Assessment of co-processed composites of Cissus-acacia and Cissus-guar gums as suspending agents in metronidazole benzoate suspension
Keywords:Co-processed composites, Cissus gum, acacia gum, guar gum, suspending agent, metronidazole benzoate, suspension
The study evaluated various co-processed hydrophilic polymer composites derived from cissus gum (CG) and acacia gum (CAG), cissus gum and guar gum (CGG) and CG, acacia gum (AG) and guar gum (GG) alone at varying concentrations as suspending agents in the formulation of metronidazole benzoate (MTZB) suspensions. Suspensions containing MTZB, 200 mg/5ml was formulated using 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 % w/v of either CG, AG, GG, CAG or CCG. The suspensions were evaluated considering sedimentation volume, flow rate, viscosity, pH, freeze-thaw test and redispersibility. The results showed that all the hydrophilic polymers employed yielded enhanced properties of the suspensions following the increase in their respective concentrations leading to enhanced viscosities, reduced flow rates and increased sedimentation volumes with the best outcomes observed as CGG>GG>CG>CAG>AG>Control (p < 0.05) for sedimentation volume; CGG>CG>GG>AG>CAG>Control (p < 0.05) for viscosity and CGG>GG>CG>CAG>AG>Control for flow rate (p < 0.05). Very stable pH was recorded with CG at all the concentrations studied, followed by the CGG, especially at the early days following their preparations. There was no changes in the particle sizes of the MTZB in the products formulated with the CG following the freeze-thaw test (p > 0.05). Other batches exhibiting stable particle sizes after freeze-thaw test were got with 2.0 % w/v of AG, 2.0 % w/v of GG and 2.0 % w/v of CGG (p > 0.05). The batch containing 3.0 % w/v of CGG and the control batch had their p-values = 0.05. These results may be indication that stable suspensions of the MTZB may be obtained with 2.0 % w/v of these hydrophilic polymers. The ease of redispersibility of the MTZB suspensions were in the order GG < CG < CGG < CAG < AG < Control. The best co-processed hydrophilic polymer were those prepared with CG and GG.
1. Saha, T., Masum, Z. U., Mondal, S.K., Hossain, M.S., Jobaer, M.A., Shahin, R. I & Fahad, T. Application of Natural Polymers as Pharmaceutical Excipients. Global J Life Sci Biol Res. 2018, 4: p.1.
2. Dharmendra, S, Surendra, J.K., Sujata, M. & Shweta, S. Natural excipients: A review. Int J Pharm Bio Arch. 2012, 3: p. 1028-1034.
3. Harsulkar, A. A., Sreenivas, S. A., Mandade, R. J & Wakada, R.B. Polymers in mucoadhesive drug delivery system- A review. Intl. J. Drug Formulation Res. 2011, 2: p. 61-67.
4. Painter, P.C. & Coleman, M.M. Fundamentals of polymer science: An introductory text. 2nd ed. Technomic Publishing Co, Lancaster, PA, 1997.
5. Ugoeze, K.C. Bioadhesive polymers for drug delivery applications. In: Mittal, K.L., Bakshi, I.S. & Narang, J.K. (editors), Bioadhesives in drug delivery.1st ed. John Wiley & Sons and Scrivener Publishing LLC, NY, USA and MA, USA, 2020, p. 29-56.
6. Kadajji, V. G. & Betageri, G. V. Water Soluble Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications Polymers. 2011, 3: p. 1972-2009.
7. Martin, A, Swarbrick, J. & Cammarata, A. Complexation and protein binding. In: Physical Pharmacy, 3rd Edition. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia. 1991, p. 65:544-553.
8. Banker, S.G. & Rhodes, C.T. Disperse systems. In: Modern Pharmaceutics, 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York and Basel, 1998, p. 305-318.
9. Okorie, O. & Nwachukwu, N. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Aloe barbadensis (Aloe vera) gum in pharmaceutical formulations. International Journal of Pharm. Sciences Review and Research. 2011, 6:p. 1- 6.
10. Bamiro, O. A., Ajala, T.O., Uwaezuoke, O.J. & Akinwumi, A. G. The suspending properties of Terminalia randii gum in magnesium carbonate suspension. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2014, 8(3): p. 87-92.
11. Chaudhari, P.S., Ganesh, A., Shailendra, S.S. & Jeetendra. B. Evaluation of suspending and emulsifying properties of Citrullus lanatus seed gum. Asian J. Pharm. Clin. Res. 2014, 7(5): p. 181-185.
12. Lund, W. (editor). The pharmaceutical codex: The principles and practice of pharmaceutics (12th Ed.). Pharmaceutical Press, London. 1994, p. 72- 80.
13. Panda, D.S., Choudhury, N.S.K, Yedukondalu, M., Swain, S.I. & Gupta, R. Studies on a natural gum for its application as a suspending agent. Ind. J. Pharm. 2006; 68(6): p. 777-780.
14. Mahmud, H.S., Oyi, A.R., Allagh, T.S. & Gwarzo, M.S. Evaluation of the suspending property of Khaya senegalensis gum in cotrimoxazole suspension, Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2010, 2(1): p. 50-55.
15. Vimala, B., Hariprakash, B. & Nambisan, B. Breeding of sweet potato for enhanced nutritional status and biofortification. Fruit, Veg. Cereal Sci. Biotech. 2012, 6(1): p. 93-105.
16. Ugoeze, K. C. & Nwachukwu, N. Evaluation of the suspending properties of a novel hydrophilic biopolymer derived from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas on sulphamethoxazole suspension. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017, 15(2): p.1-8.
17. Nwachukwu, N., Ugoeze, K. C. & Igoni, D. R. Evaluation of modified Pennisetum glaucum starch as a suspending agent in metronidazole benzoate suspension. In press :( TJPS-2020-0241.R1). Available from: http://www.tjps.pharm.chula.ac.th/ojs/index.php/tjps/article/view/369 [accessed 31.03.21].
18. Woolfe, J.A. Sweet potato: An untapped food resource. University Press, Cambridge. 1992, p. 643.
19. Ugoeze, K. C. & Nwachukwu, N. The disintegrant property of a hydrophilic cellulose polymer derived from the tubers of Ipomoea batatas in paracetamol tablet formulation. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017, 15(4): p. 1-9.
20. Ugoeze, K. C & Nwachukwu, N. The effect of a novel hydrophilic biopolymer derived from Ipomoea batatas tuber as a granulating agent in paracetamol tablet formulation. Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics. 2018, 8(2): p.112-117.
21. Ugoeze, K.C., Nwachukwu, N. & Nwodo, C.C. Excipient functionality of a novel hydrophilic biopolymer derived from Ipomoea batatas tubers. Indo American Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017, 7(7): p. 360-368.
22. Ugoeze, K.C; Nwachukwu, N. & Okeke, C. E. The physico-chemical and filler-binder-disintegrant properties of improved hydrophilic powder derived from the fibre of Ipomoea batatas tuber in paracetamol tablet. Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2021. 45(2): p. 105-112.
23. Ugoeze, K.C. & Idris, M.E.J. Development of co-processed powders containing lactose, mucuna flagellipes seed gum and Ipomoea batatas tuber sStarch. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology. 2020. 11(4): p. 256-275.
24. Eraga, S.O., Arhewoh, M.I. Uhumwangho, M.U. & Iwuagwu, M.A. Characterisation of a novel, multifunctional, co-processed excipient and its effect on release profile of paracetamol from tablets prepared by direct compression, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine. 2015, 5(9): p.768-772.
25. Ugoeze, K.C., Nwachukwu, N. & Anyino, P.C. The effect of modification methods on the properties of Lentinus ruber regium powders. Journal of Pharmaceutical Technology, Research and Management. 2019, 7(1): p.23–30.
26. Ugoeze, K. C., & Nkoro V. O. The physico-technical properties of a multicomponent Lentinus tuber regium based co-processed excipient (Fizlent). American Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2015, 2(3): p. 13-20.
27. Ugoeze, K.C. & Okpara C. Characterization of a novel co-processed powder of Lentinus tuber regium and polyvinylpyrollidone (POVILENT). International Research Journal of Pharmaceutical and Applied Sciences. 2015, 5(2): p. 15-21.
28. Chaudhari, S.P. & Patil, P.S. Pharmaceutical excipients: A review. International Journal of Advances in Pharmacy, Biology and Chemistry. 2012, 1(1): p. 21-34.
29. Ugoeze, K. C. & Ameh, B. C. Studies on the co-processed hydrophilic polymer composites of Cissus gum with acacia, tragacanth or guar gums - Processing and characterization. European Journal of Applied Sciences. 2021. In press.
30. Aremu, O.I. & Oduyela, O.O. Evaluation of metronidazole suspensions. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. 2015, 9(12): p. 439-50.
31. Ofoefule, S.I. Tablet dosage forms: A Textbook of Pharmaceutical Technology and Industrial Pharmacy, Samakin Enterprises, Lagos, Nigeria, 2002, p.147.
32. Choi, T. J., Jang, S. P., Jung, D.S., Lim, H.M. Byeon, Y. M. & Choi, I. J. Effect of the Freeze-Thaw on the Suspension Stability and Thermal Conductivity of EG/Water-Based Al2O3 Nanofluids. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2019, (4):p. 1-8.
33. Hoare, T. R. & Kohane, D. S. Hydrogels in drug delivery: Progress and challenges. Polymer. 2008, 49(8): p.1993-2007.
34. Hoffman, A. S. Hydrogels for biomedical applications. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews. 2002, 54(1):p. 3-12.
35. Ansel, C., Allen, L.V. & Popovich, N.G. Disperse systems: Pharmaceutical dosage forms and drug delivery systems, 8th Ed. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, 2005, p. 387-389, 398.
36. Lachman, L. Pharmaceutical suspension: The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy, 3rd Ed. Verghese Publishing House, Bombay, 1996, p. 488-489.