Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2020-07-04T15:57:03+01:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Society for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> The Jurisprudence Of The Sokoto State Administration Of Criminal Justice Law 2019: Innovative Provisions, Redlines And Suggestions For Future Reforms 2020-06-14T08:29:51+01:00 Ibrahim Abdullahi <p>This article appraises the jurisprudence, innovative provisions, redlines inherent in the Sokoto State Administration of Criminal Justice Law 2019 and make suggestions for future reforms. Sokoto State is one of States in Nigeria that has domesticated the Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015 (ACJA 2015) through the signing into law of the Sokoto State Administration of Criminal Justice Law, 2019 by his Excellency, the Executive Governor of Sokoto State, Rt. Hon. Aminu Waziri Tambuwal<strong><em> (Mutawallen Sokoto) </em></strong>to take care of the problems of incessant delay in the criminal justice system. This article uses the doctrinal research methodology in gathering information’s and observes the need to look holistically at the issue of poor draftsmanship while provisions that runs counter to the Constitution should be addressed. The article recommended amongst others that the provisions relating to expeditious legal advice from the office of the Attorney General of Sokoto State and prohibition against lay prosecutions cannot be effective if the manpower at the Ministry of Justice is not improved upon and the welfare of the lawyers at the said Ministry is not taken care of. Barring the above, it is a new dawn for Sokoto State in the administration of Criminal Justice.</p> 2020-06-14T08:29:51+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Abdullahi CHUKWUMA NZEOGWU IN THE THROES OF CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN HISTORY 2020-06-14T08:30:16+01:00 Chiemela Wambu Chinyere Ecoma <p>For the greater part of its existence as a sovereign state, Nigeria has witnessed more years of military than civilian rule. An excursion into this very important aspect of our national history must, of necessity, interrogate the circumstances and dramatis personae that led to the military’s intervention in national politics. One name that has never escaped the scrutiny in this effort is that of Major Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu. Though a posthumous research, the intention of this paper is to attempt a reappraisal of the often ignored, misinterpreted and maligned intentions of the principal actors of the January 15, 1966 military coup d’etat, especially the role of Nzeogwu. In order to achieve this objective, the research made use of both primary and secondary sources of data. These were subjected to initial qualitative analysis. The research concludes that part of the reasons for the misinterpretation of Nzeogwu’s role is the need to justify the failure of the government of the First Republic to satisfy the basic human and material needs of Nigeria. In addition, it establishes the fact that subsequent political equations and configurations in Nigeria have evidently been to the benefit of those who have been at pains to justify the brutality that attended the January 1966 coup d’etat.</p> 2020-06-14T08:30:15+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Chiemela Wambu, Chinyere Ecoma Is the existence of God reasonable? 2020-06-14T08:30:32+01:00 Eva Martino <p>In this article the question of whether the existence of God is reasonable will be addressed. The start point will be the debate between Dr. Craig and Dr. Rosenberg that took place in 2013 around the question “Is faith in God reasonable?” This debate has been chosen for being representative of general theist and atheist positions. The former usually believe in God first, and then try to formulate arguments that can help them transmit their faith to others, whereas atheists usually find arguments first that they consider illogical or incoherent related to the existence of God, and in a second moment they come to reject faith. It will be analyzed following the pragma-dialectical approach defined by Van Eemeren and Grootendorst, that considers argumentation as a speech act that aims to solve a difference in opinion. This analysis will show the main obstacles that prevented the speakers to arrive to an understanding, mainly a different vision of God and the goal that they were seeking.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> 2020-06-14T08:30:32+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Eva Martino Challenges and Opportunities of Developing an ESP University Course without a Textbook – a multiple case study 2020-06-14T08:31:02+01:00 Anna ROMAGNUOLO <p>The growing demand for ESP courses, due not only to the use of English as a lingua franca in a globalized professional world but also to the relatively recent requirements of “internationalized” university degrees, has made the teaching of English for Special Purposes, with the areas and the language teaching approaches (EOP, EAP, EVP) it has come to include, increasingly reliant on the use of specialized EFL textbooks. However, the ESP books available in the market still might not cover all the non-linguistic specialized university disciplines, or they might be too costly and time-consuming for short, elective, and pass/fail EFL courses worth few ECTS credits.<br>This paper will report on the author’s experience of teaching a University Business Communication course without the use of textbooks, and with significant resort to online free educational resources and “non-desktop” technologies, materials and tools, which have also been exploited to involve students in the preparation of flipped lessons and the creation of their own educational material. <br>The course-specific features and students’ outcomes, especially in terms of competence and skill development, will be described with a brief analysis of the pros and cons of transforming a formal educational setting in an informal language learning experience.</p> 2020-06-14T08:31:02+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Anna ROMAGNUOLO Bilinguals, Monolinguals and their Choices of Metacognitive Strategies in Reading, Writing, Listening and Speaking 2020-06-14T08:31:26+01:00 Julia Falla-Wood Keciya Varghese <p>The purpose of this explorative study is to compare the choices of metacognitive strategies made by bilinguals and monolinguals in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Kovelman, Baker &amp; Petitto (2008) compare bilingual and monolingual brains and observe that there is a differential activation in the syntactic process between bilinguals and monolinguals. Could there be a difference between monolinguals and bilinguals in the choice of metacognitive strategies too? The data, collected in three private institutions, one in Quebec, and two in Alberta, consists of 144 students, 72 monolinguals, and 72 bilinguals. The instrument of research is a questionnaire. The results of this study show that 63.8% of all participants are unaware of the concept of metacognition. This lack of awareness is found not only in high school students but also in senior university students. In the category of bilinguals, the students acknowledge being bilinguals, but the percentage of those who feel comfortable in both languages is only 47.2%. Regarding the choices of metacognitive strategies, there are more similarities than differences between bilinguals and monolinguals. The implications of these results could lead educators to be intentional in bringing awareness of the concept of metacognition in a more efficient manner. Further research is needed to determine if the choice of specific metacognitive strategies would improve the four language skills.</p> 2020-06-14T08:31:26+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Julia Falla-Wood, Keciya Varghese Epistemic Beliefs Moderate Mediations Among Attitudes, Prior Misconceptions, and Conceptual Change 2020-06-14T08:31:49+01:00 James Vivian Krista Renee Muis <p>We investigated the mediating and moderating roles of attitudes and epistemic beliefs in conceptual change during learning about genetically modified foods (GMFs). One hundred twenty undergraduate students participated. To measure misconceptions about GMFs, students first completed a prior knowledge test. Students then completed self-report inventories to measure their attitudes and topic-specific epistemic beliefs regarding GMFs. Students were then randomly assigned to read a refutation or expository text about GMFs. Following reading, students completed a test to assess conceptual change. Results of a repeated measures ANOVA revealed participants who read a refutation text changed more misconceptions at post-test than participants who read an expository text. A moderation mediation analysis revealed attitudes toward GMFs significantly mediated the relationship between prior misconceptions and conceptual change, and that this relationship was moderated by learners’ beliefs regarding the source and justification of GMFs knowledge. Theoretical and educational implications are discussed.</p> 2020-06-14T08:31:49+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 James Vivian, Krista Renee Muis Aging, Vulnerability and Managing Type 2 Diabetes During a Pandemic 2020-06-14T08:32:11+01:00 Jasmin Tahmaseb McConatha <p>Older men and women have been found to be more vulnerable to negative outcomes should they contract Covid19, particularly if they also have comorbid conditions such as type 2 diabetes. Cultural, racial, ethnic, and social class differences exist in vulnerability to Covid19 and in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes. In the United States, for example, diabetes rates for minority and immigrant populations are higher than for non-Hispanic whites. During the a social health crisis, it is helpful to explore the ways that illness management and associated vulnerability influences the ways that minority elders attempt to maintain and promote their well-being. This paper presents a case study example of an older immigrant woman, diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and her struggle to manage her illness during a pandemic. The risk of developing diabetes in the United States is 3 to 1 and risks increase with age (American Diabetes Association, 2020). &nbsp;Almost 50 % of black women as well as Hispanic men and women will develop diabetes in their lifetime (CDC, 2019). Disparities such as these have their origin in intersecting risk factors such as health care and lifestyle factors such as tress, poverty, weight, diet, and exercise patterns. Being a member of an ethnic minority and being overweight are the two significant factors associated with the onset of type 2 diabetes. During the coronavirus epidemic, these same factors also increase the risk for infection and for greater complications, even death as a result of infection (Society for Women’s Health Research, 2020). This essay illustrates the increased vulnerability and challenges including loneliness facing older women with type 2 diabetes during pandemic isolation. &nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-14T08:32:11+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jasmin Tahmaseb McConatha BORN FREE AND EQUAL: The History of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2020-06-14T08:32:38+01:00 Hanne Christensen <p>This article outlines the process at the United Nations, which resulted in the human rights regime, initiated by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 10 December 1948. It analyzes reactions and input from major players. It reveals that the human rights legislation regime was a negotiated member state endeavor with input from various countries across continents, cultures, and religions. It demonstrates the importance of small states in getting the human rights legislation adopted as international law. It refutes the notion that the human rights regime is a western project.</p> 2020-06-14T08:32:38+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hanne Christensen Oil And Underdevelopment Of Rural Communities In The Niger Delta 2020-06-15T07:32:52+01:00 Love Obiani Arugu Coastman Sunday <p>The paper examines the relationship between the oil industry and the under development of rural oil producing communities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The discovery of crude oil and gas resources has generated environmental degradation and strife that has retarded the development of the region. &nbsp;It has brought in its wake negative development that has impacted negatively on the development of these rural communities. The activities of the oil industry have degraded the environment of these communities, decimating the flora and fauna, thereby crushing the livelihood of the people. In addition, the activities of the oil industry have engendered unprecedented violence conflict. It has led to killing and destruction of lives and property. Since conflict is antithetical to development, the widespread underdevelopment of rural oil producing communities is the result of the devastation of the environment and the violence conflict visited on the communities by the oil industry. &nbsp;</p> 2020-06-14T08:33:06+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Operational alteration of the Labor Capacity Index measurement model for qualitative work 2020-06-22T05:59:44+01:00 Knut Linke <p>The Marx term Labour capacity contains the ability to handle change, imponderables and complexity and is personal part of an employee. The Labour Capacity Index (LCI) is developed to measure the use of labour capacity at work places and from employee itself. The index helps to understand the handling and dealing of complexity and imponderables at work. For the index itself is assumed that the index itself news small adjustment to be more valuable.</p> <p>A critic point of the LCI seems to be the existing scale and the used values, do to limitations on the available record set. This paper displays the results of a hopeful useful change in the operationalization of the measurement of labour capacity to increase the understanding of workers and their personal and experienced input to work. The comparison of the results is based on a survey with the working environment of IT employees.</p> <p>From the analysis of the results and out of the following comparison between the new and the old approach for the LCI, it can be displayed that the change in the operationalization can be done successfully. The including of new variable values also allowed a more detailed and distributes view on the labour market and the research labor capacity.</p> 2020-06-22T05:59:44+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Knut Linke From the Fiction to the Film: The Adaptation, reconsitution and recreation of The Wandering Earth 2020-06-22T06:00:16+01:00 Sifang YANG <p>none</p> 2020-06-22T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Sifang YANG Perceptions of Russian-Speaking Immigrants: A Case Study in Australia 2020-06-22T06:00:45+01:00 Oleg Cohan Shovkovyy <p>This research was conducted in response to one of the most pressing and challenging questions on the agenda of many government offices around the world - “What can be done to better integrate and assimilate immigrants into host communities?” The qualitative study employed ethnographic methods of gathering data, where 170 Russian-speaking immigrants were observed by the insider in their natural settings, for eight months, and at different locations in Brisbane region of Australia; informal, unstructured interviews were conducted with 27 individuals. During observations, it was noticed that many immigrants had experienced one or another sort of difficulties that prevent them from smooth integration into the host society. The further analysis of data derived from immigrants narratives revealed emerging themes, which allowed identifying five factors that, perceived by immigrants as obstacles to integration: (1) employment, (2) education, (3) healthcare, (4) government assistance, and (5) discrimination. Following the logic of inductive reasoning and assumptions of grounded theory, that is seen as a research method in which the theory is developed from the data, the researcher uses research findings to build behavioral Model of Assimilation/ Integration of immigrants. Developed model not only accurately explains why immigrants resist integration but also offers the pathway to further quantification for the measurement of assimilation.</p> 2020-06-22T06:00:45+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Oleg Cohan Shovkovyy A Relational Sociological Analysis of Instagram in Turkey 2020-06-22T06:01:08+01:00 Nazar Bal Aytul Kasapoglu <p>The research problem with the study that underpins this article is that Instagram manipulates the consumption habits of daily life in an intense manner. In this context, the main purpose of the article is to examine how people change their consumption habits by being affected by Instagram in daily life. In this context, answers to the questions of what Instagram and consumption mean in daily life and what are their effects were sought. Along with the globalization process and capitalism, Instagram, which is one of the popular social media tools especially in recent years, has started to affect people positively and negatively in cultural, social and economic terms. One of these effects is consumption habits. However, people's lifestyles and social identities are changing. The theoretical basis of this study is relational sociology and Pierre Bourdieu's (1984) concepts of “habitus”, “field” and “taste”. How Instagram manipulates consumption habits has been tried to be put forward with a Grounded Theory approach. In the empirical part of the study, in-depth interviews were made with 14 women who are Instagram users. Research findings reveal that the consumption habits of individuals change from utilitarian consumption to hedonist consumption. These hedonist consumption habits, on the other hand, can be said to lead people away from their own social realities and to alienate themselves and society.</p> 2020-06-22T06:01:08+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nazar Bal, Aytul Kasapoglu The Research of Aesthetics of Type as Image in Motion-Targeting Video Poetics at Type Motion: Type as Image in Motion Exhibition in Taiwan 2020-06-23T07:40:23+01:00 Chih Ho Chen Sheng-Min Hsieh <p>Characters are signs and symbols that record our thoughts and feelings and allow the documentation of events and history. Later, the appearance of motion images marked a new milestone in the use and application of characters. Not only were the original function of characters improved and enhanced, text that integrate sound and images are also able to communicate much more diverse and abundant information. This technique is commonly found in cinema, television, advertisement, and animation. Thanks to technological advances, the combination of characters, texts, or types and images once again changed how we read. It has also created new meaning for our time. Today, type image seems to have achieved an aesthetic autonomy of their own. This has a profound impact on image and art creation and human communication.</p> <p>The emergence of cinema art in the late 19th century brought motion into written media and greatly expanded the possibilities of art. In today’s world of instant communication media, text and images face unprecedented changes. Chinese characters are one of the most ancient writing systems in human history. Unlike western alphabet, each Chinese character has its own form, sound, and meaning. Chinese characters are a highly figurative cultural element. This essay takes Chinese characters and the works featured in the concrete poetry/sound poetry and fragment poetry categories in the National Taiwan Museum of Fine Arts “Type Motion: Type as Image in Motion” exhibition as the subject of study to examine the history of text and media and changes in the way we deliver information and communicate. This essay also provides an analysis of the relationship between text and motion image and the interdependency between culture and technology and media. The connections and differences between Chinese characters in different time and space is also investigated to highlight the uniqueness of the characters as a medium, its application in motion writing techniques and aesthetic forms.</p> <p>This essay focuses on the following four topics:</p> <ol> <li>Artistic expression and styles related to the development of type as image in motion.</li> <li>Video poetics: the association between poetics and video images, poetic framework, and analysis of film poetry.</li> <li>Structure, format, characteristics, and presentation of meaning in concrete poetry/sound poetry, and fragment poetry.</li> <li>how Chinese characters are used in Taiwan and the aesthetic features of type through the exhibited works.</li> </ol> 2020-06-22T06:01:32+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Chih Ho Chen, Sheng-Min Hsieh Lived Experiences of Multi-Banked Bank Account Holders with a focus on Banks at Manda Hill Mall Lusaka, Zambia 2020-06-22T06:01:56+01:00 Vincent Kanyamuna <p>Multi-banking among bank account holders is a trend that has been on the rise in the recent past. Even though most banks provide similar services, like money transfer, deposits, loans, safety vault keeping, insurance and other services, it is seen that consumers have preference to certain specific banks. The purpose of this study was to assess the lived experiences of multi-banked bank account holders at Manda Hill Mall Lusaka, Zambia. Data was generated from seven purposively sampled multi-banked account holders using; in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, informal discussions and observations. Factors that emerged contributing to multi-banking among account holders were fraternity, proximity, customer service, security and brand loyalty. The study concluded that most of the factors that influence multi-banking involve the attitude of the account holders, fraternity inclinations, security constraints and poor customer services. Thus, it is recommend that account holders and would be account holders should be accorded chance to be well informed and make independent decisions as to which bank to bank with. In addition, Banks need to improve their service provision and strengthen relationships with their customers. Further, there is need for the banks to keep moving with time and improving their brand to appealing international standards. Above all, there is need to enhance security to the satisfaction of the clients.</p> 2020-06-22T06:01:56+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Vincent Kanyamuna Modeling Of Stunting Prevelence Reduction In Toddlers By Securing Household Waste (Based On The Health Belief Model Theory) 2020-06-22T06:02:23+01:00 Mariatul Fadilah Andy Andrean Melros Trinita <p>Stunting is a condition of nutritional deficiencies caused by insufficient long-term nutritional intake. It is estimated that one in four children under the age of five fails to grow along the optimal trajectory set in the World Health Organization's Child Growth Standards. This study aims to find a model of reducing the prevalence of stunting in children under five in the city of Palembang through processing household waste. This research was an analytic observational study through a quantitative approach and cross-sectional study design. &nbsp;In this study, the population is all mothers who have children under five (0-59 months) who check the condition of their children in the working area of ​​Palembang city health center. Each increase in 1 unit of perception of seriousness increases 0.074 units of Securing Household Waste Behavior (p value = 0.024) On the perception of benefits obtained every increase of 1 unit it will increase 0.135 units of Securing household waste behavior (p value = 0.001). Every increase of 1 unit of perception of eating problems will decrease 0.067 units of Securing Household Waste Behavior (p value = 0.049). Cue unit to act increases 0.078 units of CTPS behavior (p value = 0.023) Every increase of 1 unit of ability / efficacy increases 0.518 units of Securing household waste behavior (p value = 0.001). Each increase of 1 unit of Securing Household Waste Behavior will decrease stunting of 0.071 units (p-value = 0.039) From this study conclusions can be drawn from the perception of vulnerability, perception of seriousness, perceived usefulness, gestures to act, ability / self-efficacy has influence uh positive about household waste management behavior, but the perception of obstacles has a negative influence on Securing household waste. The most influential component of gesture for action is family support.</p> 2020-06-22T06:02:22+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mariatul Fadilah, Andy Andrean, Melros Trinita The Effect Of Social Contacts On The Spreads Of Covid-19 In Indonesia 2020-06-22T06:02:55+01:00 Mariatul Fadilah Dewi Arsinta <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Covid-19 is an infectious disease. Matrix that is often used to identify transmission of infectious diseases dynamics is Basic Reproduction Number (R<sub>0</sub>). R<sub>0</sub> is influenced by 3 parameters there are transmissibility (τ), average contact (c) and duration of infectiousness (d). Transmissibility and duration of infectiousness are constant values. The value of R<sub>0</sub> will fluctuate if the rate of human interaction varies. The value of social contact different in every country. In Indonesia, there are no studies that discuss the value of social contact. Therefore researchers aims to find out these values and determine their effect on the spread of Covid-19.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> This research was a descriptive observational study. Aims of the study is evaluate the pattern of social contact associated with the spread of covid-19. Data was collected using POLYMOD questionnaire that distributed via google form. The research sample was Indonesian people who were reached by distributing questionnaires. The data obtained then analyzed using the SPSS program to find the frequency distribution, mean of social contact and logistic regression analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> From this study, 6464 contacts were obtained from 1032 respondents with average number of contacts 6.26 and R<sub>0</sub> 2.191.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The higher of contact value the higher risk of transmission. The R<sub>0</sub> value obtained is 2.191, so one infected person might be able to transmit it to two other people around them. Individuals who are most at risk for transmission is male with low education levels and students.</p> 2020-06-22T06:02:54+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mariatul Fadilah, Dewi Arsinta Lee Nukpe’s Nubile: A Carving With A Shadow 2020-06-22T06:03:20+01:00 kari'kacha seid'ou George Ampratwum Kwaku Boafo Kissiedu <p>The Ghanaian sculptor Lee Nukpe belongs to the post-Independence or post-World War II generation of visual artists in Ghana whose bodies of work have not had due critical assessment, contextualization and review. The paper reviews Nukpe’s late-career work, <em>Nubile,</em> a bas relief representation of a bare-breasted young woman arrayed in Ghanaian nubility rites insignia. The authors identify carryovers from Ghana’s colonial and post-Independence generations such as the predominantly social realist aesthetic and veiled conservative sex and gender motifs. However, the authors also point out how the cut-and-dry cultural and formal motifs in <em>Nubile</em> are also undermined by Nukpe’s ostensible double-coding. This spectral feature of <em>Nubile</em> presents it as a “text with a shadow”. The authors argue that to a large extent, <em>Nubile</em> lends itself to ambivalent readings which could challenge Ghana’s patriarchal definitions of woman and nubility.</p> 2020-06-22T06:03:20+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 kari'kacha seid'ou, George Ampratwum, Kwaku Boafo Kissiedu Training of Geography Teachers for Secondary Schools at University in Uganda: An Analysis of Gulu University Teacher Trainees’ Teaching Practice. 2020-06-22T06:03:47+01:00 Expedito Nuwategeka Stephen Odama <p>The changes in learner characteristics and the learning environment in the twenty first century calls for adjustments in teacher training to meet the needs of the contemporary&nbsp; learners. This study analyses training of geography teachers at Gulu University with the view of assessing the application of contemporary geography teaching methodologies for the twenty first century learners. Time- series data were collected from teacher trainees’ lesson plans used during school practice running for three consecutive years of 2016, 2017, and 2018. Teaching methods as well as types of instructional materials were extracted from eighty one lessons taught by teacher trainees in thirty six schools in both rural and urban Uganda. Using SPSS 16.0 software, data was analysed to generate frequencies, counts and cross-tabulations. Findings reveal that question and answer method was the most used while guided discovery was the least used, followed by demonstration. Fieldwork and project methods were not used at all. It was also found out that in 12% of all the lessons, there was no use of instructional materials in the teaching/learning process. The study recommends that the curriculum structure of future geography teacher trainees be improved to factor in contemporary teaching styles which use modern teaching equipment relevant to the current generation of technology and learners, and the training of lecturers who mentor geography teacher trainees at universities be institutionalized. &nbsp;</p> 2020-06-22T06:03:47+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Expedito Nuwategeka, Stephen Odama Effectiveness of Organizing a Non-Face to Face Tutorial Package System in Distance Education 2020-06-22T06:04:26+01:00 A.A. Ketut Budiastra Udan Kusmawan Hanafi <p>At this time, the number of students of elementary school teacher programs at the Universitas Terbuka (UT) in one study group as many as 20-30 people in some places there is a tendency challenging to be fulfilled. This challenge because most elementary school teachers already have a bachelor's degree. Meanwhile, the location of students at this time tends to be increasingly scattered with distant geographical areas, so it is necessary to provide a particular service called the Non-Face to Face Tutorial Package System (NFFTPS) for Practical/Practicum courses. The sample in this study was the undergraduate students of elementary school teacher programs in the regional office of Pangkalpinang, Serang, Bandung, Denpasar, Ambon, amounting to 75 respondents. This research is categorized as a qualitative descriptive study. From the results of this study, it can be concluded that the NFFTPS program has been implemented quite well. However, in its implementation, there are still many obstacles encountered and need to be refined in the future. Besides, there is a need for a synergy of academic guidance services for NFFTPS programs in regional office and UT central so that they can provide quality, appropriate, timely, and targeted services.</p> 2020-06-22T06:04:26+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 A.A. Ketut Budiastra, Udan Kusmawan, Hanafi Democracy, Good Governance And Sustainable Development In Nigeria 2020-06-22T06:04:50+01:00 Biiragbara Godpower Nnaa Love Obiani Arugu <p>There is the widespread belief amongst scholars and practioners of public administration that good governance and development are the likely outcomes of democracy. However, what is yet to be given much attention is the sustainability of this outcome. This paper entitled, Democracy, Good Governance and Sustainable Development seeks to investigate critically the relationship between democracy, good governance, and sustainable development in Nigeria. In other words, it aims at establishing a nexus between democratization of the political process and the sustainability of its outcomes on the socio-economic and political well-being of the people. The study adopted the descriptive method mainly through the use of secondary data. Using the political economy paradigm as the unit of analysis, the research found out amongst others that democracy as practiced in Nigeria is yet to yield any significant outcome of good governance nor bring about any meaningful development that can be sustained overtime. And this is due to the observed perennial violations of the ethos of democratic practices exhibited by the political class and the dilapidated institutions in the structure of the Nigerian State. It recommends therefore amongst others that emphasis should be laid on democratization of economic opportunities (social democracy), the betterment of the people, and a strong social welfare system. The paper also suggests that it is only through orderly and consistent democratic good governance procedures and practices that gains of development can be sustained.</p> 2020-06-22T06:04:50+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Biiragbara Godpower Nnaa, Love Obiani Arugu Parental Perception Of Early Childhood Educational Involvement: Research Evidence Of The Mfanstiman District Of The Central Region Of Ghana 2020-06-22T06:05:15+01:00 Ahmed Jinapor Naa Korkor Larbi-Appiah <p>This study is a quantitative research hinged on the descriptive study paradigm where perspectives of selected parents of pupils at the early childhood level at the Anomabo Circuit “A” in the Mfantsiman Municipality of the Central Region of Ghana were sought on how parental involvement is shaped in their localities, the extent of their involvement in their children education, and challenges they confront in this direction. Using descriptive and inferential statistics such as means and standard deviations, findings from the study among others revealed that parents perceived the school as a place for teachers to be in charge; though the results that emanated from the study points to parent participants of this study being involved in their children’s education. On the issue of challenges that confronts parents in the involvement of their children’s education at the early childhood level, also an objective that informed the study, the results among others include; lack of financial resources, and time constraints and busy schedules. Again, as part of recommendations in the advancement of parental involvement at the early childhood level in Ghana, the study among others calls for robust education and prescription of how parents can and should be involved in their children education.</p> 2020-06-22T06:05:15+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Jinapor, Naa Korkor Larbi-Appiah Investigating the Outcomes of the Military Wing of The Civil Society in Enforcing Democracy or Cessation 2020-06-22T06:05:43+01:00 Agberndifor Evaristus <p>In Hobbes’ Leviathan, he portrays man as a rationally angry and dangerous creature capable of hurting another in order to remain alive. He says human interpersonal relations are mostly characterized by brutality in what he called “Man against man” in order words man is another man’s wolf. According to him human interpersonal relations are substantiated by the fear of bad or sudden death and so, every human seeks for ways to either remain alive or to maintain his status quo. Anger, resentments, protests and violence are clearly part of the human life and one of the reasons every human must be careful to gather his human arsenal in order to deter another from killing him. Man cannot in any way deal with the other without these ingredients ever present in interpersonal human relations. Though pejorative with many negative defects as Hobbes sees it, they have also brought some common good to societies and countries whose governments are experts in crisis management. However, the same is not the case for countries with haughty governments ruled by mostly dictatorships, which underrate their citizens and use the military to deter them from fighting for their rights. This article shall seek to firstly understand the conceptual background of civil society by examining different definitions of what it means. Secondly, it shall look at two fundamental factors that make civil societies very important and powerful for state development as well as destruction, however, will discuss them separately as one will be deeply discussed in the later parts of the study. Thirdly, it shall shallowly review the relationship between the civil society and democracy in Nigeria which will serve as a preview to understand the foreseen projection that the civil society and democracy in tandem engenders development. Secondly, at the core lies the tireless and selfless service of a powerful civil society vis-à-vis to maintain social order, unity, and social cohesion as well as keep the spirit of nationalism aflame. Lastly, this article shall concentrate on the most vital part of the study which is the military wing of civil societies. This study will show that when the civil society organization is pushed to its limits, it has the power to bring no small trouble to their host governments and domestic affairs sometimes crossing international boundaries and leading to serious international security issues and humanitarian crises. To fully understand this part, the study shall stroll through political exclusion, isolation, opportunity, greed and violence as possible incentives to arouse the devastating military wing of the civil society. Furthermore, the most comprehensive and elaborate study to use to explain this will be the analysis of Collier and Hoeffler’s account of civil war studies but this will be mentioned in passing. To avoid auto repetition, an article earlier published by me titled “Investigating the causes of civil wars in Sub-Saharan Africa, Case study: South Sudan and the Central African Republic” shall be cited. &nbsp;More so, this study shall look at carefully localized independent and dependent variables which shall be used in the comparative method to review the verifiable effects of the military wing of the civil society in Cameroon and Burkina Faso.</p> <p><strong>“When the enabling factor fails to a haughty government, then civilian enacted military action is the only solution. However, the effects of this civilian enacted military action differs from place to place and there is no assurance of how positively democratic or devastating they could be”</strong></p> <p>The independent variables shall be <strong>political isolation</strong>, <strong>political exclusion and polarization</strong>. And the dependent variable shall be the <strong>democracy and secession.</strong></p> 2020-06-22T06:05:43+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Agberndifor Evaristus Somatic Culture in Colombia: beginnings and transformations of the concept in 27 years of research 2020-06-22T06:06:15+01:00 Carlos Mauricio Gonzalez-Posada <p>The purpose of this article is to present succinctly, how the concept of somatic culture was born in our environment, and how it has been the evolution and transformation of the concept itself, that has resulted in interdisciplinary work around the dimensions of somatic culture (sexuality-eroticism, motor expressions, health, aesthetic ideal, semiotics, work, biopolitics, emotions). The exercise allowed not only to trace the origin of the somatic culture concept, but also made it possible to cover the methodological scenario on which somatic culture has made its foray, that is, the educational and social spheres, thus allowing that during the 27 years of the group's existence, many research and intervention projects were born, which have founded and consolidated two lines of research: somatic culture and educational context; and somatic culture and sociocultural construction.</p> 2020-06-22T06:06:15+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Carlos Mauricio Gonzalez-Posada The Effect of Lumbar Support on Lower Back Pain in Ojek Online Drivers in Solo Indonesia 2020-06-27T07:19:02+01:00 Nur Rachmat Alfan Zubaidi <p>Online motorcycle taxi drivers (Ojek Online) work long hours driving motorbikes. the driver experiences low back pain. The use of elastic lumbar support when driving is expected to reduce pain when sitting too long in a two-wheeled vehicle and when lifting weights. Therefore, the authors are interested in conducting research on the effect of use of lumbar support on lower back pain in ojek online drivers..</p> <p>This type of qualitative research is quasi-experimental with one group pretest-posttest design test approach. This research will be conducted at the online motorcyclist basecamp of Solo, Central Java, Indonesia in February to March 2020. The sample used in this study is 80 people with back discomfort due to pain when sitting while riding a two-wheeled vehicle on a motorcycle taxi driver online that fulfills inclusion and exclusion. The measurement tool used is Visual Analog Scale. Normality test data used Normality test using Kolmogorov-Smirnov. Hypothesis testing in this study uses Wilcoxon on the value of the degree of pain at the beginning and at the end of the study.</p> <p>The results of the study are that there is an influence of the use of lumbar corset on online back pain of motorcycle taxi drivers online. There is a decrease in low back pain to the online motorbike driver after being treated with elastic lumbar support</p> 2020-06-27T07:19:02+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nur Rachmat Using the Health Belief Model to identify communication needs in the male circumcision campaigns to prevent HIV/AIDS in Siaya County of Kenya 2020-06-27T07:19:54+01:00 Osir Otteng Peres Wenje Michael Kiptoo Lydia Anyonje Moses Mwangi <p>Behaviour change communication experts consider individual beliefs vital to identifying communication needs in healthcare programmes. This study examined the use of four constructs of the health belief model, <strong>viz.</strong> the belief that a person is vulnerable to a disease, and that the disease is severe; and the belief that an intervention against the disease has benefits and that there are barriers to adopting that intervention, as the basis for developing communication strategies in the implementation of the voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programme for prevention of HIV/AIDS in Siaya county of Kenya. A structured questionnaire was administered on 350 male residents of the county aged between 18 and 50 years selected using the snowball sampling techniques. Qualitative data were collected through two focus groups discussions involving five men and five women residents. The study found that &nbsp;the residents of Siaya, particularly those living along the shores of Lake Victoria, believe that, because of their occupation and lifestyle, they are susceptible to HIV, the same way they perceive the disease as severe. The best known benefit of VMMC among the residents is its ability to reduce a man’s chances of contracting HIV. Other benefits, such as prevention of sex-related diseases among women are largely obscure. There are specific barriers to VMMC such as apprehension over pain and disruption of economic engagements. The study concurs that the health belief model is crucial for the development of audience-focused health communication and recommends its use in VMMC programme to produce targeted messages for different audience segments. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-27T07:19:54+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Osir Otteng, Peres Wenje, Michael Kiptoo, Lydia Anyonje, Moses Mwangi Students’ Perceptions of Preparation for Online Graduate Course Work 2020-06-27T07:20:19+01:00 Lin B Carver Georgina Rivera-Singletary <p>An anonymous online survey was used to understand participants’ perceptions about their preparation for online coursework. Sixty students from five graduate programs in education completed a 1-4 Likert scale survey with 20-questions and six open-ended responses. Quantitative responses from the 20 questions were divided into two subgroups, those younger than or equal to 40 years of age, and those over 40 years of age based on Prensky's date for the beginning of the digital native group. Qualitative data were collected through 6 open-ended questions from the same survey. Data revealed that both subgroups felt well prepared when registering for online courses. However, when it came to overall preparedness for using technology, those over 40 years of age did not view themselves as well prepared as those younger than 40. Using digital resources outside of the learning management system presented more significant challenges to the older subgroup of learners. Two factors impacting graduate students’ online performance became evident through this study; the impact of technology experience rather than age and what is meant for a student to be well-prepared for online course work.</p> 2020-06-27T07:20:19+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lin B Carver, Georgina Rivera-Singletary A Life Skills Assessment Scale for High School Students in Tehran 2020-07-02T10:28:27+01:00 Soheila Saraee Somayeh Shabani Robert Pasnak <p>A life skills questionnaire was developed based on existing theories. The content validity of the questions was evaluated by educational experts. The resulting life skills questionnaire had 83 questions and ten subscales: empathy, emotion regulation, self-awareness, problem solving, effective communication, interpersonal communication, stress and critical thinking, creative thinking and decision making.&nbsp; It had good reliability (r = .91) and validity. The confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the proposed ten factor model of the questionnaire. Given its reliability and validity, this scale of life skills can be used as a tool by researchers.</p> 2020-06-27T07:20:45+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Soheila Saree, Somayeh Shabani, Robert Pasnak Obstructions for learners in the use of ICT in KSA institutions 2020-06-27T07:21:14+01:00 Omran Alharbi <p>The advancement of digital technology has a great influence on the development of many areas of modern life. Over recent years, e-learning systems have managed to gain a competitive edge over the more traditional methods of learning. The learning and teaching techniques employed by e-learning systems allow more flexibility and provide freedom from the restrictions of time, location, physical presence and other aspects of traditional learning. Nevertheless, e-learning does have its own drawbacks, and research into the barriers to learning will assist in overcoming some of the problems associated with e-learning success. This study attempts to determine the obstacles that can influence the success of ICT within institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This qualitative research examined the obstacles of the use of ICT in the education process from learner’s perspectives and the potential solutions that can help to reduce these obstacles. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven e-learning students from one Saudi University. Purposive sample techniques were used with participants, and the results revealed that there were many barriers that hindered learners from benefitting from the use of ICT in education. These obstacles included lack of technical support, technical issues, lack of English language, lack of design e-course materials, and lack of motivation. In addition, a number of solutions were considered in this study.</p> 2020-06-27T07:21:14+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Omran Alharbi The comparison between repeated measures ANOVA and multilevel modeling to investigate the effectiveness of language instruction 2020-06-27T07:21:40+01:00 Eunjeong Park <p>The purpose of the current study is to compare two different statistical analyses—repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multilevel modeling (MLM)—with regard to international second language (L2) students’ lexico-grammatical writing gains in the interventions. Fifty college students’ lexico-grammatical writing gains in the pre-test, immediate and delayed post-tests were collected from three groups—one control and two intervention groups. Research questions include: (1) Is there a change in the dependent variable over time through repeated measures ANOVA?; (2) How much on average do the individuals change over time through MLM?; and (3) What are the differences of the results between repeated measures ANOVA and MLM? Repeated measures ANOVA and MLM were conducted separately to answer the research questions. Both analyses revealed that there was no difference of the interventions over time. In terms of methodological considerations, however, the two analyses exhibited the results in a different manner. Repeated measures ANOVA requires several assumptions (e.g., homoschedasticity and sphericity) while MLM does not need the requirement of the data as long as it contains different periodic datasets. Furthermore, MLM enables researchers to investigate the rate of individual growth. This paper offers methodological insight into adequate quantitative analyses to investigate the effectiveness of language acquisition and learning.</p> 2020-06-27T07:21:40+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Eunjeong Park Implementation of Advocate Special Professional Education Program (PKPA) by PKPA Institutions, Indonesian Advocates Association (AAI) Bandung 2020-06-27T07:22:10+01:00 Abdorrakhman Gintings Renova Rumondang Bulan Achmad Sanusi Nanang Hanafiah <p>The purpose of this study is to answer two main questions, which are: a) aspects of organizing Advocate Special Professional Education Program organized by PKPA institutions and the Indonesian Advocates Association and b) efforts to improve and follow up programs organized by the Indonesian Advocates Association. The data of this study were collected from 49 respondents consisted of 1 Head of Bandung City institution, 1 Head of the program division, 2 program coordinators, 15 facilitators/lecturers and 30 participants in Bandung City education and training program. Data that has been collected from the interview process and questionnaire dissemination are then enriched and triangulated by monitoring the sustainability of program implementation which includes program planning, program implementation, program evaluation and verifying documents on program implementation plans, human resources (HR), Infrastructure, and evaluations on post-education of advocate profession. The results of the data analysis show that Bandung's advocate professional education combines two methods by combining academics and practitioners so as to produce professional advocates. In conclusion, the Advocate Special Professional Education Program remains consistent with Law Number 18 of 2003 concerning Advocates, this is due to the increasing number of graduates in law majors who are interested become lawyers so that they can solve problem correctly. It is recommended that advocate professional education services organized by the institution be followed up with statistics data of participant that have passed, facilities and other learning tools that are in accordance with the procedures of the institution.</p> 2020-06-27T07:22:10+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Abdorrakhman Gintings, Renova Rumondang Bulan, Achmad Sanusi, Nanang Hanafiah Time Orientation and its Relationship with Goal Orientation 2020-06-27T07:22:45+01:00 Adnan Atoum Khaled Al-Bashtawi Abdel Lateef Al-Momani <p>The objectives of the study are to investigate time orientation and goal orientation levels in light of some variables, and to identify the relationship between the two variables. The sample of the study consists of 698 male and female students studding at Yarmouk University.&nbsp; &nbsp;Zimbardo and Boyd (1999) Time Orientation Scale and Abu Ghazal et al., (2013) Goal Orientation Scale are used after assessing the validity and reliability for both scales.&nbsp; The results of the study showed that the past positive domain in time orientation ranked first, followed by future past negative, present hedonism, present fatalistic, respectively. The results also showed that the domain of mastery-approach in goal orientations ranked first, followed by performance-avoidance, and finally performance-approach. The results of the study indicated a statistically significant positive correlations between future time orientation and mastery- approach goal orientation, and between past negative time orientation and performance- avoidance goal orientation. There are statistically significant positive correlations between time orientation domains and goals orientations domains except a negative correlation between present fatalistic time orientation and mastery-approach goal orientation</p> 2020-06-27T07:22:45+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Adnan Atoum, Khaled Al-Bashtawi, Abdel Lateef Al-Momani The Future of Man is to be an Animal. 2020-06-27T07:23:16+01:00 José Maurício Álvarez <p>This paper examines the role of the dog in the work of two modern Italian writers Curzio Malaparte and Carlo Levi and the writings of a notable Italian philosopher of our times, The Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben, in several works he assures the importance of animals in tne human life, and the dog, in particular, in the redefinition of the future of the human being.&nbsp;&nbsp; Taking their assertions as analysis tools for the mentioned authors, we analize in the texts, where they formulate a peculiar way of central role represented by the animal. In Levi he is capable to be the key able to open the door to a fantastic world. For Malaparte the dog becomes the essential counterpart to the humanity being capable to harbor huge feelings that he is able to teach man . Finally, for Agamben, men and animals are part of the same natural creation and, eschatologically, walk together until, at the end of time, when humans will reconcile with their half animal nature.</p> 2020-06-27T07:23:16+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 José Maurício Álvarez Essence of "Political Myth" 2020-06-27T07:25:15+01:00 Salome Khizanishvili <p>In&nbsp; XIX-XX centuries, both origin of the new political myth and its subsequent development were linked to radical changes in the history of mankind. "The Death of God" is the most dangerous result caused by these changes.</p> <p>The "ungodly world" is dominated by historical people. In order to change reality, the growth of his creative ambitions&nbsp; increases the risk of his freedom. This reality is evident in Nietzsche's doctrine, where nihilism achieves self-awareness and the will to power is declared to be "the meaning of great politics”.</p> <p>In modern analogies of political myth, the theme&nbsp; of the "apriority" of human freedom and the influence of the powerful person (nation, state) are getting more active.&nbsp; Their impact on human masses is quite big.&nbsp; What kind of positive and negative results can we obtain from such deep, comprehensive, and serious challenges?&nbsp; We can find&nbsp; the answers in the necessary conclusions on the topic in literary and philosophical works.</p> <p>At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries, Nietzsche’s doctrine gets our attention. With humanistic pathos, he endures time. He aims&nbsp; to solve the puzzles of eternal existence and for this reason he gives meaningful advice to historical man.</p> <p>We believe that in&nbsp; modern conditions of technological management of political myth, the paradigm of political myth created by Nietzsche is viable. With this idea we feel a kind of need to pay more attention to the predictions of the genius of the era.</p> 2020-06-27T07:25:14+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Salome Khizanishvili The Ecological Wars: The Notion, Concept And Dynamics 2020-07-03T18:35:27+01:00 Oleg Yanitsky <p>Drawing on a scientific literature on the Biosphere and the global SBT-structure and development, on Russian, foreign and my own investigations of global ecological issues and environmental movements, I came to the following conclusions. <em>First,</em> these issues are both important practically and theoretically. <em>Second,</em> under the ecological war I mean all kinds of harm which is caused by man to the natural, human and complex invasion into the natural and social ecosystems. <em>Third,</em> the researchers are still follow the principle ‘Firstly, we should to cope with the after-effects of a certain disaster and then to evaluate their immediate and far-reaching outcomes’. <em>Four,</em> our urgent task is to foresee the coming disaster and to have a time to take the preventive measures in advance. <em>Five,</em> I distinguish three main archetypes of the ecological wars that I conditionally names as the natural, social and the feedback’s wars conducted by the global SBT-system against natural, social and mixed ecosystems. <em>Six,</em> the time regime of the global SBT-system functioning and of the ecological wars is very important but still ill-investigated issues. <em>Seven,</em> the main resource of any ecological war is the speed of its spreading in time and space and transformation of natural ecosystems. <em>Eight,</em> the current pandemic showed that the systemic approach, interdisciplinary and prognostic researches are the main instruments for coping with the ecological wars. It follows that the sociologists have to learn and widely-use these three theoretical instruments.</p> 2020-07-03T18:35:27+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Oleg Yanitsky Using Digital Technology to empower users with special needs at the University of Guyana Library. 2020-07-04T15:57:03+01:00 Clyden Harris Simmone LaRose Debra Lowe <p>The purpose of this research is to highlight the digital technology programmes and activities implemented by the Library professionals at the University of Guyana Library, to empower users with special needs.&nbsp; The use of digital technology in libraries is redefining the way information is disseminated and it has influenced the roles of all information professionals.&nbsp; As digital technology evolved, Librarians have been forced to revolutionise their way of operating and employ a variety of ways to adjust; not only to their changing roles but also to find ways to enhance high quality service delivery. These innovations not only brought changes to the delivery services but also served to propel inclusivity for previously marginalised groups, including persons with special learning needs, who are physically challenged, have cognitive challenges, experiencing varying levels of competencies or other socio-economic difficulties.&nbsp; The final benefits being envisioned would be lifelong learning and success in all aspects of student's lives. Iin this era of digital transformation, University Libraries must therefore combine technology and human interaction in all of its services for access by all to accomplish this vision.</p> <p>Recognising that there was a practice to generalise the user population, even though their learning capabilities differed, Librarians at the University of Guyana Libraries (Turkeyen and Tain) sought to devise ways in which all users would benefit from all of the services offered using digital technology.&nbsp; Through this medium, students with special needs /differently-abled who were often marginalised due to different learning capabilities are now able to have an equal opportunity to access research content with ease.</p> <p>Librarians at the University of Guyana Library have illustrated how the use of digital technology at its academic library has helped to promote scholarship and encourage high quality research by providing online services with remote access and links to external resources.&nbsp; This paper expands on the digital programmes that the University of Guyana Libraries provides for students with special needs and the measures taken to empower special needs users through digital technologies. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2020-07-03T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Clyden Harris, Simmone LaRose, Debra Lowe Analysis of structural and organisational arrangements of monitoring and evaluation status for the public sector in Zambia 2020-07-03T18:35:54+01:00 Vincent Kanyamuna <p>This study was an exploratory investigation of the prevailing status of Zambia’s public sector monitoring and evaluation (M&amp;E) structural and organisational arrangements. As a good governance and accountability instrument, a country’s whole-of-government monitoring and evaluation system (WoGM&amp;ES) is supposed to be functionally operated if it was to offer desired benefits. But how do you properly fix a government’s M&amp;E system? Conducting a rigorous diagnostic exercise on the existing system gives a chance to know what works, what does not work and reasons why. It was the objective of this research to critically bring out elements that required attention and those that needed scaling up as well as sustaining. Using the diagnostic checklist comprised of ten (10) components and the LEADS scoring system, different statuses about M&amp;E structural and organisational arrangements for Zambia’s government M&amp;E system were assessed and analysed. The elements assessed include coordination and oversight; joint sector reviews; working groups; ownership; incentives; and linkage with statistical office; horizontal integration; vertical upward integration; vertical downward integration; and link with projects. The findings have shown that overall, the structural and organisational arrangements (that is, structure &amp; linkages) are weak with a LEADS score of point 2—meaning only elements existed. Further in-depth analysis of intra-component status showed that while other elements were less developed, others were fairly well implemented. The diagnosis results are critical to the Zambian government and its stakeholders in knowing which aspects to improve in the effort to build, strengthen and sustain a stronger WoGM&amp;ES going forward.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-03T18:35:54+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Vincent Kanyamuna The Influence Of Students’ Attitude Towards Economics As A Course Of Study On Academic Performance In University Of Lagos, Lagos State 2020-07-03T18:36:13+01:00 Bankole Adeyemi Filade Davidson Osagie Omozokpia Ngozi Uwannah Samuel Amanze Iyadunni Esther Ajibola Tominiyi Omotosho <p>The decline in students’ academic performance in Economics as a course of study in the last decade is worrisome. This study therefore seeks to investigate influence of students’ attitude towards Economics as a course of study on academic performance in the University of Lagos.</p> <p>The study adopted descriptive survey research design and made use of a sample of One hundred and twenty (120) undergraduate students randomly selected from Economics Education cohort, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Akoka.&nbsp; A self-developed questionnaire of 34 items was used to collect information from the students after its validity and reliability (r=0.68) were determined with the use of split half method. The data collected were analysed using Mean, Standard Deviation, and Simple Percentage while Chi-square, independent t-test and One-way Anova statistical tools were used to analyse three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance using (SPSS) testing program. The study revealed that there is significance influence of students’ attitude towards economics as a course on academic performance. Both male and female students have almost the same attitude towards economics as a course. Also, the attitude of students towards economics as a course is the same at different academic levels. In the light of the study`s results, the researchers presented a number of recommendations and proposals the most important of which are: Ministry of education should organize orientation programmes against wrong attitude of undergraduate students towards economics as a course in order to improve their motivation and academic performance. Since gender does not affect the attitude of students towards economics as a course, teaching and learning of economics as a course should be done freely among the students of different sexes. Seminars and symposiums should be organized by university management for Economics department, Faculty of Education about the prospects of the course to motivate them towards academic excellence.</p> 2020-07-03T18:36:13+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Bankole Adeyemi Filade, Davidson Osagie Omozokpia, Ngozi Uwannah, Samuel Amanze, Iyadunni Esther Ajibola, Tominiyi Omotosho Public Library Services & information Literacy Level for Curriculum Implementation: A Case Study of Language Education Students in Ambrose Ali University 2020-07-03T18:36:33+01:00 Peace Joan Alufohai Odion Alufohai <p>The study investigated some of the public library services and information literacy level amongst students. The study was guided by four research questions and one hypothesis. The study adopted the descriptive survey designs. The population for the study consisted of all the 718 English and French language education students while the sample consisted of 168 language education students who patronize the library. The instrument used for data collection is a questionnaire titled Public Library Services and Literary Level Questionnaire (PLSLLQ). The study adopted Descriptive survey design. Statistics of the mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the Pearson Product Moment Correlation was used to answer the hypothesis. The study revealed amongst others that there is a positive relationship between the services offered in the library and information literacy level, thus revealing that when the services are poor, information literacy will also be poor. Based on the findings, recommendations were made amongst which is that the Nigerian government and stakeholders should ensure adequate funding of public library</p> 2020-07-03T18:36:33+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Peace Joan Alufohai, Odion Alufohai The rise and fall of the Khalistan Movement: A chronology of events 2020-07-03T18:36:46+01:00 Shyamal Kataria <p>The Khalistan Movement was an armed secessionist struggle led by the Sikhs of Punjab, in northern India. Perhaps the most haunting memories associated with the insurgency relate to the Indian Army’s brutal raid upon the ‘sanctum-sanctorum’ of the Sikh faith, the Golden Temple complex in Amritsar. While the support for Sikh political separatism pre-dates India’s independence, many scholars, albeit somewhat synthetically, attempting to place a fixed timeframe around the Khalistan movement <em>tend</em> to commence their chronology of events from 1981 and end them in 1993. This is largely because it was during this time period that Punjab endured a <em>heightened</em> level of Sikh militancy. What this article aims to do is to carefully detail the significant events that occurred during that period.</p> 2020-07-03T18:36:46+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Shyamal Kataria Perception Of Illegal Migration And Sex Trafficking In Europe Among Younger Women Of Oredo Lga, Edo State, Nigeria: The Social Work And Ethical Considerations 2020-07-03T18:36:58+01:00 OKAFOR NNEKA IFEOMA IWUAGWU ANTHONY OBINNA GOBO BLESSING NGOWARI NGWU CHRISTOPHER NDUBUISI OBI-KEGUNA CHRISTY NGOZI NWATU UCHE LOUISA RAHMAN FARAH NAZ <p>The movement of human populations across the planet has characterized human societies throughout history. However, the increasing rate of such movements across National borders has been in such a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, put trafficked persons at risk and has given birth to modern day slavery. This study was therefore designed to ascertain the perception of illegal migration and sex trafficking in Europe among young women in Oredo, Benin City, Nigeria. The study used a multi stage random sample of 90 women aged 18-40 years whom were interviewed using in-depth interviews (20) and Focus Group Discussions guides (7). The qualitative data generated were content analyzed and the results indicate that majority of the women perceive illegal migration and sex trafficking in Europe negatively. They however would not discourage anyone who wishes to engage in the act, partly due to the socio economic benefits derived therein. Given that illegal migration and sex trafficking in Europe is inimical to human and societal well-being, it therefore becomes necessary for social workers and ethical practitioners to advocate the formulation of policies and programmes focusing on ethical migration practice and women empowerment with aim to rehabilitate and reduce human sex exploitation.</p> 2020-07-03T18:36:58+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 OKAFOR NNEKA IFEOMA, IWUAGWU ANTHONY OBINNA, GOBO BLESSING NGOWARI, NGWU CHRISTOPHER NDUBUISI, OBI-KEGUNA CHRISTY NGOZI, NWATU UCHE LOUISA, RAHMAN FARAH NAZ Collective Teacher Efficacy: A Critical Review of Education's Top Influence 2020-07-03T18:37:13+01:00 T.J. Hoogsteen <p>Statements claiming that efforts of policy makers, system and school leaders, and staff developments toward education reforms might be better served&nbsp; by strategically and intentionally considering how to foster collective efficacy throughout the conceptualization, design, delivery, and assessment of change initiatives (Donohoo, 2018, p. 340) require continued attempts to provide critical reviews of the available literature, as does this review. Furthermore, Donohoo (2018) discussed the need for reviews of research to examine what is known about the causal directions amongst the outcomes of collective efficacy, and the current article does this as well.&nbsp; This is especially important and timely considering that collective teacher efficacy (CTE) is regarded by many as the top influence on student achievement.&nbsp; This review undertakes an examination of articles related to CTE and achievement, leadership, teacher outcomes, and professional learning communities.&nbsp; It draws attention to important future directions for collective efficacy research as well as valuable insights for school and district leaders responsible for determining school and system priorities.&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-03T18:37:13+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 T.J. Hoogsteen Special educational needs: Do we know how to educate? 2020-07-03T18:37:25+01:00 José Manuel Salum Tomé <p>This article reports the results that its objective is to analyze the evolution of political discourse in Chile on special educational needs, as well as to analyze the relationship of the discourse with the main public policy initiatives regarding legislation, fiscal budget and direct executive action. It can be seen that it is possible to identify important changes in the use of the main concepts, emphasis and discussions associated with the promotion of inclusive education. In addition, there is growing interest in the issue of diversity, both nationally and internationally, which is expressed in increasingly specific public policy initiatives to promote inclusive education. However, there are still gaps and gaps between political discourse and policy initiatives, as well as between the approach of public policies in Chile and the state of art of the international discussion on the subject.</p> 2020-07-03T18:37:25+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 José Manuel Salum Tomé Reputable Relevant Realistic Reliable and Rigorous Human Resource Management Strategic Approaches and Practices in the 21st century 2020-07-03T18:37:41+01:00 Esnart Mwaba Tayali Kwesi Atta Sakyi <p>Human resource management is a multi-dimensional and complex phenomenon comprising a number of management themes. Without reputable, relevant, realistic, reliable and rigorous Human Resource Management strategic approaches and practices, companies can fail to effectively operate in a global market.&nbsp; The world has become interconnected as companies operate in a competitive global market economy. &nbsp;Even though Human Resource Management continuously gains scholarly attention yet there are still many gaps in it which need attention. There is no conclusive research on Human Resource Management strategies and approaches in the management of complex workplace issues. These complex issues faced today include convergence, divergence and cross-vergence of International Human Resource Management approaches, Cross-Cultural Management, Reward Strategy, Talent Management, and Control or Commitment Strategy. This paper provides a springboard for a better understanding of the Human Resource Management strategies, approaches and practices in the management of complex workplace issues. &nbsp;Appropriate management of people endows companies with unique and indispensable capabilities and capacities needed for differentiating and survival in a global market economy. &nbsp;The paramount goal of an organisation is to meet and satisfy customer needs and to be a market leader. Reputable, relevant, realistic, reliable and rigorous Human Resource Management strategies can help to fulfil the needs of customers, thereby increasing company profitability.</p> 2020-07-03T18:37:41+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Esnart Mwaba Tayali, Kwesi Atta Sakyi Leveraging Intellectual Capital And Intellectual Assets: Using Policies and Procedures As Mechanisms to Create Value 2020-07-03T18:37:56+01:00 Wayne E. Soo Hoo Jack Breezee <p>This article proposes that Intellectual Capital (CI) is to be considered equivalent to any other asset contributing to the goals and obligations of the organization. To augment CI, Soo Hoo and Beam (2012) developed a writing format for procedures, the workhorse of intellectual assets. This format is designed to meet the information-seeking needs of the employees.</p> 2020-07-03T18:37:55+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Wayne E. Soo Hoo, Jack Breezee The Influences of Economic Diversification and the mediating Effect of Industrial Development on Economic Growth in Oman: A Conceptual Framework 2020-07-03T18:48:59+01:00 Nasr Al Yahyai Aza Azalina Kamisah Supian <p>Industry is at the heart of a government's plans to transform the economy from a resource-based economy to a value-added one. Economic diversification is vital to countries’ long-term economic growth, but many resource-rich countries remain heavily reliant on revenues generated by natural resources such as mineral or oil production. In Oman,&nbsp;the fall in price oil compelled the government to rethink about development and economic plans in order to improve the living conditions of the population. The main objective of economic diversification agenda is to increase the contribution of these sectors to the gross national product (GDP) of Oman, raise production and create more jobs for these sectors. New technologies will promote the achievement of inclusive, sustainable industrial development through its creation and absorption. New innovations allow businesses to bring new products into the market and improve production efficiency. In addition, industrial development generates new employment and profit incentives. More products and productivity of production also add to the growth of the economy. Industrial development at the same time leads to the manufacture and diffusion of emerging technology. Only by industrialization can economies, industries and businesses build and maintain the requisite technical transition capabilities. This paper presents a conceptual or research framework that identifies the mediating effect of industrial development in the relationship between economic diversification and economic growth in Oman. Two main factors are considered, i.e., the strategic drivers consisting of economic and non-economic variables, and industrial development initiatives. The paper concludes with the discussion on the formulations of hypothesis statements that describe the inter-relationships between the constructs in the conceptual framework. It is expected that the proposed framework can be further verified and tested by using empirical research work.</p> 2020-07-03T18:48:59+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nasr Al Yahyai, Aza Azalina, Kamisah Supian Managing Male And Female Athletes For Increased Sports Performance In Public Universities In Rivers State 2020-07-03T18:49:09+01:00 G. A. Deemua <p>For any organistion to survive, it must depend on the good welfare package which such organization has for the staff and students inclusive. Managing student-athletes behaviours pre-requisite for increased sports performance at the university level. However, in recent times, university administrators have not been giving attention to properly managed and prepare their athletes for national and international competitives. These problems like inadequate funding, lack of facility and training equipment, poor training programmes, poor motivational techniques and, lack of incentives have been attributed to over management of athletes’ behaviour which has affected the performance of athletes. Parents, coaches and stakeholders in the sports industry need to play as stronger educational and supervisory role so that these young athletes will be able to acquire both physical and intellectual-skills which will enable them to live well and help in the development of the society.</p> 2020-07-03T18:49:09+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 G. A. Deemua Changes in the Described Elements of Sensoji Temple following its Park Designation 2020-07-03T18:49:19+01:00 Hiromu Ito <p>How the elements of a religious facility became recognized after its designation as a park was clarified in this study based on the changes in the descriptions of the facility in guidebooks and pictorial charts. Immediately after the facility was designated as a park, the image of a park was merely added to the idea of the temple. However, Kinryusan Sensoji Temple clearly became considered one of the park components only after the full-scale maintenance and division of the park in 1884. These changes were greatly influenced by the changes in the physical environment based on the institutional meaning of the park in addition to the background of the existence and use of the park becoming widely established from the period when it was designated as a park to the period when it was developed into a tourist attraction. While the extent of recognition of Sensoji Temple as a park increased, the extent of recognition of the site as a temple diminished and became limited. Tourists perceived that Sensoji Temple was composed only of Kannondo Hall and spatially considered the entire park as a collection of sections. As a result, the area recognized as a temple was limited to the central part of the Sensoji Temple precinct, while the spatial functions that Sensoji Temple originally possessed were divided and removed. Thus, the characteristics of the temple as a tourist site also changed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-03T18:49:19+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Hiromu Ito Current education, an innovative change to improve university education through innovation and collaborative work 2020-07-03T18:49:33+01:00 Jorge Velázquez <p>Education must migrate to issues that today's society demands, attending to present and future scenarios in order to provide efficient and effective solutions. The study aims to demonstrate that collaborative work impacts the personal, educational and work relationships of students. The work is supported by quantitative data applied to an enrollment of 70 university students. As an innovation, the strategies that are implemented to enhance the abilities and skills of the students are elucidated. In Amazcala, 45% of respondents say that teachers are not up-to-date, 52% of the sample alludes that educational innovation does not help promote collaborative work, and 83% mentioned that they have never managed innovation in class. In this sense, innovation, collaborative work, communication and the use of technology are factors that have a direct impact in the educational field because through them the student can acquire a full development in his school career and in the workplace, what permeates the path that current education must follow to develop favorable knowledge in students who are about to enter the professional field.</p> 2020-07-03T18:49:33+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jorge Velázquez School Heads Leadership and Attributes and Teachers’ Morale: Its Impication to School Performance 2020-07-03T18:49:46+01:00 Lerma P. Buenvinida Rea G. Tamayo <p>This study determined the relationship among the school heads’ leadership and attributes, teachers’ morale and implication to school performance. Respondents of the study were 68 school heads and 532 teachers from public elementary schools of the Division of Laguna. The Level of Teacher’s Morale in terms of Teacher Rapport with Principal scored as good; while in terms of Satisfaction with Teaching was found moderately satisfied.&nbsp; Further, the relationship between school head leadership and professional attributes and teacher’s Morale in terms of rapport and personal and professional attributes are evident using the Chi-Square Test of Independence. The correlation between Building High Performance Team scores and Teacher Morale in terms of rapport comes out to be highly significant. However, School Leadership in terms of Problem Solving and Coordinating with Others and Leading &amp; Managing Changes were not significant. For Interpersonal Sensitivity of School Heads and Teacher Morale in terms of rapport, the correlation is significant at p&lt;.05. There are significant relationships between leading and managing changes to cohort survival, interpersonal sensitivity and completion rate with p&lt;.05; and relationship between Teacher’s Morale in terms of satisfaction to completion rate. School heads need to evaluate and monitor the training needs assessment to address teachers’ professional growth and assist in improvement of the school performance. A similar research can be conducted to determine the validity of the relationship between teacher’s morale and school performance and to verify the results of this study.</p> 2020-07-03T18:49:46+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Lerma P. Buenvinida, Rea G. Tamayo From Replacement Migrations to the “Great Replacement”: Demographic Reproduction and National Populism in Europe 2020-07-03T18:49:57+01:00 Andreu Domingo <p>This article aims to analyse how the distorted story about demographic evolution—demographic reproduction and its relationship with social stratification—is becoming substantial enough to erode democracy. In order to demonstrate this, it first analyses the origin of the “Great Replacement” metaphor that is used to refer to international migration, inside and outside the discipline of demography, as part of an allegory referring to demographic transformations in the twenty-first century, together with the metaphors “demographic winter” (referring to population ageing), and “demographic suicide” (when speaking of declining fertility). Second, it relates these three metaphors with right-wing national populist movements and explains how they have developed as conspiracy theories.</p> 2020-07-03T18:49:57+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Andreu Domingo The necessity for human solidarity in Arthur Miller’s All My Sons 2020-07-03T18:50:12+01:00 Mostafa Saber Abdel-Hamid Mowaad <p>Arthur Miller’s <em>All My Sons</em> depicts the human tendency of self-deception, betrayal and guilt which leads to the deterioration and the collapse of human values. The intensity of these elements may vary but they run through all of his plays. In <em>All My Sons</em>, Joe, a selfish businessman, in order to save his business from ruin, supplies defective cylinder heads to the American Air Force which results in the death of 21 fighter plane pilots. Joe atones for his crime by committing suicide. According to Miller, the American Dream creates false hopes that prevent people from being proud of what they have accomplished to make their lives better than they would be elsewhere, and eventually fail at achieving anything. Guilt is fundamentally a prosocial behavior because it strengthens interpersonal relationships. It is a kind of regretful, remorseful, painful, and aversive feeling aroused by one’s own actions or inactions. Guilt is different from regret in that guilt is more related to interpersonal harm whereas regret is more related to intrapersonal harm. Guilt is usually related to and is operationalized as the acceptance of responsibility for harm. Guilt has long been related to prosocial behavior. People tend to use altruistic means when under the stress of guilt.1</p> 2020-07-03T18:50:12+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mostafa Saber Abdel-Hamid Mowaad The Relationships Between Need-Supportive Interactions With Peers and Teachers, Perceived Academic Control, and Academic Success 2020-07-03T18:50:25+01:00 Nasser Mohamedhoesein <p>This study discusses the relationships between students' need-supportive interactions, perceived academic control, and academic success. The survey involved 192 undergraduate students from different applied sciences universities in The Netherlands. The study examined if students' interactions with peers and teachers, in support of their needs (relatedness, autonomy, and competence), would improve perceptions of academic control and academic success. The constructs of perceived academic control, basic psychological needs, and students’ formal and informal interaction with peers and teachers were linked to each other in a path model. The findings of path analysis showed that need-supportive interactions predicted positive perceptions of academic control and academic success. Most relevant to positive perceptions of academic control were students' formal interactions with peers and teachers supporting their autonomy and competence. Positive perceptions of academic control subsequently supported academic success.</p> 2020-07-03T18:50:25+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Nasser Mohamedhoesein