Main Article Content
Direct Labour procurement method has been identified as one of several procurement route alternatives used for the delivery of construction projects. This study assessed Direct Labour as a procurement route for the delivery of infrastructure within the Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in Ghana. A qualitative research approach was employed using in-depth interviews conducted with ten (10) professionals who were purposively sampled from the Works Departments of the Kumasi, Accra and Tema Metropolitan Assemblies in Ghana. The qualitative data was then analysed using content analysis. Direct Labour has been revealed by this study as an effective procurement method which can be employed by the MMDAs in Ghana for the delivery of public infrastructure. The findings of the study also indicate that, the benefits of the Direct Labour procurement route include the elimination of profits to contractors and its idealness for the execution of emergency works. However, Direct Labour as a form of procurement is not used on new MMDA construction projects because the Public Procurement Act 2003 (Act 663) of Ghana as Amended in 2016, does not clearly stipulate its usage on new projects. Direct Labour procurement is used within the MMDAs mainly for maintenance works on public projects. The findings of the study would prove useful for policy re-evaluation, especially regarding the reformation of the Public Procurement Act, 2003 (Act 663) as Amended in 2016 to include Direct Labour as one of the procurement routes for the delivery of infrastructure. This would enable the MMDAs to adopt it not only for maintenance works, but also for the execution of new infrastructural projects in order to benefit from its numerous advantages.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
2. Adegoke, B. (2011), Problems of direct Labour Projects procured in Lagos State. GRIN Verlag.
3. Adeniji, E. O. (2011). The significance of participatory management on project execution through direct labour; A case study of Adamawa State Nigeria. Unpublished Doctoral thesis.
4. Adenuga, O. A. (2013), Comparison of the performance of traditional and direct labour methods of project procurement: A case study of some selected projects of the Nigerian army. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management, 6(1), pp. 12-30.
5. Aghimien, D.O., Osanyinro, O. and Adegbembo, T.F. (2017), Cost and time performance of traditional-, direct labour-and management-procured public projects in Ondo State, Nigeria. Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: An International Journal, 9(1), pp.1593-1603.
6. Akobi, O.G. (2012), Comparison of Performance of Traditional and Direct Labour Procurement Methods Adopted by The Nigerian Army. A Thesis Submitted to the Postgraduate School Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.
7. Asah, K., Mintah, A. A. and Nigel, P. P. (2017). Assessing the Core Competencies of the Works Departments of the Metropolitan Municipal and District Assemblies.
8. Chinedum, N. B., Dauda, Y., and Faruk, A. I. (2019). Comparative Analysis of Direct Labour and Contracting System of Project Procurement. Journal of Civil and Environmental Research, 11(9), pp. 75-81.
9. Construction Agency Coordination Committee (CACC) (2005), Procurement Methodology Guidelines for Construction, Version 1 - February 2005.
10. Flick, U. (2006), How to design qualitative research: An overview. An introduction to qualitative research (3rd ed., pp. 135–145). London: Sage.
11. Francis, J.J., Johnston, M., Robertson, C., Glidewell, L., Entwistle, V., Eccles, M.P. and Grimshaw, J.M. (2010), What is an adequate sample size? Operationalizing data saturation for theory-based interview studies. Psychology and health, 25(10), pp.1229-1245.
12. Hackman, J. K., Ayarkwa, J., Osei-Asibey, D., Adjei-Kumi, T., & Kissi, E. (2021). Re-examining the Benefits of Decentralization for Infrastructure Delivery at the Metropolitan Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs) in Ghana. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8(2) 382-397.
13. Honyenuga, B.Q. and Wutoh, E.H. (2019). Ghana’s decentralized governance system: the role of Chiefs. International Journal of Public Leadership,15(1), pp.2-18.
14. Hsieh, H.F. and Shannon, S.E. (2005), Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qualitative health research, 15(9), pp.1277-1288.
15. Idoro, G. I. (2012), ‘Influence of project plans on the outcome of construction projects procured by design-build (DB) in Nigeria’, Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 17(2), pp. 81–103.
16. Idoro, G. I., Iyagba, R. O. A., Odusami, K. T. (2007), Client characteristics and the use of direct labour in the Nigerian construction industry, in Proc. of RICS Construction and Building Research Conference (COBRA 2007), 6–7 September, 2007, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. 8 p.
17. Idoro, G.I. (2007), A Comparative Study of Direct Labour and Design-Tender-Construct Procurement Systems in Nigeria (Doctoral dissertation, School of Postgraduate Studies University of Lagos).
18. Idoro, G.I. and Iyagba, R.R. (2008), A comparative study of the use of procurement systems in the construction industries of Finland and Nigeria. The Professional Builder, Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Building, (September), pp.40-50.
19. Iyagba, R.R. and Idoro, G.I. (1995), An overview of direct labour construction in the declining economy of Nigeria. Construction in Nigeria, 10(4), pp.2-13.
20. Kadiri, D. S. and Odusami, K. T. (2003), Comparative Study of Time and Cost performance of Direct labour and Labour only Procurement System, Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Quantity Surveyors, Vol. 44(3).
21. Lawal A. (2007), Quality Assurance and Control on construction site: A paper presented at the National Seminar on Management of Direct labour Projects in a Depressed Economy. NIOB Lagos State Chapter, UNILAG, April 28th – 30th.
22. Local Governance Act, (2016) Act 936, Parliament of The Republic of Ghana, Ghana Publishing Co. Ltd. (Assembly Press)
23. Local Government Establishment Instrument, (1994), Legislative Instrument, 1589 Ghana Publishing Co. Ltd. (Assembly Press)
24. Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (2015), Using Force Account for road maintenance: Were Local Governments ready, BMAU Briefing Paper [17/15]. Uganda.
25. Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development, (1996), The New Local Government System, Global Communications, Accra.
26. Namey, E. (2017), Riddle me this: How many interviews (or focus groups) are enough?
27. Odusami, K. T. (2001), Project team leadership and construction project performance in some selected states in Nigeria. PhD thesis, Department of Building, University of Lagos, Akoka, Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria.
28. Ojo, S. O. (2009), Benchmarking the performance of construction procurement methods against selection criteria in Nigeria, Civil Engineering Dimension, 11(2), 106-112
29. Opadiran, J. K. (1987), “Use of direct labour in programme execution”, seminar paper, Economic and Financial Studies Department ASCON, Topo, Badagry.
30. Public Procurement Act (2003) Act 663, Parliament of The Republic of Ghana, 31st December, 2003, Ghana Publishing Co. Ltd. (Assembly Press); as amended by Public Procurement Amendment Act, 2016 (Act 914), 12th May, 2016, Ghana Publishing Co. Ltd. (Assembly Press)
31. Sana, M. C. (2011). Decentralization and the Politics of Participation: A Case of Project Planning and Implementation in Asutifi District (Doctoral dissertation).
32. Sanni A. F. (2007), Terms of Reference; Direct Labour Project Management Training Using Community Driven Development Approach. P. 1
33. Sawe, B.E. (2018). Biggest Cities in Ghana, WorldAtlas.
34. Stiftung, F. E. (2010). A Guide to District Assemblies in Ghana. Institute of Local Government Studies. Ministry of Local Government, Republic of Ghana, Accra
35. Sub-Metropolitan, District Councils, L.I. 2223 (2018), Ghana Publishing Co. Ltd. (Assembly Press)
36. United Nation Capital Development Fund (UNCDF) (2013), Procurement for local development: A guide to best practice in local government procurement in least developed countries. New York: UNCDF.
37. Usman, N. and Sani, M. (2015), Direct Labour and Contracting System Performance Assessment on Project Delivery.