Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal 2020-03-30T16:02:55+01:00 Florence Arthur Open Journal Systems <p>Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal (ASSRJ) is an international peer reviewed open access bi-monthly on-line journal published by the Society for Science and Education United Kingdom. The journal encourages the researchers and practitioners to publish their research work with an objective to widely share their thoughts, ideas and findings beyond physical boundaries. Theoretical &amp; empirical research articles, reviews and case studies related to all the field of social sciences are welcomed for publication after careful reviews and recommendations from subject experts.</p> Denshawai and Cromer in the poetry of Ahmad Shawqi 2020-03-08T10:00:12+00:00 Nada Yousuf Al-Rifai <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> <p><strong><u>Abstract</u></strong></p> <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> <p>In the summer of 1906, a group of British Army officers went on a pigeon hunt near the Nile Delta town of Dinshaway. It came as no surprise then, that during the pigeon hunt, an errant gunshot set fire to the village’s wheat supply. Enraged as they watched their precious grain go up in smoke, villagers tried to seize the offending gun and a riot broke out during which several people were hurt and two of the British officers were wounded. As they tried to escape, one officer died from heatstroke. The British response was brutal. Returning in force to the village, a military tribunal convicted 52 of the villagers of pre-meditated murder; though most were just beaten, four were hanged. On April 1, 1907, less than a year after the Denshawai issue, Lord Cromer resigned as governor of Egypt since 1883, and left Egypt. His departure allowed the anger among the patriots, who were critical of him, to be set free, primarily because of his offense to Islam, and because he did not make any sincere effort to try to understand the aspirations of Egyptians. Ahmad Shawqi's "Farewell to Lord Cromer," was composed on the occasion of the latter's departure from Egypt. After his resignation, Lord Cromer gave a farewell speech at the Khedival Opera House in Cairo on May 4, 1907. Cromer's speech provoked a chorus of protest by the nationalists as well as by forces allied with the Khedive whom Shawqi was one of.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-03-08T09:59:51+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Application of juvenile imprisonment 2020-03-08T10:01:01+00:00 Rina Zejneli <p>Not Available</p> 2020-03-08T10:00:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Personality Traits As Predictors Of Burnout Syndrome Among Nurses In The University Of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Rivers State 2020-03-08T10:01:56+00:00 R. O. Ekechukwu Osuagwu Isabella <p>The study investigated personality traits as predictors of burnout syndrome among nurses in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital Rivers State. The study used the correlational research design. The population of the study comprised of all 750 nurses in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. A sample of 300 nurses from Paediatrics Ward, Male Ward, Female Ward and Intensive Care Unit (ICU), were randomly selected using the simple random sampling technique (balloting). Two instruments titled; Maslach Burnout Scale (MBS) by Maslach (1996) and Personality Inventory (NEO) by Costa and McCrae (1992) were used to collect data for the study. The Cronbach Alpha reliability was used to establish the internal consistency reliability coefficients of 0.87 and 0.81respectively. Responses to the research questions were analyzed with mean and standard deviation, while the hypotheses will be tested with multiple regression associated with independent sample t-test statistics. The findings of the study revealed that personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience) jointly predict burnout syndrome among nurses in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Further analysis of the result showed that when personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience where looked at independently, only neuroticism and extraversion relate significantly predict burnout syndrome while openness to experience did not. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended among others that counsellors, psychologists and others in the helping profession should readily offer practical assistance to nurses experiencing burnout to enable them cope with the stressful experience they encounter in their daily work assignments.</p> 2020-03-08T10:01:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Confronting The Challenges Encountered By Primary School Teachers In The Use Of Technological Devices For Teaching 2020-03-08T10:02:56+00:00 Dakoru Osomkume Alfred Uduak Idoghor <p>The paper examined the objectives of primary education in Nigeria as stated in the National Policy on Education. These objectives are seen to be achievable only through the instrumentally of the teachers who are the primary implementers of the curriculum. Furthermore, who a teacher is was also critically examined. In addition, the paper advanced some inevitable qualities of a 21<sup>st</sup> century teacher, without which the teacher will become a misfit in the classroom. These include having a sound knowledge (mastery) of the his/her subject-matter, being properly trained to teach, openness to innovation, being an in-co-parentis, resourcefulness and being computerate. The importance of the application or integration of technologies in the 21<sup>st</sup> century was also indicated. The climax of the content of the paper was the challenges facing primary school teachers, especially those in the rural areas. The challenges facing Primary School teachers as advanced include ignorance, technophobia, incomputeracy among others. Finally, recommendations on how to confront these challenges were advanced. Some of which are that teachers should wake up to the challenges of the 21<sup>st</sup> century by making sure that they get trained, the government should also make provision for teachers to get trained and be retrained, teachers should be given certain incentives to encourage them among others</p> 2020-03-08T10:02:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal AN EXPLANATIVE STUDY ON THE MODULE FOR SUPERVISING AND ASSESSING EDUCATION STAFF PERFORMANCE AT PRINCIPAL EMPOWERMENT TRAINING 2020-03-26T17:25:53+00:00 Heri Supriyana <p><strong>AN </strong><strong>EXPLANATIVE STUDY O</strong><strong>N THE MODULE FOR</strong><strong>&nbsp;SUPERVISI</strong><strong>NG</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>AND ASSESS</strong><strong>ING</strong><strong>&nbsp;EDUCATION &nbsp;STAFF</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>PERFORMANCE</strong><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong><strong>A</strong><strong>T</strong><strong>&nbsp;PRINCIPAL</strong><strong>&nbsp;EMPOWERMENT TRAINING</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Heri Supriyana</p> <p>Institute for Development and Empowerment of &nbsp;Principals and &nbsp;Supervisors</p> <p><a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>The result of &nbsp;2015 principal &nbsp;&nbsp;competency test &nbsp;&nbsp;shows that most of &nbsp;principals have not &nbsp;sufficient principal competency &nbsp;so that they have not been able to carry out their main tasks and functions properly. Likewise, the most of &nbsp;principals who have been &nbsp;appointed &nbsp;as &nbsp;principals do not yet have a Certificate &nbsp;of principal training, so that the most &nbsp;of principals do not &nbsp;meet the requirements to become principals. Based on this problem the Ministry of Education and Culture conducts training for strengthening principals with certain modules. The Directorate General of Teachers and Educational &nbsp;Personnel has written a training module for strengthening principals. These modules include the supervision module and the performance assessment &nbsp;of the education staff written by the author. The module has not been tested for relevance, adequacy, consistency, and sequences. In order to obtain a module for supervision and &nbsp;the performance assessment &nbsp;of teaching staff that is ready to be used in education and training, this study was conducted. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of relevance, adequacy, consistency, and sequences of the supervision module and the assessment of the performance of the education staff in the training of strengthening principals. This research is an explanative research. The data collection method uses closed questionnaire and open questionnaire techniques. The results of this study are the relevance aspects of getting a score of 3.73 (good enough), the adequacy aspect of getting a score of 3.64 (good enough), the consistency aspect of getting a score of 3.74 (good enough), the aspect of sequencing getting a score of 3.86 (good enough). Besides that from the systematic aspect of writing the category of statement "quite systematic" has the largest percentage of 77.10%, the aspect of appearance / graphic design of the category of statement "quite good" has the largest percentage of 74.23%, on the aspect of content / content category of statement "enough complete and detailed "has the largest percentage of 78.58%. The conclusion of this research is that the supervision module and the performance assessment of the education staff in the sc principal strengthening training program are good enough to be used in the &nbsp;principal strengthening training because they are relevant, sufficient content, consistent enough and inter-material enough sequences.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: explanatory study; &nbsp;module; supervision; performance assessment; educational staff.</p> 2020-03-17T17:53:01+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Rhetorical Sciences in Arabic and Principles of Modern Linguistics and Stylistics 2020-03-17T17:58:44+00:00 Salahuddin Mohd. Shamsuddin Siti Sara Binti Hj. Ahmad <p>Rhetorical system of speech in Arabic is an arrangement of meanings of single words based on the grammatical rule in Arabic, as their locations amongst the meanings of single words, not among the words themselves, although it is necessary that the arrangement has to be among themselves also, as they are utensils of the meanings, they inevitably follow them in their positions. If it is necessary for the meaning to be found first in the soul, it is also necessary for the word to be first in the pronunciation to indicate that meaning. Single meanings of the words without the grammatical arrangements have no value, as well as the single word has no value, but inside the sentence.</p> <p>The differentiation between a word and another word as being the sounds merely cannot be without the description, as one of them is familiar and the other is savage alien on the tongue of speaker or that one is lighter on the tongue has a beautiful impact in the ears and the other is difficult to pronounce hated by the hearing. The description of the eloquence while saying "these words are eloquent" does not mean to describe that the words are eloquent, as they are words merely, because they are not only the single words. The description of eloquence is given to the appropriateness of meaning of the word according to the meaning of the word followed and the other words like that, as they are not attached to the pronunciation explicitly.</p> 2020-03-17T17:53:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Students’ perception of science teachers’ instructional strategies in Senior Secondary Schools. 2020-03-17T17:58:29+00:00 P. O. Ajayi Titilayo Folayemi Otoide <p>The study focused on the perception of students on the instructional strategies used by science teachers in senior secondary schools, using descriptive research of the survey type. The participants were 540 out of 5,318 science students in Ekiti State public Senior Secondary Schools who were selected through multi-stage sampling procedure. An instrument tagged “Science Teachers’ Instructional Strategies Scale (STISS)” was used to collect data from science students across the three senatorial districts of Ekiti State. The data collected were collated and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics involving mean, standard deviation, Analysis of Variance and t-test. The results of the study revealed that teacher-centred and discipline-centred are the most frequently used instructional strategies by science teachers in senior secondary schools. The results further revealed that the students-centred which is the least frequently used instructional strategies by science teachers is the most alluring to science students. It was therefore recommended among others that government should organize appropriate training through workshops; conferences and seminars for science teachers to enhance professional competencies in their jobs which could as well exposed them to various strategies of teaching which are students-centred. This will help to demystify science in its entirety and simplify the perceived abstract nature of science-concepts which will in turn improve students' enrolment and attitude towards science as well as their academic performance in science to enhance national technological growth with the view of "VISION 2030" and "Sustainable Development Goal" (SDG) in mind.</p> 2020-03-17T17:53:32+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Influence of marketing in New Product Development 2020-03-17T17:58:16+00:00 Tamoor Danish <p>Several marketing researchers have concluded that in many organizations the position of marketing decreases and loses its impact. If marketing plays (or should play) a substantial job inside the firm, this capability should have a noticeable voice in new product development (NPD).</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> <strong>Concluded, Impact, Substantial job</strong></p> 2020-03-17T17:53:50+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Teachers` level of support in the use of teaching and learning resources of learners who are physically challenged in regular primary Schools in Kisumu West Sub County, Kenya. 2020-03-17T17:58:03+00:00 Dorine Adhiambo Obara Charles Michael Were <p>The Government of Kenya made inclusive education a policy requirement in the provision of education to all children. Research has shown that the support given by teachers plays a very important role in curriculum implementation that ensures success in a child`s career. Education Assessment records in Kisumu county indicate that between the year 2012 and 2016, 846 learners who are physically challenged had been assessed and placed in regular schools in Kisumu West, Kisumu Central and Kisumu East sub-counties, out of which 246 had dropped out of school. However, Learners who are physical challenged often drop out of school more as compared to their regular counterparts particularly in Kisumu West Sub-County. The number of learners who are physically challenged enrolled in regular primary schools has been decreasing due to dropouts despite the fact that officers in Kisumu EARC conducted sensitization programs and workshops yearly for teachers and stakeholders in education. This decrease is confirmed at 138 (31.9%), which is higher as compared to the dropout of neighboring sub-counties namely: Kisumu East 31 (21.8%) and Kisumu Central 77(28.4%). Reason for this high dropout has not been established. The purpose of this study was therefore to establish teachers’ level of support in the use of teaching and learning resources of learners who are physically challenged &nbsp;in regular primary schools in Kisumu West Sub-County and objective of this study therefore was to establish teachers’ level of support in the use of teaching and learning resources of learners who are physically challenged. A conceptual framework was used to show the interaction of dependent and independent variables. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. Target population of the study consisted of 15 head teachers, 30 teachers, 6 EARC coordinators and 90 learners who are physically challenged. Saturated sampling technique was used to select 13 head teachers and 4 EARC coordinators, while purposive sampling was used to select 27 teachers and 81 learners who are physically challenged. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules and observation checklist.&nbsp; Face and content validity of instruments was established through expert judgment and revision. Reliability of instruments was established through test-retest method on 10% of study population using Pearson’s product correlation. Reliability coefficient for head teachers questionnaire was 0.8, teachers’ questionnaires was 0.9; Learners who are physically challenged questionnaires was 0.7. This was above the accepted value of 0.7. Correlation coefficient analysis was used to establish teachers’ level of support in the use of teaching and learning resources f learners &nbsp;who are physically challenged. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean. Qualitative data from interview and observation schedules were collected, organized and categorized into themes and sub-themes, which were reported. Findings of the study indicated that most regular primary schools did not have adequate adapted teaching and learning resources required for learners who are physically challenged. The study recommended that Ministry of Education should ensure adequate supply of adapted teaching and learning resources, Findings of this study would be useful to teachers, EARC coordinators, and Ministry of Education.</p> 2020-03-17T17:54:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal The Process of Teaching Psychology Students to Connect with One’s Own Sensible Reality: 2020-03-17T17:57:50+00:00 Rosangela Bertelli <p><strong>The cognitive-behavioural model of learning is grounded on the idea that our thoughts influence our behaviours through a process of conditioning and it anticipates that whenever we can change our thoughts, our behaviours will change. This model of learning is at the foundation of the cognitive-behavioural interventions employed to treat mental health symptoms and mental health disorders. The mere abstract knowledge, separated from embodiment, about the cognitive-behavioural model of learning does not however offer to psychology students the required understanding of this conditioning process. The students need somehow to connect with one's own sensible inner reality during the educational process. It was hypothesised that expressive arts activities, with their own alternative languages, would endow the psychology students making it easier for them to access their automatic thoughts (movements of memory). In order to test this, a procedure prompted by the SADUPA poetry technique was carried out. A qualitative analysis of the results obtained revealed changes in language associated to the Haiku expressive art activity, a growing psychological presence, awareness of one’s automatic cognitive flows, and a manifested receptivity to a more experiential based teaching.</strong></p> 2020-03-17T17:54:25+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Somali Refugee Solutions in Kenya: Challenges of Repatriation and Prospects of Local Integration. 2020-03-17T17:57:36+00:00 Kirui Peter Hellen S. Wanyonyi Naomi Kutto <p>This paper assesses the challenges of voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees in Kenya and the prospects of local integration, if considered. It aims to demonstrate that no one refugee solution is adequate and that all available options ought to be pursued concurrently for optimum results. Based on review of existing literature, the paper traces the trajectory of Somali refugees in Kenya amidst a continually restrictive space for refugees among host states like Kenya.While the tripartite agreement on voluntary repatriation has seen many Somali refugees voluntarilly repatriate, many challenges abound and a majority yet to repatriate.This therefore calls for an assessment of other refugee solution options, like local integration.It concludes that repatriation, resettlement and local integration, all provide options for a comprehensive Somali refugee solution in Kenya.</p> 2020-03-17T17:54:39+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal LEGAL PROTECTION TO THE INDONESIAN MIGRANT WORKERS IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF HUMAN RIGHTS 2020-03-25T10:29:52+00:00 Raden Muhammad Mihardi <p><strong>Purpose </strong><strong>of the study:</strong> This research aims to describe legal issue related to the protection to Indonesian migrant workers who work abroad and to analyze the existence of migrant workers in Indonesia, viewed from human rights which must get legal protection in constitution and regulation of legal norm and implementation in the applicable legislation.</p> <p><strong>Methodology</strong><strong>:</strong> This research used the normative research methodology supported by empirical data from the document of institutional study.</p> <p><strong>Main Findings:</strong> Research about the protection of human rights in Indonesian Migrant Worker sector is a certainty. It is guaranteed in the international documents (Declaration of Human Rights in the United Nations, Convention of United Nations on Ecosoc and ILO Convention) and national documents (1945 Constitution and Law of Indonesian Migrant Worker Protection). However, in the perspective of its implementation, it has complexity. The protection to Indonesian migrant workers involves many parties, central and regional rules, and culture. This research focuses on the context of Indonesian Migrant Worker protection in a country where they work from the perspective of human rights. This research has novelty since it captures and analyzes issue of Indonesian Migrant Worker in rules and empirical terms based on the database.</p> <p><strong>Applications </strong><strong>of this study:</strong> this study can be useful for Immigration is one of the instruments to support unity of family with different nationality background.</p> <p><strong>Novelty/Originality </strong><strong>of this study:</strong> The new in this study that may find the ideal concept of the treasury of jurisprudence, particularly for foreign citizens who legally get married with Indonesian citizens and ex-Indonesian citizens and children born from legitimate mixed marriage with double citizenship.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-03-17T17:54:54+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Safety And Efficacy Of Vaginal Misoprostol In Treatment Of First Trimester Miscarriage 2020-03-17T17:57:07+00:00 Mohamed S. A. Emarah <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This study was conducted to determine the outcome of medical treatment with vaginal misoprostol in missed miscarriage. <strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A randomized controlled study was performed in Benha Teaching Hospital between April 2016 and June 2017. Eighty patients diagnosed with miscarriage before 13 weeks of gestation and wanted to try medical treatment were included. A detailed ultrasound scan was performed to confirm the diagnosis. Patients took 400 microgram (mcg) of misoprostol &nbsp;vaginal as an initial dose, and repeated the same dose 4-6 hours apart. Successful medical abortion was defined as spontaneous expulsion of gestational products (including gestational sac, embryo, fetus, and placenta). Ultrasonography at least 24 hours later from the initial dose to assess the uterine cavity if gestational products were not expelled, surgical evacuation was performed.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>&nbsp;About two-thirds of patients (77.5%) had a successful outcome. The median interval time from pill to expulsion was 18 hours in the successful medical treatment group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Medical treatment with vaginal misoprostol should be a proper option for the first trimester miscarriage, especially for the patient who want to avoid surgical procedure. We can reduce the unnecessary sedation or surgical intervention in the patients with the first trimester miscarriage.</p> 2020-03-17T17:55:05+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Isolated bilateral optic neuritis revealing a Lyme Disease : case report 2020-03-17T17:56:54+00:00 MIRAY LOUIS DE GONZAGUE <p>Optic neuritis (ON) is an inflammation of the optic nerve and one of the most common manifestations of central nervous system involvement caused by various etiologies. Lyme optic neuritis&nbsp; is a rare ocular manifestation of Lyme Disease. We report a case of a 13-year-old male patient, previously healthy, with decreased central visual acuity on his both eyes . On examination, best-corrected visual acuity on both eyes was 0,3 LogMar. Anterior segment biomicroscopy showed no inflammatory signs and the intraocular pressure was normal. A fundus examination performed under mydriasis revealed a swollen optic disk on both eyes confirmed by fluorescein angiography. The cerebrospinal fluid examination and Lyme Disease blood findings were positive. The diagnosis of Lyme disease-related optic neuritis was made. Treated with Ceftriaxone and Doxicycline, there was a vision recovery. We can state that isolated bilateral optic neuritis is uncommon and exceptional especially in children during Lyme disease.</p> 2020-03-17T17:55:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal The Exposure Rate Of Existing Shareholders, Underpricing And IPO Withdrawals At Borsa Istanbul: A Special Look At Opportunity Cost Of Issuance 2020-03-23T11:55:12+00:00 Orhan Emre Elma <p>Capital markets play a key role in achieving the medium and long-term goals of companies to reach the point of comparison with their competitors in the world. Capital markets journey, which is so important for companies, can also be called a life and death war. Not every issuance application to regulators results in a positive outcome. Turkey is the third country that is experiencing the most IPO withdrawal, according to Bennouna's (2015) study. Reasons such as wrong timing of the issuance or not being able to create positive sentiment among stakeholders cause issuance withdrawals. Companies aim to guarantee the earnings of their first partners in the long term rather than bringing immediate positive returns for their new investors. For this reason, the damage suffered by the first partners in IPO is an important parameter in understanding capital markets, along with underpricing. In this study, 76 public offerings in Borsa Istanbul between 2005 and 2015 were examined according to Dolbin's (2013) methodology. The discount rate applied by the companies during this period is 22.86%, while the underpricing rate applied is around 4.3%. Results show that, opportunity cost of issuance, which is the loss suffered by the first partners is found to be only 1.3% at Borsa Istanbul. Also, the relationship between underpricing and opportunity cost of issuance is found to be 74.7%. The withdrawal rate have positive correlations of 36.6% and 40.4% with firm age and cost per share, respectively. Results also indicates that, withdrawal rates starts to diminish at hot markets when average market volatility rises.</p> 2020-03-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Mothers’ perception of their involvement in expressive and creative therapy provided to their children at a special education school 2020-03-23T11:56:19+00:00 Gal Abramovski <p>In light of the paucity of evidence on mothers’ involvement in expressive and creative therapy for adolescents with learning disabilities (LD) studying at special education schools, the current study examined mothers’ perceptions of their involvement in the therapy and of the relationship with the therapist. The sample comprised 18 mothers to adolescents with LD who were in therapy for at least one year. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews. The findings indicated several therapeutic issues as well as the special encounter that occurs between the therapeutic and educational domain. The discussion presents three main styles of maternal involvement. The theoretical implications of the results and their practical implications for expressive and creative therapy within schools are discussed.</p> 2020-03-23T11:49:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal The Latin-American Union and the LAT 2020-03-23T11:56:14+00:00 Luis F. Copertari <p class="Paragraph"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Objective.</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> To support the creation of a Latin-American Union with the creation of the Latin-American peso (LAT) as the common currency. <strong>Methodology.</strong> Analysis and synthesis using induction and deduction proposing theory and reviewing its validity. <strong>Results.</strong> The LAT can be used as a robust enough currency. <strong>Limitations.</strong> The study was carried out only for the three main Latin-American Union candidates: Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. <strong>Originality.</strong> The ideas proposed here are original in the way the LAT is meant to function. <strong>Conclusions.</strong> The LAT promises to be a good option for stabilizing Latin-America and promote its regional development.</span></p> 2020-03-23T11:49:26+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Comparison Of Pupils’ Completion Rate Before And During 2006/2007 School Feeding Programme In Selected Public Primary Schools In Rivers State, Nigeria 2020-03-23T11:56:08+00:00 Nnamdi Anero <p>The study titled ‘Comparison of pupils’ completion rate before and during 2006/2007 school feeding programme in selected public primary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to determine the impact of the feeding programme on the pupils’ completion rate. The study compared the completion rate of pupils before and during the feeding programme and also investigated the completion rate on the bases of boys and girls as well as urban and rural pupils. Out of 868 schools in Rivers State, 44 schools were randomly selected for the study.&nbsp; The Head teachers of the selected schools were requested to supply relevant records of the pupils’ enrolment, dropout, return and completion rates using the admission and attendance registers as well as the result schedules.&nbsp; The figures generated from the records were analyzed using simple percentages. Based on the analysis, the study established that completion rate during the feeding programme was higher than when there was no feeding among pupils in Rivers State. The study further established that there was no significant difference between the completion rates of the urban and rural pupils during or before the feeding programme and also established that more males completed primary education than females during the feeding programme in Rivers State. It therefore recommended that the government should re-introduce the feeding progamme and also carry out enlightenment campaign among the rural dwellers to enable them fully utilize the opportunity as well as seek for participation of philanthropists in funding the programme in all the nooks and crannies of the state so that all and sundry shall benefit.</p> 2020-03-23T11:49:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal The Politics In Higher Education: The Contemporary Crises In Higher Education In Nigeria: A Consequence Of Fundamental Political Manipulations Of The Educational System (Military And Civilian Era) 2020-03-23T11:56:36+00:00 Celestina Imade Harry <p>The Politics in Higher Education: The contemporary Crises in Higher Education in Nigeria is a consequence of fundamental political manipulations of the educational system – at both the federal and state levels. The government did not take the economy of the country into consideration. This had now made almost all the institutions of higher education of learning in Nigeria to face the financial constraints. For instance look at the specialized Universities of Agriculture at Abeokuta and Makurdi and the Faculties of Science and Technology in Nigerian universities are all facing the same financial problems as the Faculties of Arts and Social Sciences. Furthermore, libraries in most higher institutions of learning today are ill-equipped. Therefore, establishing higher institutions here and there without maintaining the already existing ones is not in the best interest for national development.</p> 2020-03-23T11:50:12+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Effects Of Teachers’ Questioning Strategies On Students’ Achievement In Social Studies In Obio-Akpor Local Government Area Of Rivers State, Nigeria 2020-03-23T11:57:03+00:00 Ijeoma Margaret Opara Ajike Afor Uma <p>The study investigated the effects of teachers’ questioning strategies on students’ achievement in Social Studies in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. Four research questions and four null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted quasi-experimental research design. A sample of one hundred and twenty (120) male and female JS3 students from three (3) intact classes A, B, and C in the ratio of 40:40:40 respectively using stratified and purposive sampling techniques were used for the study. The instrument used for the study was titled Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT). The instrument was validated by subject specialists and measurement and evaluation experts based on content and face validities. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Kuder-Richardson 20 formula and the reliability coefficient obtained was 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The result revealed that convergent and divergent questioning strategies significantly had effects on students achievement in Social Studies, while gender had no significant effect. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should pay more attention to their questioning strategies because they are frequently used tools and the way to good teaching.</p> 2020-03-23T11:50:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal A Content Analysis of the WH-Questions in the EFL Textbook of That's Right 2020-03-25T10:18:54+00:00 Abdul Kareem Igbaria Asmaa Ghanayem <p>In the current study, the researchers analyzed the units of the textbook “That’s Right” for 10<sup>th</sup> grade students for English teaching in Israel. The study examined the WH- questions found in the textbook according to the various cognitive levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy.&nbsp; By using Bloom's taxonomy, the researchers attempted to understand whether WH-questions used in the textbook emphasize high-level thinking and cognitive skills development. The question of this study is: To what extent do the WH-questions in the textbook “That’s Right” emphasize higher order thinking skills?</p> <p>Content analysis was performed for the questions for five study units in the textbook. The question served as the unit of analysis for this research. A WH-question is defined as a question beginning with a WH-word and ending with a question mark. The questions were collected, listed, and analyzed according to Bloom's taxonomy, according to which thinking skills are divided into low and high orders. Low order thinking skills are knowledge, comprehension, and application. High order thinking skills are: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Percentages and frequencies of each cognition level were calculated for each book unit separately and for all the units combined. Validation and reliability checks were performed to validate this study.</p> <p>The results showed that 245 out of the 324 questions emphasized cognition levels that develop lower order thinking skills, while only 79 questions emphasized the three levels that use high order thinking skills. The textbook "That’s Right" questions place most emphasis on comprehension and knowledge, which are both connected to lower order thinking skills. This may result in lower cognitive abilities among students and should be further investigated to create better language skills in future generations. Additional studies of English textbooks at various age levels using content analysis are recommended.&nbsp; These studies will show which cognitive skills are developed in English materials and will improve future English education in Israel.</p> 2020-03-25T10:18:28+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Ethnic And Political Conflicts In The Eastern Senatorial District Of Kogi State, Nigeria: Some Suggested Therapeutic Measures 2020-03-25T10:20:05+00:00 Jacob Omede <p>This paper titled “Ethnic and political conflicts in the Eastern Senatorial Districts of Kogi State, Nigeria: Some suggested therapeutic measures” was an attempt to bring a relatively lasting solution to the incessant ethnic and political crises in the said senatorial district of the state. In an attempt to do this, the paper examined at the background the characteristics or nature of the Igala, Bassa and Ebira people who are the nationalities that are the original inhabitants of the land by pointing out how they lived harmoniously in the past. The paper in a further attempt to examine the causes of conflicts in this district had to do this in relation to Carl Max theory of conflict reviewed by Chappelow. The possible causes of ethnic and political conflicts in this area that the paper identified and discussed included land dispute, poverty and unemployment, loss of morality, desire to test and manifest “black power” as well as godlessness and bad politicking. The consequences of these which included the destruction of lives and properties, love lost, vendetta, vacation of ancestral homes as well as decline in commercial and agricultural activities were pointed out and also discussed. The paper concluded by recommending proper boundary delineation, more frequent political and moral education, formation of peace clubs as well as depoliticizing community policing and godly living as possible panaceas.</p> 2020-03-25T10:19:37+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal Stay with Me: Factors Influencing Teacher’s Retention in Private Elementary Schools 2020-03-23T11:57:39+00:00 Jasmin Sumipo <p>This research study sought to find out the factors which influence teachers’ decision to stay among the selected private elementary schools in Tubigon, Bohol.&nbsp; A researcher -made questionnaire based on Fredrick Herzberg’s Motivation- Hygiene Theory supplemented with informal interviews were used to gather the perceptions of the research participants. This quantitative-qualitative study used purposive sampling to determine the eighteen teacher participants from the three private elementary schools. Using a weighted mean formula to interpret the data, findings revealed that motivational factors on the job are strong influencing factors responsible for teachers’ retention. Despite the low salary they received, the participants chose to stay because they felt satisfied in other areas. Truly, intrinsic motivational factors are stronger forces that instill teachers’ loyalty to the school. This is in congruence with Herzberg Theory which states that the higher the motivational factors, the greater the percentage of worker’s retention.</p> 2020-03-23T11:57:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal INFLUENCE OF GENDER, LOCATION, AND PARENTAL FACTORS ON CAREER CHOICE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CTUDENTS 2020-03-30T16:02:06+01:00 JUDE OBIUNU <p>The study investigated the influence of gender, location and parental factors on career choice of senior secondary school students in Delta and Edo States. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted an ex-post facto research design. A total of 1,200 students participated in the study. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to draw the sample from the two states. A self-developed instrument was used for data collection. The instrument had a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.64. The data obtained were analysed using chi-square (x<sup>2</sup>) statistics at 0.05 alpha level. The findings revealed that there was significant relationship between gender and career choice;and between socio-economic status of parents and career choice of senior secondary school students. The study, however, showed that there was no significant relationship between parental education and career choice; and between location of schools and career choice of senior secondary school students.</p> 2020-03-30T16:01:45+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal The state of the pastoral economy of the Solon Evenki: Focusing on the logic of their communities 2020-03-30T16:02:55+01:00 Nasunmenghe Kohei Yagi <p>Although organizations such as hamlets and clans have often been regarded as an impediment to modern development, they actually provide organizational principles that are indispensable in supporting modern economic development. In this paper, we describe livestock farming in the Solon Evenki in the Evenki Autonomous Banner in Hulunbuir area of China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in detail and then explain how the system changed due to the prohibition of nomadism and the roles communities played. <br>The results are as follows. First, although the main business is daily with livestock farming, there are several sources of revenue and it is characterized by diverse and rich economic activities mainly on small-scale pastoralism. However, with the development of non-renewable resources like coal, this economic structure is being scaled up and simplified, so that temporary economic gain might come with the risk of long-term economic weakness. Second, looking at the actual use of the pastures, we see that there is no clear line between pasture and common land. As the partitioning off of land incurred significant transaction costs, local social relations functioned to regulate it in an ad-hoc manner.</p> 2020-03-30T16:02:27+01:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal