An Overview on Human Helminthic Parasitology III. Cestodes, the Tapeworms


  • MOHAMMAD SALIM S.G.S. Govt. P.G. Autonomous college Sidhi, PIN – 486661



Human helminthic parasitology, the Tapeworms


Helminths developed a variety of diseases in humans. They are invertebrate animals usually found in the intestines of the hosts. Cestodes in association with normal ailments and diseases caused by them, they infrequently produce some other specific diseases like cysticercosis, neurocysticercosis and hydatid diseases in humans. The present review is third in the series of helminthic parasitology discussing some of the Cestodes in the light of recent researches done so far in the same field.

Author Biographies



People’s College of Dental Sciences & Research Center, People’s University, Bhopal (M.P.), India



Deptt. of Human Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Bhopal (M.P.) India.



Sanjay Gandhi Smriti Govt. Autonomous P.G. College, Sidhi, A.P.S. University, Rewa (M.P.), India


Chai JY, Darwin MK, Lymbery AJ. Fish-borne parasitic zoonoses: status and issues. Int. J. Parasitol. 2005; 35(11-12): 1233-54.

Keiser J, Utzinger. Foodborne trematodes. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2009; 22(3): 466-483.

Harhay MO, Horton J, Olliaro PL. Epidemiology and control of human gastrointestinal parasites in children. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 2010; 8(2): 219-234.

Ziegelbauer K, Speich B, Mausezahl D, Bos R, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Effect of sanitation on soil- transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and metaanalysis. PLoS Medicine 2012; 9(1): e1001162.

Carpio A, Fleury A, Romo ML, Abraham R. Neurocysticercosis: the good, the bad and the missing. Expert Rev Neurother 2018; 8(4): 289-301.

Schauntz PM. Tapeworms (Cystodiasis). Gastroenterology Clinics of North America. 2006; 25(3): 637-653.

Moro P, Schantz PM. Echinococcosis: a review. Int. J. Infect Dis 2009; 13(2): 125-133.

Garcia HH, O’Neal SE, Noh J, Handali S. Cysticercosis working group in Peru. Laboratory diagnosis of neurocysticercosis (Taenia solium). J. Clin. Microbiol. 2018; 56(9): e00424-18.

Durrani MI, Basit H, Blazar E. Diphyllobothrium latum (Diphyllobothriasis). StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing 2021. PMID: 31082015.

Melki J, Koffi E, Boka M, Toure A, Soumahoro MK, Jambou R. Taenia solium cysticercosis in West Africa: status update. Parasite 2018; 25:49.

Rabiela MT, Rivas A, Flisser A. Morphological types of Taenia solium cysticerci. Parasitology Today 1989; 5(11): 357-359.

Willms K. Morphology and biochemistry of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 2008; 8(5): 375-382.

Jang JW, Lee JK, Lee JH, Seo BR, Kim SH. Recurrent primary spinal subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Spine 2010; 35(5): 172-175.

Garcia, Oskar HDB, Hector H. Taenia solium: Biological characteristics and life cycle. Cysticercosis of the human nervous system. Berlin: Springer- Verlag, Berlin and Heidelberg GMbH & Co. KG. pp. 11-21.(2014). ISBN 978-3-642-39021-0.

Gonzales I, Rivera JT, Garcia HH. Cysticercosis working group in Peru. Pathogenesis of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis. Parasite Immunol. 2016; 38(3): 136-146.

Herrera LA, Rodriguez U, Gebhart E. Increased translocation frequency of chromosomes 7, 11 and 14 in lymphocytes from patients with neurocysticercosis. Mutagenesis 2001; 16: 495-497.

Richards F, Schantz PM. Laboratory diagnosis of cysticercosis. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine 1991; 11(4): 1011-1028.

Guezala MC, Rodriguez S, Zamora H, Garcia HH, Gonzalez AE, Craig PS. Development of a species specific coproantigen ELISA for human Taenia solium taeniasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 2009; 81(3): 433-437.

Harnandez- Gonzalez A, Noh J, Perteguer MJ, Garate H, Handali S. Comparison of T24H- his, GST- T24H and GST – Ts8B2 recombinant antigens in western blot, ELISA and multiplex bead- based assay for diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Parasit Vectors 2017; 10(1): 237.

Gonzalez AE, Garcia HH, Gilman RH, Tsang VC. Control of Taenia solium. Acta Trop. 2003; 87(1): 103-109.

White AC. New development in the management of neurocysticercosis Infect. Dis. 2009; 199(9): 1261-1262.

Gilman RH, Gonzalez AE, Llanos- Zavalaga F, Garcia HH. Prevention and Control of Taenia solium taeniasis/ cysticercosis in Peru. Pathogens and Global Health 2012; 106(5): 312-318.

Garcia HH, Gonjales I, Lescano AG, Gavidia M, Pretell EJ. Cysticercosis working group in Peru, Efficacy of combined antiparasitic therapy with praziquantel and albendazole for neurocysticercosis: a double blind, randomized controlled trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2016; 62(11): 1375-1379.

Mc Clugage SG, Lee RA, Camins BC, Mercado AJ. Riley KO. Treatment of racemose neurocysticercosis. Surgical Neurology International 2017; 8(1): 168.

Sciutto E, Fragaso G, Harnandez M, Aluja A, Larralde C. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: A historical review. J. Parasitol. 2013; 99(4): 686-692.

Tomas S, Hector HG, Roman K, Barbara W. Update on the human broad tapeworm (Genus Diphyllobothrium ) including clinical relevance. Clin Microbiol Rev 2009; 22(1): 146-160.

Ramana KV, Rao S, Rao R. Diphyllobothriasis in a nine-year-old child in India: a case report. Journal of Medical Case eports 2011; 5(332): 1-3.

Sampaio JLM, Andrade VP, Lucas MC. Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11: 1598-1600.

Scholz T, Garcia HH, Kuchta R, Wicht B. Update on the human broad tapeworm (genus Diphyllobothrium), including clinical relevance. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2009; 22(1): 146-160.

Sharma K, Wijarnpreecha K, Merrell N. Diphyllobothrium latum mimicking subacute appendicitis. Gastroenterology Res. 2018; 11(3): 235-237.

Ohnishi K, Murata M. Praziquantel for the treatment of Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense. Tran. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1994; 88: 580.

Loukas A, Hotez PJ. Chemotherapy of helminth infections. In: Goodman & Gilman’s, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 11 Ed. Mc Graw Hill, NY, 2006.

Ko SB. Observation of deworming process in intestinal Diphyllobothrium latum parasitism by gastrografin injection into jejunum through double- balloon enteroscope. Am. J. Gastroenterology 2008; 103: 2149-2150.

Jimenez JA, Rodriguez S, Gamboa R, Rodriguez L, Garcia HH. Diphyllobothrium pacificum infection is seldom associated with megaloblastic anemia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2012; 87(5): 897-901.

Briani C, Dalla TC, Citton V, Manara R, Pompanin S, Binotto G, Adami Fausto. Cobalamin deficiency: Clinical picture and radiological findings. Nutrients 2013; 5 (11): 4521-4539.

Mc Manus DP, Zhang W, Li J, Bartley PB. Echinococcosis. Lancet 2003; 362(9392): 1295-1304.

Eckert J, Deplazes P. Biological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of echinococcosis, a zoonosis of increasing concern. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 2004; 17(1): 107-135.

Singh H, Aulakh RS, Singh BB. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus in disposed of bovine carcasses in Punjab, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases 2020; 44: 521-527.

Kemp C, Roberts A. Infectious diseases: echinococcosis (hydatid disease). J Am Acad Nurse Pract 2001; 13(8): 346-347.

Canda MS, Canda T, Astarcioglu H, Guray M. The pathology of echinococcosis and the current echinococcosis problem in western Turkey. Turk J Med Sci 2003; 33: 369-374.

Torgerson PR, Heath DD. Transmission dynamics and control options for Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 2003; 127(7): 143-158.

John D, David T, William P, William A, Voge Marietta. 7: The Cestodes: Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilculoaris and E. vogeli (Hydatid disease). Markell and Voge’s Medical Parasitology (9th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences pp. 224-231. ISBN 978-0-7216-4793-7, 2017.

Tappe D, Stich A, Frosch M. Emergence of polycystic neotropical echinococcosis. Emerging Infect Dis 2008; 14(2): 292-297.

Brunetti E, Kern P, Vuitton DA. Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis in humans. Acta Trop 2010; 114(1): 1-16.

Bonelli P, Masu G, Giudici SD, Pintus D, Peruzzu A, Piseddu T, Santucciu C, Cossu A, Demurtas N, Masala G. Cystic echinococcosis in a domestic cat (Felis catus) in Italy. Parasite 2018; 25: 25.

Bitton M, Kleiner – Baumgarten A, Peiser J, Barki Y, Sukenik S. Anaphylactic shock after traumatic rupture of splenic echinococcal cyst. Harefuah (in Hebrew) 1992; 122(4): 226-228.

Park KH, Jung SI, Jang HC, Shin JH. First successful puncture, aspiration, injection and re- aspiration of hydatid cyst in the liver presenting with anaphylactic shock in Korea. Yonsei Med J 2009; 50(5): 717-720.

Macpherson CN, Milner R. Performance characteristics and quality control of community-based ultrasound surveys for cystic and alveolar echinococcosis. Acta Trop 2003; 85(2): 203-209.

Prathiush PR, D’Souza PE, Gowda AKJ. Diagnosis of Echinococcus granulosus infection in dogs by a coproantigen sandwich ELISA. Veterinarski Archiv. 2008; 78(4): 297-305.

Craig PS, McManus DP, Lightowlers MW. Prevention and control of cystic echinococcosis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007 2007; 7(6): 385-394.

Li J, Wu C, Wang H, Liu H, Zhang W. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Parasite 2014; 21: 64.

Dang Z, Yagi K, Oku Y. Evaluation of Echinococcus multilocularis tetraspines as vaccine candidates against primary alveolar echinococcosis. Vaccine 2009; 27(52): 7339-7345.

Duclos LM, Richardson DJ. Hymenolepis nana in pet store rodents. Comparative Parasitology 2000; 67(2): 197-201.

Seung KP, Dong HK, Young KD, Dan J, Kyu JL. Status of intestinal parasite infections among children in Bat Dambang, Combodia. The Korean Journal of Parasitology 2004; 42(4): 201-203.

Watwe S, Dardi CK. Hymenolepis diminuta in a child from rural area. Indian J. Pathology and Microbiology 2008; 15(1): 149-150.

Chero JC, Saito M, Bustos JA. Hymenolepis nana infection: symptoms and response to nitazoxanide in field conditions. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2007; 101(2): 203-205.

Chitchang S, Plamjinda T, Yodmani B, Radomyos P. Relationship between severity of the symptoms and the number of Hymenolepis nana after treatment. J Med Assoc Thai. 1985; 68(8): 423-426.

Romero CR, Guerrero LR, Munoz GMR, Geyne CA. Nitazoxanide for the treatment of intestinal protozoan and helminthic infections in Mexico. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1997; 91(6): 701-703.

Ortiz JJ, Favennec L, Chegne NL, Gargala G. Comparative clinical studies of nitazoxanide, albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of ascariasis, trichuriasis and hymenolepiasis in children from Peru., Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2002; 96(2): 193-196.

Chai JY. Praziquantel treatment in trematodes and cestode infections: An update. Infection and Chemotherapy 2013; 45(1): 32-43.




How to Cite

SALIM, M., MASROOR, M. S., PARWEEN, S., & Singh, A. (2021). An Overview on Human Helminthic Parasitology III. Cestodes, the Tapeworms. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 9(6), 80–88.