science and Cultural Organisational (UNESCO) cites Zimbabwe as having 17% of the adult population being illiterate with two thirds being women (Kadada, 2014). Despite efforts by the government of Zimbabwe through formal education and other key players such as Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in ensuring women enablement, women have not been fully integrated into many development spheres. As alluded by Pietila, and Vickers, (1996), that the subordinate position of women limits their ability to effectively indulge in development activities and women in Chirumanzu district are no exception. They continue to be seen as a missing link in being effective stakeholders in development processes. A notable pattern inherently evident on the ground is that few women are socially, politically, and economically active in development programmes. Hence the need to advocate for women enablement through formal education. According to Pietila, and Vickers, (1996), “empowerment is an active, multidimensional process which enables women to realize their full identity and power in all spheres of life”.&nbsp; Women in Chirumanzu district need to be enabled enough to know their rights, to have access to knowledge and resources, greater autonomy in decision making, greater ability to plan their lives, greater control over the circumstances that influence their lives and finally to be free from customs, beliefs that are barriers to their enablement. In light of the above, this study therefore endeavours to assess how formal education has assisted women in Chirumanzu district to be enabled.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong></p> 2021-02-16T17:23:11+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 TAKAWIRA CHIMBINDI Covid 19 Contexts Shaping Teaching Practice Discourses: University of Eswatini 2021-02-16T17:24:14+00:00 Boyie S. Dlamini <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><em>This study examines how the Covid 19 Teaching practice contexts elicited the intended professional development principles among the PGCEs’ and BEDS’ four 2020 cohorts at the University of Eswatini. The pedagogical knowledge interaction scheme theoretical framework was used to unpack related concepts. The participants, 23 were sampled through purposive stratified sampling. The semi-semi structured questionnaires and classroom observations were used to collect data. &nbsp;Content analysis was used as a data collecting and analysing tool to analyse and describe the pedagogical discourses within the classroom and institutional contexts. The finding indicated that the mismatch subject arrangement undermined the production of specialised knowledge and alienated some students from their professional engagement and, stifled students’ capabilities to engage into self-reflection. Covid 19 pandemic created complex educational contexts in which incongruent messages related to the fundamental principles of teaching practices were communicated and reinforced. It is concluded that Covid 19 contexts presented a challenge of considerable complexity for the 2020 teaching practice and denied the Trainees the opportunity to learn from experienced teachers or mentors. It is recommended that Coordinators should embrace Covid 19 dynamics in their planning and implementation to protect the teaching practice principles. </em></p> <p>Key words: Covid 19 contexts, Teaching practice principles</p> 2021-02-16T17:24:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Boyie S. Dlamini Education as a Strategy for Active Aging Learning Center in Taiwan 2021-02-23T07:09:17+00:00 ANTI LIN Hui-Chuan Wei <p>The population of individuals who are over 65 years-old in Taiwan has grown from less than 10% in 2008 to 14% in 2018. Since 2008, Taiwan has officially been an aging nation as defined by the World Health Organization. With the current rate of growth, we expect the country to become a super-aged society with 20% of the population being older than 65 years of age in 2025. The challenge Taiwan currently faces in bracing for a rapidly aging society is more difficult than ever. In response to a rapidly aging population, universities have been cooperating with the government since 2008 in promoting a community-based lifelong learning-oriented "active aging" education policy, of which we collectively call "Senior Learning" (“Le-Ling Learning” in Mandarin, meaning “Active Aging Learning”). 12 years into implementing the program, 369 senior learning centers have been established in Taiwan by 2020. These established centers with their extensions can be found throughout Taiwan, including 360 towns and cities as well as 3,175 villages. These centers, supported by local resources (e.g. schools, and non-governmental organizations), provide senior learning courses and activities. There are thousands of community volunteers participating every year, as well as over 200,000 hours of Active Aging Learning course duration prepared by the government; moreover, there are currently 200 instructors trained for teaching these programs. Active Aging Learning program has truly become a “zeitgeist” in Taiwan in response to the elderly society. In caring for the elderly, meaningful educational learning has become the best strategy as reflected by the public.</p> <p>The purpose of this article is to report on the developmental background, promotion model, effectiveness of, and the prospects of Active Aging Learning in Taiwan. The contents of this article include: (1) the conceptual basis of Active Aging Learning, (2) the practice mode and strategy of Active Aging Learning, (3) the implementation effect of Active Aging Learning, and (4) the future progress of Active Aging Learning. The research data in this article originate from policy documents, both qualitative and quantitative data for the implementation of the Active Aging Learning program, as well as my 12 years of practical observations and experience as the overall project principal investigator. Through reading this article, the readers can quickly understand the implementation process, effectiveness, and problems of senior learning in Taiwan, as well as the key findings of our 12 years of experience. We found that the best strategy for an aging society is not to emphasize "care" in the context of traditional pathology, but to learn in order to "prevent". Educational strategies and talent cultivation are the broad directions of our active efforts.</p> 2021-02-16T17:25:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 ANTI LIN, Hui-Chuan Wei Textbooks as Historical References in Teaching Geometry in Brazil Between 1925-2010 2021-02-16T17:25:33+00:00 Antonio Paulo Muccillo de Medeiros Lícia Giesta Ferreira de Medeiros <p>This paper makes a historical overview about how mathematics textbooks influenced geometry’s teaching in Brazil. Initially the study shows the relevance textbooks have as historical reference for a school discipline. Next, it describes how textbooks tend to transmit the same content in each historical period, a phenomenon Chervel called <em>vulgata</em>. From that point a timeline is created, since the first Brazilian mathematics textbook in 1744 until 2010, to understand how those volumes influenced geometry teaching. Four volumes, ranging from 1925 to 2010, are then analyzed. The focal point of this analysis is how triangles similarity is taught in each one of them. The paper also describes how government policies affected textbooks and school life in general since the beginning of mathematics teaching in Brazil.</p> 2021-02-16T17:25:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Antonio Paulo Muccillo de Medeiros, Lícia Giesta Ferreira de Medeiros Ageism and perceptions of vulnerability: Framing of Age during the during the Covid-19 Pandemic 2021-02-16T17:26:07+00:00 Frauke Schnell Jasmin Tahmaseb McConatha Jaqueline Magnarelli Jordan Broussard <p>Media representations of the Covid-19 pandemic and its devastating consequences have shaped people’s fears, anxiety, and perceptions of vulnerability. Social scientists have examined the consequences of how information is “framed.” Framing theory asserts that issues can be portrayed differently by emphasizing or de-emphasizing aspects and information. According to Lakoff (2004) the impact of a message is not based on what is said but how it is said. Theories of framing focus on how the media frames issues, which then structure and shape attitudes and policies. A news article serves as a frame for an intended message. This paper examines the ways that “age” has been framed during the Covid-19 pandemic. One of the most dominant frames in terms of COVID-19 coverage is how the pandemic has been analyzed through the lens of age and framed in terms of age discrimination. &nbsp;The results of news articles appearing in several prominent newspapers indicate that the perceptions of elders and their vulnerabilities to severe consequences from Covid-19 are likely to help perpetuate or create age discrimination.</p> 2021-02-16T17:26:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Frauke Schnell, Jasmin Tahmaseb McConatha, Jaqueline Magnarelli, Jordan Broussard Extracting Features of Solving Behavior in Handwriting on Tablets 2021-02-16T17:27:06+00:00 Ryosuke Goshima <p>This paper proposes a method to estimate the learner's solving behavior during the exercises from the handwriting situation on the tablet. The proposed method extracts the handwriting characteristics in the solving behavior of each learner. It is important to give appropriate guidance according to the understanding of the learner. It is difficult to grasp the understanding status of learners in cases where teachers cannot observe learners directly as in distance learning. Teachers need an online system that estimates the solving behavior of individual learners to notify it of them. In the proposed method, the solving behavior is estimated from logs of both the handwriting and actions seeking supports using the moving window for 30 seconds. The method constructs a random forest model to estimate the solving behavior. Writing characteristics in each solving state are extracted to examine the values of the important variables in a random forest model. Handwriting data were collected from learners in an experiment. The learner's solving behavior was estimated with high accuracy. The constructed model precisely classifies not only states in which the hands stay still from ones in which the hands are moving smoothly but also states of answering correctly from ones of answering incorrectly. Since learners repeating to answer incorrectly are detected on the fly, teachers can take immediate measures for learners who need assistance during exercises.</p> 2021-02-16T17:27:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ryosuke Goshima Violence, bullying and academic performance in higher education students 2021-02-16T17:27:30+00:00 Irma Ramos rodríguez <p>Violence and bullying affect the physical, mental, social and academic well-being of students. The objective of this work was to analyze the association between violence and bullying, with academic performance in higher education students, a descriptive, cross-sectional, analytical study was carried out in first semester students of different higher level careers, the information was obtained with the application of two questionnaires, the first about Socio-demographic Data and the second one was the questionnaire of School Violence from the Ombudsman (2000). In the results, it was found that 37.4% of the participants showed a grade point average ≥90 points, 47% between 75 to 89 points and 15.6% an average &lt;75 points. Poor academic performance was significantly associated with the type of career, with being ignored, being threatened to scare him, with suffering violence due to social exclusion, harassment in general, harassment due to social, physical and sexual exclusion. In conclusion, violence and bullying are two serious problems that university students frequently face, the effects produced by them affect the physical and mental health of the victims and can affect their academic performance.</p> 2021-02-16T17:27:30+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Irma Ramos rodríguez Finding Features of Actions Efficiently Synchronized with Dishwashing Robot 2021-02-16T17:29:15+00:00 Kosuke Nishio Fumiko Harada Hiromitsu Shimakawa <p>In this study, we propose a method for extracting the characteristics of body motions that contribute to reducing the takt time in a cooperative task between a dishwashing robot and a human operator. The proposed method collects the takt time and motion data from novice operators until they become experienced using an inexpensive acceleration sensor. The operation data is classified into experienced and novice periods using the variance value of the takt time. In addition, the Hidden Markov Model is generated to classify the motion data into multiple motion phases. The motion features of the operator are extracted for each phase from the generated model. The proposed method finds the motion features whose difference between the experienced and novice periods are similar to the takt time transition.&nbsp; It uses them as important variables. We verified the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments that simulate actual work at a restaurant. The Hidden Markov Model classified the operation phases into three categories with the AUC of 0.9. In all samples, we were able to extract the motion characteristics of the experienced operators. This study showed the potential to improve the speed of novice's progress by the extracted motion characteristics to improve education guidelines and to show operators how they should physically move.</p> 2021-02-16T17:29:15+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kosuke Nishio, Fumiko Harada, Hiromitsu Shimakawa Effectiveness of Transactional Communication in the Implementation of Collegiate Curriculum 2021-02-23T06:21:31+00:00 Hotmaulina Sihotang Chontina Siahaan <p>The interaction between lecturers and students will be effective if delivered through transactional communication so that they can mutually encode and decode what is communicated about learning. In today’s development of the era of digital communication technology, students tend to get instant learning resources by using their gadgets instead of communicating with their lecturers. The implementation of collegiate curriculum refers to the Indonesian national qualification framework (KKNI) which will be effective with the student centered learning (SCL) approach. Lecturers act as active facilitators and students are active, mutually meaningful communication occurs so that the application of collegiate curriculum can be effectively achieved. The purpose of this study is to have description about how transactional communication is implemented in achieving learning effectiveness. The research method used is descriptive qualitative with a case study research approach. The research paradigm is constructivism. The theories used are cognitive theory and behavioral theory. The results of the research show that the implementation of the Collegiate Curriculum, namely planning, implementation, learning and learning outcomes are effective by using transactional communication</p> 2021-02-23T06:21:31+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hotmaulina Sihotang, Chontina Siahaan Reflection on Covid 19 Educational Contexts, Pedagogy of Hope, Self-efficacy and Effort: University of Eswatini 2021-02-23T06:21:48+00:00 Boyie S. Dlamini P. E. Zwane <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p><em>Towards the end of 2019 the world experienced the Coronavirus disease (Covid 19) pandemic which affected operations of education systems. This reflective study examines how a </em><em>lecturer and students built hope and&nbsp; self-efficacy under Covid 19 educational contexts</em><em>.&nbsp; Self-efficacy–hopeful thinking model and Bernstein Framework were used in this study. The sample consisted of 515 students and 1 lecturer and it was sampled through purposeful stratified sampling. Data was collected through the lecturer’s self-reflection on his ability to build hope, self-efficacy to meet academic demands. The lecturer also observed students’ behaviours. The data was analysed through content analysis. F</em><em>indings indicated that Covid 19 educational contexts mediated on students’ levels of&nbsp; hope, acadmic investment and created false impression that University academic year had been lost. Some students developed low level of self-efficacy belief which forced them to approach educational problems without conviction and hopeful thinking. The findings indicated that lecturer’s behaviour towards students contributed to the improvement of a high sense of self-efficacy belief&nbsp; and effort investment in their&nbsp; work. The lecturer maintained hopefullness and confidence among students. </em><em>The study concluded that educational processes under the uncertainties of Covid 19 were paradigm shift for the lecturer and students’ academic life. It provided opportunities to transform and reconstruct pedagogical discourses in relation to Covid 19 educational contexts. It may be recommended that l</em><em>ecturers and others within institutions may be urged to reflect on Covid 19 educational challenges and embrace them rather than avoid them.&nbsp; </em></p> <p>Key words: Covid 19, Hope, Self-efficacy, Effort, Empathy</p> 2021-02-23T06:21:48+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Boyie S. Dlamini, P. E. Zwane A Research On The Perception Of Service Quality Of Intercity Passenger Transport: The Example Of Black Sea Region 2021-02-23T06:22:21+00:00 Erdal Nebol Erdoğdu ALP <p>Highway passenger transportation sector stands out as a growing passenger transport sector in Turkey. Transport companies have to take into account the expectations of customers in order to survive and advance in this sector. For this reason, the measurement of the perceived and expected service quality of the customers is becoming important.</p> <p>In this study, a survey will be carried out on the service quality of highway intercity passenger transportation within the city of Tokat. It is explained why customer satisfaction and perception are very important for service providers, in highway passenger transportation which is one of the important sectors in our country. In this context, it has been understood that it is necessary to measure perceived and expected service quality of the customers. With this data, it will be possible to make improvements and improvements to the preferences of the customers.</p> <p>In this study it is examined the quality of the services primarily offered by the highway passenger transport sector, which is among the important sectors of our country in terms of both the economic magnitude and the employment it provides. For this aim the highway transportation literature is surveyed and according to literature using SERVQUAL scale one questionnaire is implemented to 400 people in Tokat.</p> <p>Then the collected data is analyzed with SPSS 24.0. According to test results age, monthly income and the travel purpose effects the highway transportation service quality perception of the passengers. In addition to this Service Quality Scale (SERVQUAL) is tested and found reliable and valid for highway passenger transport sector in Turkey.</p> 2021-02-23T06:22:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Erdal Nebol, Erdoğdu ALP The medical mind of Ibn Kholdoun in Al Mogademah (The Prefacet) 2021-02-23T06:22:43+00:00 Mezyed Adwan <p>The title of this research paper is “Ibn Khaldoun’s Medical Mind. This paper discusses two general concepts related to medicine , the concept of delivery and&nbsp; medicine in general.</p> <p>Ibn Kaldoun discusses&nbsp; the nature of science as viewed by Ibn Khaldoun, the anatomy&nbsp; and physiology of digestive system and its accessories , the liver,ducts m secreation, diagestive gland as well as food digestion and absorption, delivery process and&nbsp; some issues related to the delivery and dilevery process as well as the role of the Midwife. Ibn Khaldoun defined the "Medicine"and medical profession and &nbsp;delivery . He also discussed some other concepts as disease, and the causes of illness. Ibn Khaldoun stressed the importance &nbsp;of exercise, diet and environmental factors on healthy living.Ibn Khaldoun functioned these factors in treatment&nbsp; of diseases.</p> 2021-02-23T06:22:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mezyed Adwan Blame is in the eye of the beholder: Assessing the Role of Ambivalent Sexism on Subtle Rape Myth Acceptance 2021-02-23T06:23:06+00:00 Kallia Manoussaki Valentina Gosetti <p>The aim of the present study was to determine whether ambivalent sexism predicts subtle rape myth acceptance. Respondents comprised of 211 university students, who completed the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory (Glick &amp; Fiske, 1996) and the updated version of the Illinois Rape Myth Acceptance scale (McMahon &amp; Farmer, 2011). Results indicated that while benevolent sexism significantly predicted acceptance of subtle rape myths, hostile sexism did not. Additionally, male participants reported more ambivalent sexism and subtle rape myth acceptance than females. These findings add to the literature investigating gender inequality and rape mythology by giving a first account on the link between subtle rape myths and ambivalent sexist attitudes.</p> 2021-02-23T06:23:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kallia Manoussaki, Valentina Gosetti IMPLEMENTATION OF HOTS-BASED LEARNING AND PROBLEM BASED LEARNING DURING THE PANDEMIC OF COVID-19 IN SMA BUDI MULIA JAKARTA 2021-02-23T06:23:29+00:00 Erni Murniarti Sarwedi Sirait Hotmaulina Sihotang <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The implementation of the 2013 curriculum requires teachers to change their views in implementing learning process in schools. Learning strategies are no longer teacher-centered learning but learner-centered learning. Teachers are required to organize creative and innovative learning as stated in the Lesson Plan. Teachers must master various methods to improve higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) of students. In this context, Problem Based Learning (PBL) is the appropriate model in developing students' thinking skills. The 2013 curriculum has adopted Bloom's taxonomy which was revised by Anderson starting from the level of knowing, understanding, implementing, analyzing, evaluating and creating. Because the demands of the 2013 Curriculum must be at the level of creating, students must be continuously trained to produce something new. This study aims to describe the Problem Based Learning (PBL) learning method as a model of effective way to build critical and creative thinking skills of students at SMA Budi Mulia Jakarta. This study also explains HOTS-based assessment as a logical assessment of PBL learning.</p> 2021-02-23T06:23:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Erni Murniarti, Sarwedi Sirait, Hotmaulina Sihotang The problem of communication in education 2021-02-23T06:23:49+00:00 Nikoleta Mihaleva <p>The article considers the connection of education with teaching as a mean for its realization and the new type of socio-historical inheritance at the end of the XX century. This is related to the changes in the nature of scientific knowledge itself, with the understanding that education is a complicated complex in which, along with teaching, education is present as a process of cooperation and co-creation between teachers and students. And this, in turn, raises the question of changes in value attitudes ​​and new cultural realities in the process of communication / so far understood narrow-mindedly as a converse /, which builds a new type of holistic personalities, whose mentality unites culture and education.</p> 2021-02-23T06:23:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nikoleta Mihaleva Students’ Speaking Proficiency and Self-efficacy Theory 2021-02-23T06:24:08+00:00 Abdelaziz Mohammed <p>This study is aiming at investigating the possible source of Saudi EFL students' speaking self-efficacy that effect on their speaking proficiency. The investigation used Banduras' theory of self-efficacy as this theory has great effective factors and role in student’s ability in mastering any task. The study sample included 10 male and female students. Their proficiency was observed and analyzed collectively to find the real behaviors in real EFL classroom settings; and using Bandura's theory of self-efficacy in speaking component as appropriate criteria to study its expected source. The most important conclusion is that not only all the sources in Bandura's theory were found among Saudi EFL students, but also, they differ greatly according to each one’s proficiency experience and social persuasion. Additionally, it was found due to other factors as self-employed strategies and intellectual ability. Thus, the study recommended that it is important to warm-up students with advance activities to ease the positivity and overcome their negativity towards speaking skill. Finally, the study recommends conducting further research targeting a largest number of students for the purpose of studying speaking skill preferences in relation to other English language skills. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2021-02-23T06:24:08+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abdelaziz Mohammed Two Types of Space in the Hydrogen Atom not Predictable with Quantum Mechanics 2021-02-23T06:24:38+00:00 Koshun Suto <p>Einstein’s energy-momentum relationship is not applicable to the electron in a hydrogen atom. Therefore, the author has previously derived an energy-momentum relationship applicable to the electron inside the hydrogen atom where potential energy exists. However, the initially-derived relationship did not incorporate the discontinuities in energy which are characteristic of quantum mechanics. Therefore, the author derived a new quantum condition to take the place of Bohr’s quantum condition, i.e., , and that was used to incorporate discontinuity into the relationship derived by the author. When that relationship is solved, it is evident that, in addition to the existing energy levels, there are also ultra-low energy levels where the electron mass becomes negative. A previously unknown state of the hydrogen atom exists, formed from an electron with negative mass and a proton with positive mass. The electron with negative mass exists near the proton. The author predicts that this unknown matter is the true nature of dark matter, an unknown source of gravity whose true nature is currently unknown.</p> 2021-02-23T06:24:38+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Koshun Suto Whole-Earth Decompression Dynamics: New Earth Formation Geoscience Paradigm Fundamental Basis of Geology and Geophysics 2021-02-23T06:24:56+00:00 J. Marvin Herndon <p>Policymakers and educators depend upon the advice of scientists to warn of natural and anthropogenic dangers to the environment and to Earth’s biota. Decades of mal-administered government-funding have led to the corruption of science, however, and to the formation of unofficial cartels that promulgate a seriously flawed, consensus view of Earth’s origins, structure, and geodynamic behavior. Proponents of this “consensus” view, in contradiction to long-standing scientific principles, suppress or ignore concepts that better explain Earth’s fundamental behavior. Here I present, as published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature over a period of four decades, a fundamentally new, indivisible paradigm that posits Earth’s early formation as a Jupiter-like gas giant, which makes it possible to derive virtually all the geological and geodynamic behavior of our planet, including two previously unanticipated, powerful endogenous energy sources; the origin of mountain ranges characterized by folding; the origin and typography of ocean floors and continents; the origin of fjords and the primary initiation of submarine canyons; the origin of Earth’s magnetic field; the causes of geomagnetic disruptions; the source of the geothermal gradient; the origin of Earth’s petroleum and natural gas deposits; and more. The logical, causally related advances documented here stand as a reference by which to compare and evaluate the phenomenological model-nonsense that has been published for decades by government-funded scientists.</p> 2021-02-23T06:24:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 J. Marvin Herndon Factors Affecting the investment capital attraction in Binh Duong province 2021-02-23T06:25:18+00:00 VAN DAT TRAN <p>The study aims to explore the factors affecting the investment capital attraction in Binh Duong province, influencing the decision to choose Binh Duong as the investment place of investors. More than 90 samples from domestic and foreign investors surveyed in Binh Duong. The paper focuses on finding the impact of 9 factors of Infrastructure, Investment support policy, Investment environment, Investment industry advantages, Service quality, Local brand, Human resources, Competitive cost, Investment demand satisfaction "Human Resources" has been one of the variables which play a direct effect on the choice of investments in Binh Duong. Since then, the study offers valuable governance implications to improve the factors that are not yet good. At the same time promoting the strengths of the province.</p> 2021-02-23T06:25:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 VAN DAT TRAN Adaptation trail of selected Multipurpose Tree Species under Babille Condition East Hararghe Zone oromia, Ethiopia 2021-02-23T06:25:44+00:00 Musa Abdellab Bira Cheneke <p>Among several multipurpose tree species in the eastern parts of Ethiopia, Sesbania sesban, Moringa oliefera, Gravilea robusta, Cordia africna, Azadarichta indica and Leuceana leucocephala are common. However, their adaptability and growth performance of this tree species has not scientifically trailed in the study area. Therefore, the study was conducted to evaluate the adaptability of multipurpose tree species at Babille District, Oromia, Ethiopia, for three years (June 2016 - June 2019). The experiment was laid out in RCBD with three replications. Data on the growth parameters; diameter, plant height and survival rate were measured and recorded at interval of three months. Results revealed that there were highly significant (p &lt;0.05) variations among tree species in height growth, RCD, DBH and survival rate at the study area. Among the species tasted, M. oliefera showed the highest performance followed by A. indica, S. sesban and L. leucocephala in terms of height growth, RCD and DBH at Babille condition. after three years of establishment, M. oliefera, A. indica, S. sesban and L. leucocephala showed the highest mean survival rate at the study area. Hence it can be inferred that the conditions of Babille district matched with the environmental requirement of those tree species. On the other hand, species of G. robusta showed lowest performance at the study area. Thus, the long dry season, which extended from eight to ten months in the study area, clearly explains the poor survival and growth response in some of the species. Generally, the study under Babille condition and related agro-ecology, we advocate these adapted species and properly allocate species into the site that grow and adapt well for further agroforestry practices at wider scale on which success of agroforestry practices and forest plantations depend.</p> 2021-02-23T06:25:44+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Musa Abdellab, Bira Cheneke Re-examining the Benefits of Decentralization for Infrastructure Delivery at the Metropolitan Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in Ghana 2021-02-23T06:26:07+00:00 Joe Kingsley Hackman Joshua Ayarkwa Dickson Osei-Asibey Theophilus Adjei-Kumi Ernest Kissi <p>Decentralization has been promoted to reflect citizens’ preferences and to improve local services. Hence, the strong demand for decentralization across the globe particularly in developing countries. This paper aimed at re-examining the benefits of decentralization for infrastructure delivery at the MMDAs in Ghana. Quantitative research approach was adopted for the study. A questionnaire survey was conducted to solicit construction professionals’ opinions on the benefits of decentralization to the MMDAs. A total of 121 professionals from 36 MMDAs in the Greater Accra and Ashanti regions of Ghana participated in the survey. Mean score ranking and Factor analysis were the statistical tools employed for the analysis of the data collected. The findings of the study indicated five categories of the benefits of decentralization including: Decentralized/Democratic governance; Equal distribution of infrastructure; Improved Local capacity; Improved Financial capacity; and Improved Local development. Furthermore, the top four significant benefits accruing from decentralization as agreed upon by the respondents were: Enhanced democratic governance; Improved internally generated funds; Utilization of local materials and Improved and faster infrastructure delivery. The findings of this study provide a wider and improved understanding of the benefits of decentralization particularly to the MMDAs, which in turn would enhance their delivery of infrastructure. Therefore, effective measures should be put in place in order to drive the implementation of decentralization in Ghana. Also, proper decentralized governance systems need to be established to improve the capacity of the MMDAs to deliver infrastructure.</p> 2021-02-23T06:26:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Joe Kingsley Hackman, Joshua Ayarkwa, Dickson Osei-Asibey, Theophilus Adjei-Kumi, Ernest Kissi When we look at the supervisor image in the mirror, what do we see? The supervisors' mirror image regarding doctoral supervision 2021-02-28T14:27:25+00:00 Isabel Ribau Coutinho <p>Studies regarding doctoral education can focus the PhD student, the supervisor, higher education institution (policy, curriculum, professional career support, culture, among others). PhD students, supervisors and higher education institution, constitute three keys for the same door (doctoral education), and without one of them, the door can´t be well open. Choose which of them should be analyzed is the researcher responsibility, as present data and look carefully to it. During the last years' doctoral education and the doctoral supervision process at UNL as been studied, looking to PhD students, supervisors and institution [1-5].</p> <p>In the present research, the focus is on supervisor perception. It is important to know supervisor opinion, to attempt and captures their perceptions regarding the doctoral supervision process. When the supervisor thinks and responds to surveys regarding supervision, he/she is presenting an image of himself/herself.</p> <p>This study occurred among the PhD supervisor population at a Science engineering school (Faculdade de Ciências Tecnologia) at Universidade Nova de Lisboa, a Portuguese Higher education institution, with a footprint in the research area. It was possible to capture the image that reflected in the mirror when the supervisor looked. The unexpected image reflected is of a researcher and not a supervisor. When they look to their doctorates, they generally see future technicians/ qualified workers and not a future researcher. Nonetheless, they consider that to finish the PhD, doctorates have to acquire the research profile. This mismatch is consistent with the reality, where attrition exists and many students think to live the academy after the enrollment in the PhD.</p> 2021-02-28T14:27:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Isabel Ribau Coutinho The Nexus Between Organisational Justice, Job Satisfaction, and Organisational Citizenship Behaviour: The Case of Barclays Bank 2021-02-28T14:27:52+00:00 Ben T. Ocra <p>This study examined the nexus between organisational justice, OCB, and job satisfaction. It also attempted to control for relevant covariates to contribute to the literature. The study was a correlational design, and its population was employees at the head office of Barclays Bank Ghana Limited (BBGL). All two hundred and seven (207) employees who met some selection criteria participated in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation test, and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) were used to present findings of the study. Organisational justice made a positive effect on job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour. Job satisfaction also made a significant positive effect on organisational citizenship behaviour. It is concluded that increasing the level of justice delivered can improve the level of job satisfaction and organisational citizenship behaviour.</p> 2021-02-28T14:27:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ben T. Ocra Exile and homesickness in the poetry of Ahmad Shawqi 2021-02-28T14:28:19+00:00 Nada Yousuf Al-Rifai <p>Ahmad Shawqi was raised in the royal palace, where his maternal grandmother – who sponsored him after the death of his mother – was a favoured maid at Khedive Ismail. Shawqi studied law in Egypt and Paris, and when he returned to Egypt, he became poet Laurette for Khedive Abbas Helmy II. Although Shawqi was brought up in the royal palace, as a poet, he felt the pulse of the Egyptian people and felt their pain and dreams. After the First World War broke out, in 1915, Shawqi was exiled to Spain where he was swept away by longing for his homeland. During his exile, the 1919 revolution erupted in Egypt, and his longing for his homeland intensified, and obsessed his heart and soul. Exile was the greatest ordeal that Shawqi went through in his life. In exile, he did not find relief except when resorting to his poetry, to which he revealed the pains of his heart. He also visited the memorials of the Muslims and their reign and civilization in Seville, Cordoba, and Granada. This resulted in Shawqi composing his lengthy poem “Arab countries and the greats of Islam”. Shawqi’s poems are considered masterpieces for their sincerity of emotion and beauty of description. Perhaps the most famous of these is The Seeniya; rhyming with the letter S, entitled “The Journey to Andalusia”, and his other longing poem, “The Nouniya; rhyming with the letter N”, in which he opposed the famous medieval Arab Andalusian poet, Ibn Zaidoun.</p> 2021-02-28T14:28:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Nada Yousuf Al-Rifai Problematising the Dominant Child Rights Discourses: Why We Need a Nuanced Approach to Combat Child Labour 2021-02-28T14:29:00+00:00 Abdul-Rahim Mohammed Adams Sulemana Achanso <p>Three decades have now passed since the promulgation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) in 1989. Despite the almost universal ratification of the CRC, as well as the heightened global awareness of the prevalence of child labour, the phenomenon persists. Following the ratification of the CRC, the rights-based approach to combating child labour became the dominant theoretical perspective. By problematising the dominant child-rights framework, this paper contributes to the discourse on child labour by arguing for a more nuanced approach to addressing the phenomenon. The paper achieves this objective by underscoring the importance of understanding and engaging with the reasons why children work, the socio-economic contexts within which they work, and why policies designed to address child labour should address the structural barriers that directly and indirectly promote child labour.</p> 2021-02-28T14:29:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul-Rahim Mohammed, Adams Sulemana Achanso Comparison of Algorithms of Individual and Group Behavior 2021-02-28T14:29:19+00:00 Igor Kopsov <p>It has been suggested that the functionality of matter, life, and mind can be described by algorithms containing a sequence of steps and feedback mechanisms. Social processes were until now not considered. Consequently, we examine algorithms of behavior of groups of various kinds, identify their common parameters, and undertake a comparative analysis to the algorithm of individual behavior. We conclude, that despite some application-specific differences, groups operate in accordance with a unified algorithm and, furthermore, this algorithm is the same as the generic algorithm of individual behavior. We demonstrate that in the generally perceived progression matter-life-mind-culture/society, the latter transition cannot be validated. Homogeneity of algorithms of individual and group behavior leads to the proposition that the human mind/psyche and social processes belong to the same level of complexity of nature. This challenges the commonly held perception that society/culture is a standalone perspective of reality separate from the mind.</p> 2021-02-28T14:29:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Igor Kopsov Subtitle 2021-02-28T14:29:47+00:00 Xin Cheng Lap Ki Chan Hongmei Cai Mei-yao He Yunqing Li xuesong yang <p>In order to investigate the correlation between teachers’ age and anatomy education online in China during the Covid-19 pandemic, we conducted a nationwide survey among the anatomists in three age cohorts (i.e., 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 years old) at the medical schools in mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau. Of the 359 respondents, there were 31% (n=108) anatomists aged 30-39, 46% (n=160) anatomists aged 40-49, and 23% (n=80) anatomists aged 50-59 years old, who were teaching clinical medicine students online at medical schools in China during the pandemic. The survey questionnaire contains the following items on online anatomy courses during the pandemic: theoretical sessions, practical sessions, active learning, assessment and perception. Based on the Chi-Square statistical analysis, although this study demonstrated that some noticeable differences existed in several items, we found the statistically significant difference was on “the formats of recording the theoretical sessions for asynchronous recorded broadcasting of online course”, among the three age groups, more teachers aged 30-39 chose to capture the PowerPoint presentation screen without the teacher appearing in the recorded video. Overall, this survey revealed that the teachers’ age and their teaching experience offline would not be the decisive factors in implementing anatomy online course effectively during the pandemic.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-02-28T14:29:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Xin Cheng, Lap Ki Chan, Hongmei Cai, Mei-yao He, Yunqing Li, xuesong yang The Influence of Internal Communication on Job Performance: Controlling for Key Worker Characteristics 2021-02-28T14:30:21+00:00 Ben Ocra <p>This study assessed the influence of internal communication on job performance, with relevant lurking variables controlled for as a new way of contributing to academic debate. This study was a correlational design that drew data from employees of University of Education Winneba (UEW). All 274 employees who met some selection criteria participated in this study. A self-reported questionnaire was used to gather data. Descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation test, ordinary least squares (OLS) regression analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to present findings of the study. The study found that downward, upward, and lateral communication in the university made a positive effect on job performance after controlling for job tenure, education, income, and employee level. Downward communication makes the strongest effect on job performance. It is therefore concluded that increasing the level of effectiveness in terms of downward, upward, and lateral communication in the university can increase the level of job performance.</p> 2021-02-28T14:30:21+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ben Ocra Concerning the latent content of psychoanalytic concepts: Some con-jectures 2021-02-28T14:31:00+00:00 Siegfried Zepf Dietmar Seel <p>Many psychoanalysts understand their concepts as metaphors, yet they do not question what is expressed metaphorically in these concepts. Based on the view that the real cognitive subject is society and the cognizing individual is their individual existence, the authors show by means of some of these concepts that such metaphors are mystified expressions of the socially unconscious as described by Marx &amp; Engels.</p> 2021-02-28T14:31:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Siegfried Zepf, Dietmar Seel Learning Plan with Blended learning in Elemetary School 2021-02-28T14:31:26+00:00 Retna Panjaitan Erni Murniarti Hotmaulina Sihotang <p><em>Information and communication technology in the education world during the Covid-19 era played an extremely important role. Everything can be easily done without any limit because each individual can do it himself. Technology is giving new colors and faces to education systems in all parts of the world today. This is evidenced by the development of many learning models that refer to independent learning based on information technology. The purpose of this paper is to develop a blended learning model for thematic learning in elementary schools according to the needs of learning activities. This development method refers to the Dick, Carey</em><em> (2009:6-7),</em><em> development model and adapts the Blended learning model. The application of the blended learning model refers to the curriculum that is being used during the Covid-19 pandemic, namely the 2013 curriculum which is simplified independently in</em><em> elementary school.</em></p> 2021-02-28T14:31:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Retna Panjaitan, Erni Murniarti, Hotmaulina Sihotang Nepo-India Territorial Disputes Transformation by Dialogue Means 2021-02-28T14:32:05+00:00 Bishnu Pathak <p><em>Nepo is a prefix appellation of Nepal. This study is a <strong>review</strong> that <strong>connects</strong> with disputed Kalapani area. And it <strong>interacts</strong> with the concerned actors/institutions motivating for <strong>change</strong> professed through fundamental transformation by dialogical means. Its objectives are three-fold: (i) to examine the Nepo-India territorial dispute; (ii) to analyse the voices of all Tracks; and (iii) to find-out ways of dispute transformation through Dialogue Track. The lessons-learned centric approach inspired the author to undertake this study. The paper is prepared based on archival research with author’s over 100 international publications tracking snow-ball techniques. </em><em>Dialogue shares possible transformative ways for negotiation. </em><em>Any dispute leaves the most significant impact – victimizes the people at the local levels (Dialogue Track 3) the most. Grassroots people </em><em>are honestly guided by </em><em>‘social service is the best philanthropic work of life’ and voluntarily participate in resolving the local dispute.</em> <em>Dialogue Track 2 is an </em><em>unarmed peacekeeping or watchdog body which belongs to the leaders of professionals at the provincial levels. It connects between Track 1 and Track 3 dimensions. Dialogue Track 1 is the ambitious, complex and supreme authoritative body to hold official dialogue and transform the dispute signing negotiation.</em> <em>The dialogue transforms 3ds (difference, denial and divergence) </em><em>of dispute </em><em>in the new form ‘just’ by peaceful means. India adopts 4ds (delay, deny, dilute and deceive) strategies for dialogue in the lack of required testimonies. World’s largest democratic country India isolates itself in this region as it has territorial disputes with all the adjoining neighbours in the absence of sincere dialogue. Therefore, it is high time India sorted out the fault lines in its democracy</em>.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2021-02-28T14:32:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bishnu Pathak CAMPFIRE Project in Mbazhe Community, Nkayi District, Zimbabwe: A Conflict of Interests 2021-02-28T14:34:12+00:00 Whitehead Zikhali <p>The introduction of CAMPFIRE projects by the Zimbabwean government in the 1980s-1990s was received with mixed feelings especially in Matabeleland provinces as many people were displaced in preference for wildlife. The government viewed CAMPFIRE projects as an antidote to the colonial legacy of technocratic and authoritarian development which undermined people’s control over their environment and criminalised their use of game. This paper seeks to explore why such a potentially positive project was met with mixed feelings by the Mbazhe community in Nkayi District. The deeper conflict between the Mbazhe community and the government in the implementation of the Mbazhe CAMPFIRE project needs careful examination and analysis. The study adopted a qualitative approach as a suitable method of understanding the problem, and complex processes that involved multiple participants in the implementation of this project. Consistent with Lewis Anthony Dexter’s elite interviewing and key informants’ techniques, the study conducted interviews with the 20 villagers and 10 CAMPFIRE project committee members (Dexter 1970). The study concluded that the historical government forces formed the attitudes towards the implementation of the project, by side-lining of local views. The study also revealed that the CAMPFIRE project in the Mbazhe community was further shaped by the legacies of the colonial rule, which was done purely following the authoritarian rule of the white settlers. Consequently, these factors shaped deep suspicion of the CAMPFIRE project and resulted in serious conflicts between the implementers and the affected communities. The study recommended that CAMPFIRE project implementers were/or should consider the inputs of the local people when implementing such projects in their local areas. Also, devolution of power should be promoted among all districts of Zimbabwe so that all districts can benefit from their local resources. Finally, the study recommended that the government should adopt people centred approaches when dealing with people at grassroot level.</p> 2021-02-28T14:34:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Whitehead Zikhali Functionality of Kenya Prisons Service in Managing Terrorist Prison Criminal Group Activities at Kamiti Maximum Prison, Nairobi Kenya 2021-03-06T05:33:51+00:00 Jane Waithira Kimani Kinyanzui <p>Prisons all over the world have become the ‘epicenter’ of terrorist groups' activities that include violent extremism, radicalization and recruitments into terrorist prison criminal groups. Although many scholars, especially in Kenya, have not scratched this area, the fact remains that prisons have become a center of terrorist recruitment, strengthening, interconnecting, organizing, and conducting terrorist actions with subjects outside of prison. This study, therefore, was designed to evaluate the Kenya Prisons Service's functionality in managing Terrorist Prison criminal group Activities at Kamiti Maximum Prison. Three objectives focused this study; to examine the nature of available Terrorist Prison Criminal Groups Management strategies at the institution; to identify the anti-Terrorist Prison Criminal Groups Management gaps, and finally, to identify activities associated with Terrorist Prison Criminal Groups at Kamiti Maximum Prison. The paper employed a descriptive research design and a hybrid methodology where qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results showed that the most embraced terrorist management techniques were separation/isolation as it allows for close supervision and use of risk assessment instruments amongst other measures. Results also showed that clandestine use of the internet while in prison was associated with the recruitment of other prisoners into terrorist groups, Islamist militant prison radicalization, and external influences. The study findings showed that the main ways to mitigate the Terrorist Prison Criminal Group activities in Kenya included creating employment opportunities for the youth, creating rehabilitation programs for terror convicts, and offering education to the public. Amongst other measures, this was perceived as mitigation to reduce terrorist groups. The study recommended judges and magistrates to only incarcerate the most serious criminals and prefer non-custodial sentences for petty offenders. This will better manage the radicalization of petty prisoners.</p> <p><strong>Key words: <em>Inmates, terrorist criminals, Prison, Isolation, Concentration, Separation. </em></strong></p> 2021-03-06T05:33:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jane Waithira Kimani Kinyanzui Correlation Modes Initial Setting Investigation-Based Group Inquiry Model Formulating Grant Hypotheses Against Student Ability in Science Skills 2021-03-06T05:35:15+00:00 Jurubahasa Sinuraya Abdul Hamid K Efendi Napitupulu <p>In the implementation of experimental activities, the competence that is expected to be mastered by a student is to appreciate the various concepts and principles of advanced physics by conducting various physics experiments and being able to develop creativity in designing experiments. Physics lessons are subjects related to numbers and some abstract concepts. The study aims to determine the correlation of the Initial Setting variable (X) of the Investigation-Based Group Inquiry Model to the science process skills variable (Y). Data analysis used a single linear regression correlation test using SPSS. The research sample was physics students. The data analysis technique used in this research is the statistical analysis technique of quantitative data calculations. The results of the analysis for the coefficient of determination R Square of 0.251 indicate that 25.1% of science process skills have a direct effect by the Initial Setting (X) variable of the Investigation-Based Group Inquiry Model.</p> 2021-03-06T05:35:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jurubahasa Sinuraya, Abdul Hamid K, Efendi Napitupulu The role of parenting and parental criticism on the body image and alexithymia during adulthood and emerging adulthood 2021-03-06T05:35:40+00:00 Pellerone Monica Torvisco Juan Martinez Scaduto Elena Velianna Pistillo Maria <p>Literature underline that the perception of parents as strongly critical can influence the tendency to self-criticize and, as a consequence, to be more vulnerable in manifesting problems in the developmental and adulthood age, such as the risk of dropouts and relapses in the eating disorders, negative results in the worsening of anxiety disorders, the possible presence of alexithymia or obsessive compulsive disorder.</p> <p>The purposes of the present study was to investigate the possible influence of parenting style and parental criticism on both the body image construct (body care, body protection, and comfort in touch) and the possible presence of alexithymia in a group of Italian adolescents and adults.</p> <p>The present study was conducted on a group of 140 subjects, aged between 19 and 36 (M = 24.71; SD = 5.11), of which 59 men (42.1%) and 81 women (57.9%).</p> <p>The participants were assigned to complete the following questionnaires: Parental Bonding Instrument, Twenty-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Perceived Criticism Inventory, and Body Checking Questionnaire.</p> <p>The results of this study support the research hypothesis that low age, a high level of paternal control and parental criticism can predict a high level of difficulty in communicating feelings. Furthermore, the importance attributed to appearance can be predicted by multiple variables, such as gender, age, mother care, father control and parental hypercriticism.</p> 2021-03-06T05:35:40+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pellerone Monica, Torvisco Juan Martinez, Scaduto Elena Velianna, Pistillo Maria Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Towards Routine Medical Examination Among University Lecturers In Rivers State 2021-03-06T05:36:07+00:00 Ene Emilia Abigo J. E. F. Okpako <p>The study examined the knowledge, attitude and practice of routine medical examination among university lecturers in Rivers State. A descriptive survey research design was adopted. The sample size consisted of 381 (12% of the total population) on a random sampling technique. Three research questions guided the study. A self-structured instruments titled “Knowledge Attitude and Practice of Routine Medical Examination Scale (KAPRME), Cronbach Alpha value of 0.78 was obtained for the content reliability. Simple percentage, Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse research questions. Findings showed that University Lecturers in Rivers State have knowledge and positive attitude on Routine Medical Examination. But, there is low level of practice for routine medical examination among the universities lecturers in Rivers State. Based on the findings, it was concluded that lecturers are aware of the impact of Routine Medical Examination but most times claim to be task-oriented taking for granted the nitty-gritty of life to be healthy. It was recommended that University administrators vis-à-vis individual lecturers should place optimum priority to Routine Medical Examination at least twice a year.</p> 2021-03-06T05:36:07+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ene Emilia Abigo, J. E. F. Okpako Promoting Companies and Host Community Relationship through Literacy Education for Sustainable Community Development in Rivers State, Nigeria. 2021-03-06T05:36:43+00:00 Angela Nkechi UGWU Mercy Ebere OMEJE <p><em>There is need for a good rapport or relationship between companies and their host communities for a peaceful co-existence and maximum achievement of the company’s desired goals and development of the communities.&nbsp; This paper examined literacy education as a tool for equipping community members with skills, attitude and information for a peaceful co-existence between them and companies in their communities for sustainable community development. The writers established that there are conflicts that arise between companies and host communities due to reasons like ignorance, lack of information or misinformation that literacy programs can deal with. It was suggested among others that states should resuscitate mass literacy programmes in communities and there should be integration of literacy training programs into the community development plans by companies in their host communities as part of the cooperate social responsibilities</em></p> 2021-03-06T05:36:43+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Angela Nkechi UGWU, Mercy Ebere OMEJE Disinheritance of Women Under Esan Customary law in Nigeria: The Need for a Paradigm Shift Towards Gender Equality. 2021-03-06T05:37:10+00:00 Paul Itua <p>Legal scholars, and activist in recent times had continued to advocate for equal rights of children irrespective of their gender on issues of succession or inheritance rights. The problem with gender-based discrimination are more palpable when a deceased die intestate and the principles of native law and custom regulating succession to the deceased intestate estate are fully activated. Most often, statistics have shown that female gender are discriminated against in most of the communities in Nigeria. Female children suffer the same fate under Esan customary law, because of the application of the rule of primogeniture that regulate inheritance and succession. Widows’ also are not excluded from discriminatory practises. This article seeks to examine critically the disinheritance of women either as daughters or as a widow under Esan customary law and advocate for a paradigm shift to bring its application in tandem with the Constitution.</p> <p><strong><em>KEYWORD. Succession under Esan Customary Law, the Rule of Primogeniture and disinheritance of women. </em></strong></p> 2021-03-06T05:37:10+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Paul Itua Global Studies and Education in Developing Countries: Road-mapping Interdisciplinarity for Sustainable Development 2021-03-06T05:37:36+00:00 Akeem Amodu <p>The education landscape in the 21st Century is witnessing global paradigm shifts. Emergent pedagogic practices are redefining hitherto compartmentalized systems of teaching and learning. With the advances in technology and the attendant expansions of the frontiers of knowledge - through the processes of digitalization and globalization -, the hitherto intellectual boundaries between disciplines are increasingly becoming blurred and of little or no relevance to contemporary scholarship. Emergent 21st century scholarship in the developed countries is characterized by a continued break down of intellectual barriers or walls between academic disciplines. A critical look at the courses being offered by academic institutions in the developed countries reflect interdisciplinarity: Global Studies; History and Philosophy of Sustainable Development (HPSD); and, History and Philosophy of Science (HPS) among others. A similar look at the curricular of most departments of higher institutions in developing countries however&nbsp;reveals holding on to traditional departmentalizations that characterized scholarship prior the commencement of the 21st century. With particular reference to the discipline Global Studies, we shall in this paper analytically discuss the emergent phenomenon of interdisciplinary scholarship as a means of road-mapping and repositioning academic departments and disciplines for sustainable development in developing countries. The paper argumentatively recommends frameworks for reforming the largely monodisciplinary education service delivery system in developing countries. In particular, the paper analytically asserts that interdisciplinarity has the potentials of engendering imperative solutions to the myriad of developmental challenges confronting developing nations across the globe.</p> 2021-03-06T05:37:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Akeem Amodu