Influence of Intercropping System in Unmatured Agarwood Plantation
The study was conducted to investigate the effect of intercropping system between short-term crops and karas trees on the growth of karas trees and the side income made by the karas planters after implementing the intercropping system. There were four treatment groups implemented in this study which include monoculture of karas(control), karas with chilli (T1), karas with okra(T2) and karas with corn (T3). The karas tree growth parameters measured were height (cm), circumference (cm) and leaves count. The production yield of selected short-term crops was weighed in kilogram and the net profit analysis was made based on the market price of chilli, corn and okra. The data collection for the growth of karas tree was done ‘before’ and ‘during’ the plantation of short-term cropsin the study site as well as ‘after’ the short-term crops were removed from the study site.Data analysis showed that there was a significant difference (p<0.05) on the tree circumference after okra and chilliwere removed from the study plotswhen compared to the control group. Besides, chilliwas recorded with the highest net profit of RM 1857.60. Therefore, the intercropping of karas tree with short-term crops can generate profitable side income to karas planters and these intercropping practices are proven to have no negative impact on the growth ofkaras trees in the study site.
. Ismail Muhammad, & Mohd Zain Jusoh. Gaharu komoditi khazanah.2011, Shah Alam: Kayu Gaharu (M) Sdn. Bhd.
. Azmi Yahya. Merungkai khazanah rimba: industri gaharu Malaysia cabaran dan prospek, Kuala Lumpur: Lembaga Perindustrian Kayu Malaysia (MTIB). 2011. (pp 1-5, 28, 30, 36, 40, 45).
. Rosli Yaakop. Gaharu wang di atas pokok, Kuala Lumpur: Jundi Resources, 2009. (pp4-9, 48, 56, 68, 69, 84).
. Blanchette, R. A., Jurgens, J. A., Beek, H. H. V. Growing Aquilaria and production of agarwood in hill agro-ecosystems.2015. Sourced in April 1st, 2018, retrieve from http://forestpathology.cfans.umn.edu/pdf/
. Lok, E. H. & Ahmad Zuhaidi Yahya. Growth and management of Aquilariamalaccensisfor agarwood - a new domestication perspective. International Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Plantation,2016. 3, 55-60.
. Senevirathna, A. M. W. K. et al., High density banana/rubber intercrops have no negative effects on component crops under the smallholder conditions. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 2010.90, 1 – 17.
. Okyere, S. A., Danso, F., et al., Residual effect of intercropping on the yield and productivity of oil palm. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 3(7), 2014. p.854-862.
. Khairol Ismail dan Wan Zaki Wan Mamat. Integrasi tanaman di kawasan kelapa meningkatkan pendapatan petani. BuletinTeknologi MARDI,2016 9, 55 – 64.
. Mohamad Hussin. Jagung manis jana pendapatan. Mymetro. 2017. Sourced in September 28th, 2017, retrieve from https://www.hmetro.com.my/node/201975.
. Jabatan Pertanian Semenanjung Malaysia. Statistik tanaman (sub-sektor tanaman makanan) 2017. Sourced in Mei 12th, 2018, retrives from http://www.doa.gov.my/index/resources/aktiviti_sumber/sumber_awam/maklumat_pertanian/perangkaan_tanaman/booklet_statistik_tanaman_2017.pdf
. Jabatan Pertanian Semenanjung Malaysia (2018). Statistik tanaman (sub-sektor tanaman makanan). Sourced in Januari 5th, 2019, from http://www.doa.gov.my/index/resources/aktiviti_sumber/sumber_awam/maklumat_pertanian/perangkaan_tanaman/booklet_statistik_tanaman_2018.pdf
. Lembaga Pemasaran Pertanian Persekutuan, FAMA. Harga pasaran terkini. Sourced in Oktober 10th, 2018, from http://www.fama.gov.my/web/pub/harga-pasaran-terkini.
. Mousavi, S. R &Eskandari, H. A general overview on intercropping and its advantages in sustainable agriculture. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 1(11), 2011. 482-486.
. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia. Panduan penanaman karas. Jabatan Perhutanan Semenanjung Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2012.
. Seran, T. H., & Brintha, Biological and economic efficiency of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) intercropped with vegetable Amaranthus (Amaranthus tricolor L.). Open Horticulture Journal, 2009.2(1), 17 – 21.
. Mohd Farid Mamat, Mohd Rusli Yacob, Lim. H. F., & Alias Rdam. Costs and benefits analysis of aquilaria species on plantation for agarwood production in Malaysia. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 1(2), 2010. 162 – 174.
. Dodiya, T. P., Gadhiya, A. D., & Patel, G. D. A review: effect of inter cropping in horticultural crops. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 2018. 1512 – 1520.
. Rodrigo, V. H. L, et al., The growth and yield of rubber at maturity is improved by intercropping with banana during the early stage of rubber cultivation. Field Crops Research, 2005. 91(1), 23 – 33.
. Rodrigo, V. H. L, et al, Intercropping with banana to improve fractional interception and radiation-use efficiency of immature rubber plantations. Field Crop Research, 2001. 69, 237–249.
. Swarnalatha, B., & Reddy, M. V. (2011). Leaf litter breakdown and nutrient release in three tree plantations compared with a natural degraded forest on the Coromandel Coast (Puducherry, India). Ecotropica, 17, 39 – 51.
. Demari, G. H., Carvalho, I. R., Nardino, M., Szareski, V. J., Dellagostin, S. M., da Rosa, T. C. et al. (2016). Importance of nitrogen in maize production. International Journal of Current Research, 8(8), 36629 – 36634.
. NorkaspiKhasim, Raja Zulkifli Raja Omar & Sulaiman Mohamad (2010, Januari). Integrasi tanaman jagung manis dengan sawit system duab aris. Risalah Sawit. Sourced in January 30th, 2019, daripada http://palmoilis.mpob.gov.my/index.php/risalah-sawit/385-risalah-sawit-integrasi-tanaman-jagung-manis-dengan-sawit-sistem-dua-baris
. Zaimah, R., Lyndon, N., Sarmila, M. S., & Mohd Yusof Hussain. Keberkesanan integrasi sawit meningkatkan pendapatan pekebun kecil sawit: kajian kes di Johor, Malaysia (the effectiveness of oil palm integration practices in increasing the oil palm smallholders’ income). Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(2017), 152 – 163.
. Faridah Ahmad. Sustainable agriculture system in Malaysia. In Regional Workshop on Integrated Plant Nutrition System (IPNS), Development in Rural Poverty Alleviation, United Nations Conference Complex, Bangkok, Thailand, 2001. (pp. 18-20).
Copyright (c) 2019 Archives of Business Research
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
You are free to:
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.