Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2023-05-16T04:11:33+00:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal</strong> (ISSN : 2055-0286) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Services for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) aims to provide a platform for the researches and professionals to publish and get credit of their innovative research work. It appreciates the theoretical and empirical research in all the fields of knowledge related to social sciences particularly in the domain of Accounting and Finance, Advertisement, Behavioural Sciences, Business Management, Contemporary business issues, Contemporary marketing &amp; Finance, Cultural studies, Developmental economics, Economics, Econometrics, Entrepreneurship and small business management, Finance, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Management Sciences, Operation and Production Management, Organizational Behaviour, Portfolio management, Research Methods in Business, Social ethics in various societies.</p> Inhibition of Return without Attentional Capture in the Traditional Spatial Cueing Paradigm 2023-04-22T15:23:29+00:00 Yukihisa Matsuda <p>Numerous studies using the spatial cueing paradigm have revealed various characteristics of attentional capture and inhibition of return (IOR). In my previous study, attentional capture was not observed while IOR was observed. Although this is evidence supporting the independence of attentional capture and IOR, I considered the possibility of a problem with the SOA conditions. In the previous study, the SOA condition for observing attentional capture was 150 msec, while some other previous studies used the 100 msec SOA condition. This slight difference may be the reason why attentional capture was not observed. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a difference between RTs in the 150 msec SOA condition and RTs in the 100 msec SOA condition. Based on previous research, it was expected that attentional functioning would not change significantly when SOA was changed from 100 msec to 150 msec. The results showed that there was no difference between RTs in the 150 msec SOA and the 100 msec SOA conditions. Moreover, robust IORs were observed in the 100 msec SOA with the absence of attentional capture. The results of this study provided additional evidence for the idea presented that attentional capture and IOR are caused by different mechanisms.</p> 2023-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Yukihisa Matsuda Teaching of Primary School Social Studies in Greece: An Analysis of Curriculum Implementation 2023-04-21T10:29:59+00:00 Maria Ivrinteli <p>This study investigates how teachers and students assess curriculum implementation in social studies courses at primary school in Greece. Through a survey questionnaire teachers were asked to express their perceptions of the curriculum guidelines, materials and instructional and evaluation procedures. The results indicated that teachers find little help in curriculum guidelines in terms of determining instructional methods, materials and evaluation strategies they use in their class. The most common approach to classroom instruction in social studies is lecturing and discussion followed by recitation. The use of materials other than the course textbook is very limited, and textbook-related activities are the most common mode of homework assignment given to the students. Oral exams and short-answer tests are the most common mode of student evaluation in social studies classes.</p> 2023-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Ivrinteli Climate Change and Disasters in The Three Northern Regions of Ghana 2023-03-29T05:32:45+00:00 Conrad Atogi-Akwoa Weobong Delali B Dovie <p>The study documented disaster events, their impacts and the strategies used by local communities to avert or live with these disasters. A desk study approach was used in data collection. Information from stakeholder organizations working on climate change and related livelihood issues was collected. Data on disaster occurrence, impacts as well as mitigation and adaptation strategies were also obtained from individuals and groups in the communities of the research. The study revealed that the occurrence of floods, drought, wildfires and famine have been widespread in the study area in time and space. Rural communities have however been able to cope with these disasters through self-help and solidarity of households and informal social networks based on neighbourhood, kinship, clansmen, friends and relatives, and religious ties. External support agents, however, usually do not use these local structures. Such interventions miss the really vulnerable in the community. Traditional people have profound knowledge for disaster prediction. These include knowledge of local rain corridors, colour of clouds, prolonged drought followed by storms, thunder and lightning during first rains in the year, change in calls of birds, onset of breeding periods of birds as sign of change in season.</p> 2023-05-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Weobong, Conrad Atogi-Akwoa, Dovie, Delali B Action Research on the Application of Intergenerational Learning Guidance Through Online Curriculum 2023-04-13T09:23:38+00:00 Li-Yuan Cheng Joyce Say Wan-Jing April Chang Dietermar Say <p>Taiwan is at present encountering both low rates of birth and a maturing populace, prompting decreased open doors for intergenerational contact. Chronic diseases, disability, and dementia are all consequences of physical decline with age. This study aims to investigate the impact of intergenerational learning strategies applied to the elderly sports instruction curriculum on instructors in order to improve and alter this situation. Through action research, instructors continuously reflect on and update the elderly sports instruction curriculum to help students design exercise programs that improve students' stereotypical perceptions of the elderly and promote intergenerational integration by promoting physical and mental health for the elderly. Purposive sampling and action research were used in this study. The subjects of the study were 16 elderly sports instruction curriculum students and one instructor. The primary objective is for students to consider and revise the course material based on elderly feedback. Through triangulation with outside experts, this study will conduct qualitative data analysis. which will also collect feedback and observe how the two generations interact with one another.</p> 2023-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Li- Yuan Cheng, Joyce Say, Wan-Jing April Chang, Dietermar Say Effects of Shooting with A Reduced Hoop Diameter Rim on Kinematics of a Basketball Free-Throw 2023-05-03T20:55:51+00:00 Rim Sioud Sofiene Amara Sabri Gaied Chortane Riadh Khalifa <p>The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced rim diameter (diameter 0.30 m) upon the kinematics of basketball free-throws. Ten male basketball players (mean<em> ± s</em>; age 17.1 ± 0.4 years, height 1.85 ± 1.43 m, mass 79.0 ± 5.3 kg) performed 8 direct successful free throws; 4 when using a standard 0.45 m diameter rim, and 4 with an 0.3 m diameter rim. Ball release parameters and joint angles at ball release were determined for each participant. The smaller rim was associated with significant increases (<em>p</em> &lt; 0.0001) in ball release angle, ball release velocity, ball release height and shoulder joint angle at release. The reduced diameter rim can be advocated as a tactic for developing a higher ball release angle when training the shooting technique of young basketball players; this is likely to maximize the probability of a successful free-throw when attempted into a standard rim.</p> 2023-05-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Sioud, Rim, Amara, Sofiene, Gaied-Chortane, Sabri, Khalifa, Riadh Erdoğan’s Authoritarian Neoliberalism Goes to Cyprus. What are the Chances of Success of The Imported Authoritarian Neoliberal Model? 2023-05-02T08:56:34+00:00 Nikolaos Stelgias <p style="font-weight: 400;">The study seeks to advance the notion of authoritarian neoliberalism by discussing how the exportation of the authoritarian neoliberal model interacts with a closed society experiencing socio-economic upheaval. The paper follows the efforts made by a foreign power, such as Turkey, to assure the survival of an internationally non-recognised entity, such as the 'TRNC', via the neoliberal transformation of its economy and the imposition of alien political strategies and social values. The paper intends to argue that the authoritarian imposition of conservative and neoliberal policies on a society by a foreign actor doesn’t necessarily produce the desired outcome. Instead, by leaving behind accumulated unsolved problems and by reproducing social and political inequalities it can raise concerns about the sustainability of the structure that the neoliberal policies were designed to support.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nikolaos Stelgias Free Will - Mentalizing: Some Reasons to Consider Them a Single Phenomenon. The "Indeterminist" Point of View 2023-04-20T15:29:39+00:00 Federica Madonna <p>The following essay aims to provide some arguments in favor of equality of the phenomena of mentalizing and free will; in order to be able to highlight the overlap, therefore, the equality of the phenomena concerned, it is desirable, methodologically, that the three characteristics of mentalizing (the cognitive effort of the self to “understand” the other; the processing time of the message and the presence of the You) be displayed as intrinsic properties to the free will in order to conclude that the field of intersoggetivity is an extension of the investigation of the latter and not a phenomenon in its own right. It will be argued, in fact, that “reading of the mind” is the answer to the accusation made against indeterminists about the physical localisation of causality sui generis. The latter, unduly exploiting the characteristics of mentalizing, would find in the “mind/brain” of the agent its manifestation, masking, however, the fact that the ontological nature of the same mentalizing is that of free will.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Federica Madonna The Mediating Effect of Job Burnout on the Relationship Between Workplace Bullying and Job Satisfaction 2023-05-04T01:52:49+00:00 Altanchimeg Zanabazar Sarantuya Jigjiddorj Bolorsaikhan Togtokhbayar Ariunaa Jambaldorj <p>Workplace bullying can have severe negative consequences on individuals' physical and mental health, as well as their job satisfaction and performance. By understanding the causes and consequences of workplace bullying, organizations can develop effective prevention and intervention strategies to create a healthier and more positive work environment. This study investigated the impact of workplace bullying on job burnout and job satisfaction, as well as the mediating effect of job burnout on the relationship between workplace bullying and job satisfaction. The study was conducted using a sample of 72 employees from one organization in Mongolia. Data was collected through a self-administered survey questionnaire and analyzed using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method. In this study, we utilized the Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R) developed by Einarsen, Hoel, and Notelaers (2009) to measure workplace stress, the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey (MBI-HSS) developed by Maslach and Jackson (1981) to measure burnout, and the job satisfaction questionnaire developed by MacDonald and Maclntyre (1997) to measure job satisfaction. The results revealed a positive correlation between workplace bullying and job burnout, indicating that an increase in the levels of bullying is associated with an increase in job burnout. Additionally, both types of bullying (leadership-related and colleague-related) were found to have a negative effect on job satisfaction. Job burnout was also found to have a negative correlation with job satisfaction, meaning that as job burnout increases, job satisfaction tends to decrease. Furthermore, the study found that job burnout fully mediates the relationship between workplace bullying (both leadership-related and colleague-related) and job satisfaction. This suggests that job burnout plays an important role in shaping the relationship between workplace bullying and job satisfaction.</p> 2023-05-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Altanchimeg Zanabazar, Sarantuya Jigjiddorj, Bolorsaikhan Togtokhbayar, Ariunaa Jambaldorj Cognitive Dissonance Induction to Decrease Vaccine Hesitancy Among Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: A Cognitive Approach Towards the Promotion of Health Seeking Behaviors 2023-05-05T05:44:48+00:00 Fadi Makki Aya Haidar Paola Schietekat Sedas Nabil Saleh <p><u>Background</u>: The rollout of the COVID-19 vaccine represented more than logistical challenges. Lebanon, despite benefitting from the COVAX initiative that made vaccines more accessible to everyone residing in the country, faced considerable challenges encouraging the Syrian refugee population to register for a vaccine. The reasons behind refugees’ reluctance to get vaccinated were mainly behavioral in nature: fear of side effects, doubts about the vaccine’s effectiveness, and even the belief that the vaccine was unnecessary. <u>Methods</u>: An RCT was conducted in order to test the impact of dissonance induction on the level of willingness of Syrian refugee survey respondents who had not been vaccinated (n=1,569). The survey also collected data on refugees’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding the vaccine. <u>Results</u>: Results revealed that dissonance induction significantly reduced vaccine hesitancy, with more pronounced effects detected among women, middle aged adults. <u>Conclusion</u>: These findings have important implications on rethinking the behavioral aspect of the delivery of public health services to the refugee population in Lebanon and vulnerable populations elsewhere.</p> 2023-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Fadi Makki, Aya Haidar, Paola Schietekat Sedas, Nabil Saleh Micro-Credentials and Skills: Towards A Paradigm Shift in Reskilling? 2023-05-08T21:38:39+00:00 George Karachalios Nikos Papadakis <p>The paper deals with the role of Training and Reskilling, as part of active employment policy, specifically focusing on the dynamics of micro-credentials. It begins with a brief overview of the dominant trends in the Labour Market in order to proceed with the analysis of the role of Skills, within this (rapidly changing) context. Given the abovementioned, the paper focuses on the role of the micro-credentials in Reskilling, (flexibly) building individual skills-repertoire and feed-backing the existing accreditation-certification practices and patterns. It provides a critical overview of the state-of-play regarding the rising trend towards Micro-Credentials and their association with Skills, Training and Reskilling.&nbsp;</p> 2023-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 George Karachalios, Nikos Papadakis Statistical Success: Three-Year Analysis of Student Performance and Student Insights from a First-Year College Statistics Course 2023-05-08T14:30:02+00:00 Jennifer D. Harris <p>This study included quantitative and qualitative analysis of three years of students in an introductory college-level statistics course. The quantitative analysis focused on what aspects might be relevant to student success. The instructor and the modality appear to be significantly related to student success. Somewhat surprisingly, fully onsite courses had a lower success rate than online or partially online courses. The qualitative analysis focused on the student comments on end of course surveys for the same three years. These comments were categorized based on topic and then rated from -3 reflecting a strong negative feeling, through to +3 indicating a strong positive feeling. These comments highlighted the importance students placed on live online lessons with the instructor. Students also appeared to take responsibility for their learning, noting the importance of their engagement to their success. This study provided unique insights to student success in an introductory college-level statistics course. Instructor and student engagement is key, along with opportunities for live connections.</p> 2023-05-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer D. Harris Professional Counselor Profile Analysis Based on Expert and User Expectations 2023-05-09T08:38:57+00:00 Asrori Muhammad <p>The ultimate goal of the present research is to develop profiles and characteristics of professional counselors and their educational attainment as expected by experts and users so that standards for counselor education programs can be developed to produce professional counselor candidates. The specific objectives are (1) to describe the profile of a professional counselor having personal, social, and professional characteristics based on the expectations of experts and users; (2) to classify the sources of acquiring the profiles and characteristics expected by experts and users; and (3) to develop the standards for counselor education program.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Asrori Muhammad The Incarceration of Juvenile Delinquents with Adult Offenders in Nigeria: Any Criminogenic and Developmental Needs 2023-05-09T17:44:16+00:00 Obinna Paschal Ezeihuoma Genevieve Chimaoge Ebulum <p>Over a century ago, the establishment and subsequent development of juvenile justice system presented a paradigm shift in handling of juvenile offenders. Some of the reforms brought out required changes to the level it is today, like enthronement of the rights of the juvenile through various landmark supreme court decisions in America (Marion &amp; Oliver, 2012; Mallett &amp; Tedor, 2019). Some other “major reform efforts in juvenile justice have focused on reducing the use of detention and secure confinement; improving conditions of confinement; closing large institutions and reinvesting in community-based programs; providing high-quality, evidence-based services for youth in the juvenile justice system; reducing racial/ethnic disparities; retaining most offending juveniles in the juvenile justice system rather than transferring them to the criminal justice system; improving delivery of defense services; and developing system-wide juvenile justice planning and collaboration” (National Academies of Sciences, 2013, p.241).</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Obinna Paschal Ezeihuoma, Genevieve Chimaoge Ebulum National Social Identity in Guinea-Bissau: An Exploratory Essay Inspired by The Methodology of J. Cheek, S. Briggs, S. Smith and L. Tropp 2023-05-16T04:11:33+00:00 Carlos Sangreman Proença Raquel Faria José Magalhães <p>The research is defined as exploratory and aims to evaluate whether the methodology of inquiry and analysis of the identity of J. Cheek, S.Briggs, S.Smith and L.Tropp [8], can be adapted to a fragile state like Guinea-Bissau. This methodology consists in the assessment of the importance attributed by the respondents of 70 sentences from which the characteristics of individual and social identity (family and collective) are extracted (Cheek, J.M. &amp; Briggs, S.R. [7]). The phrases were sent by digital means to 102 Guineans known in person or only by Facebook with a request for response and dissemination and obtained 183 responses. These answers, calculated according to the methodology adopted, allowed to define some identity characteristics of the respondents. We tried to interpret these results using other surveys conducted since 2014 in Guinea-Bissau with different themes. It is concluded by realizing that this is a method that can contribute to the knowledge of the national identity of Guineans, but insufficient. This conclusion remains to be demonstrated if it is carried out with a statistically significant sample.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Carlos Sangreman Proença, Raquel Faria, José Magalhães Perception of Postgraduate Students on Ethical Public Relations Practice in Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria 2023-05-10T03:11:28+00:00 Agatha Obiageri Orji-Egwu Happiness Chinenye Nworie <p>In every organization, Public Relations serve as a vital anchor that keeps its reputation and external relationships afloat. It is a shield that minimizes risk and damage upon progress, initiating robust growth and evolution. The rationale for this study is that every successful public relations activity is guided by certain moral principles and is geared towards ensuring that the communication needs of all key stakeholders are addressed. These obviously include the postgraduate students of Ebonyi State University who constitute a critical component of the university publics. Besides, in building the reputation of an organization, it has to start with the internal publics. It is against this backdrop that it becomes imperative to assess the practice of ethical public relations as perceived by postgraduate students among the university staff at Ebonyi State University. The objectives were to determine whether Ebonyi State University postgraduate students perceive the level of communication flow between the students and staff as highly commendable; ascertain the level of goodwill elicited from postgraduate students and as well determine the major challenges that confront the postgraduate students. The study was anchored on a two-way symmetrical model. A mixed research method was adopted for this study and data were gathered using a questionnaire and in-depth interviews with staff of the public relations unit of Ebonyi State University. The population of the study consists of 990 postgraduate students in the 9 faculties of the university between 2018 to 2022 academic sessions. The population includes 88 PGDs, 540 Masters, and 362 PhDs. A sample of 285 respondents was chosen for the study based on the Australian sample size online calculator. The findings of the study revealed that poor communication and inadequate feedback mechanism pose serious challenges to the ethical practice of public relations at Ebonyi State University. It was therefore recommended that in order to build and enhance healthy relationships between the university and its postgraduate students, it is vital to find innovative ways to communicate with the postgraduate students to keep them not only engaged but informed.&nbsp;</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Agatha Obiageri Orji-Egwu , Happiness Chinenye Nworie The Effectiveness of Geopark-Based Science Learning to Increase Students' Concern for The Local Environment and Culture the Belitung Island 2023-05-11T03:03:30+00:00 A. A. Ketut Budiastra Mustaghfiri Asror Nia Erlina Iwan Wicaksono <p>Research to know the effectiveness of science learning at the Geopark-based elementary school (SD) stage on Belitung Island which includes geological diversity (Geodiversity), biodiversity (Biodiversity), and cultural diversity (Cultural diversity). The type of research applied is experimental research with a one-group pretest-posttest design. The sample selected was elementary school students in grades IV, V, and VI with each class using a large scale. The instruments used were pretest and posttest to determine student learning outcomes in geopark-based science learning both before and after the learning process. In this study, questionnaires were also used to collect qualitative descriptive data. The research results for grade IV geological diversity on granite teaching materials show that Geopark-based science learning is effectively applied in the high category and for Lake Kaolin teaching materials show that Geopark-based science learning is effectively applied in the medium category. The results of the research for Biodiversity for class V Mangrove Forest teaching materials show that Geopark-based science learning is effectively implemented in the high category and for Kabong Tree or Enau teaching materials it is shown that Geopark-based science learning is effectively applied in the medium category. The results of the study for cultural diversity (Cultural diversity) for class VI on Marastaun Culture teaching materials show that Geopark-based science learning is effectively applied with medium category and for Nirok Nanggok Culture teaching materials shows Geopark-based science learning is effectively applied with high category. The research recommendations show that development in the form of Geopark-based science teaching materials needs to be followed up for learning in the Geopark area which is a source of the nation's natural wealth.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 A. A. Ketut Budiastra, Mustaghfiri Asror, Nia Erlina, Iwan Wicaksono Voter Apathy in Nigeria as Political Protest: A Critical Overview of People’s Participation in Elections in Nigeria 2023-05-06T17:07:56+00:00 Muhammad Abdullahi Umar Abubakar Arabo <p>This study explained that since the return to civil rule in 1999 after decades of military interregnum, Nigeria was involved in series of elections in the country. It has been observed that in each of these elections low turnout of voters used to be recorded. Several efforts were made with a view to assuage this malaise but, the citizens’ full participations always fell below expectations.&nbsp; The paper uses qualitative method which involves key informant interview as well as Aristotle’s theory of politics and thus argues that, until the elected officials in Nigeria recourse to fulfilling their campaign promises, and elections superintendents live up to expectation by making the electorates votes count during elections, above all, entrenchment of good governance, the menace of voter apathy will continue to be experienced in the Nigeria’s political space.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Muhammad Abdullahi, Umar Abubakar Arabo The Effects of TV Viewing, Computer and Gaming Console Use on Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal Study 2023-05-08T23:44:34+00:00 Nghi Hoang Bui Marilyn Cruickshank John McAloon Jane Maguire <p><u>Background</u>: Early learning experiences are crucial for children’s optimal development. The rising prevalence of screen time (ST) in children’s lives have raised concerns regarding their effect on academic outcomes (Gingold et al., 2013). <u>Aim</u>: This study used a longitudinal design to examine the effects of the amount of ST on academic achievement. <u>Method and Sample</u>: The <em>“Growing Up in Australia: A Longitudinal Study in Australia (LSAC)”</em> (Soloff et al., 2005) was the primary data source for this research and focused on children from this cohort who were 4-5 years of age on enrolment (<em>N</em>=2954). The National Assessment Program for Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) was used to measure five academic domains: reading, writing, numeracy, spelling and grammar/punctuation at two time points. <u>Results</u>: Increased ST at Time 1 (T1) demonstrated a negative association with Year 3 NAPLAN scores in reading (B= -5.94), writing (B= -3.08), numeracy (B= -4.85), spelling (B= -4.03), and grammar/punctuation (B= -5.74). Increased ST at Time 2 (T2) demonstrated a significant negative association with only Year 5 NAPLAN scores in grammar/punctuation (B= -2.72). ST at T1 predicted lower scores on the Year 5 NAPLAN in reading (B= -1.67), writing (B= -2.36), and grammar/punctuation (B= -1.96). This effect was not observed for numeracy and spelling. <u>Conclusions</u>: Overall, these findings illustrate that more ST leads to a decreased performance in academic achievement over time, although this was not present across all domains. These findings may have implications for educational settings, as technology is increasingly utilised for educational purposes.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Nghi Hoang Bui, Marilyn Cruickshank, John McAloon, Jane Maguire Artificial Intelligence has a Role in Medical Treatments and Associated Research? 2023-05-03T03:56:28+00:00 Jeffrey E. Jarrett <p>I encourage the growth of artificial intelligence and similar methods in health and medical care for the purpose of continuously improving processes included in this field. By focusing on the growth on data analytics, statistics, applied mathematics, and computer methods including machine learning, the future of health-care methods will change. The development of computerized methods and the growth of data systems produce ample materials for artificial intelligence to develop and to bring physician assistance programs to enable continuous improvement resulting in superior health and medical care. This includes applications in intensive care as well as diagnostic therapies. The focus is on examples in the use of the promising developments in data science methods, the accumulation of medical and research data. With quality and continuous improvement in process control applications where one determines the usefulness of data analytics, there are great possibilities of change in the improvement in medical applications as well as the management of hospital and other health-care facilities.</p> 2023-05-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jeffrey E. Jarrett