Archives of Business Research https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR <p>ABR is founded by Services for Science and Education (SSE) United Kingdom where it is strongly believe that excellence in research is the key to benefiting academics, businesses, societies and other relevant stakeholders at local, national, regional and international levels.</p> en-US abr@scholarpublishing.org (Thomas Harvey) abr@scholarpublishing.org (Olivia Adam) Wed, 10 Feb 2021 17:19:14 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Case for Decentralization in Zimbabwe’s local government system: Challenges and Opportunities https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9580 <p>The issue of decentralization in Zimbabwe’s local government system has been topical since the colonial era. In the post-independence epoch the expectation was that the new majority government would address the centralization of governance which was motivated by racial imbalances. However, decentralization was not achieved as local government was not recognized in the Lancaster House Constitution adopted at independence in 1980. For years this allowed the central government to control all the local government structures in the country. The relationship between local governments and the central government became bitter and tense after the formation of a formidable opposition, MDC, which has been controlling most urban local authorities since its formation. The 2013 Constitution has not improved things either as the central government has not been willing to implement the new law to its latter and spirit. In all this it is the citizens who have been bearing the brunt as there has been poor service delivery owing to the bad relationship between the center and local structures. The study found out that if decentralization is fully implemented in Zimbabwe it has the potential of bringing efficient and effective service delivery, citizen participation, democracy and accountability in the local government system. The paper also makes recommendations on what needs to be done to achieve decentralization in the country’s local government system.</p> Takudzwa Madzimure Copyright (c) 2021 Takudzwa Madzimure http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9580 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 17:20:13 +0000 INTERNATIONAL TRADE, GLOBALIZATION AND NIGERIAN ECONOMY https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9176 <p><em>Protagonists of free trade such as the World Bank and IMF are loud in proclaiming the virtues of international trade and globalization. They are quick to point out that granting free rein to these concepts would not only lead to optimal resource allocation but also engender growth in global economy. This paper sought to probe the veracity of these claims in the context of a developing economy like Nigeria. The paper first clears up conceptual issues involved and later cast the operations of these phenomena within the Nigerian economic setting. It was found that whereas industrial countries, in joint operation with their multinational corporations, may have benefited immensely from the opportunities created by international trade and globalization, developing countries, characterized by weak technological base and unfavourable macro-economic factors, have hitherto benefitted minimally, but her losses far outweigh her gains such that she could rightly be characterized as a net loser in the competition. It therefore argues that countries like Nigeria should protect their domestic markets from the negative impact of foreign trade and globalization. It however recommends that Nigeria should adopt a selective technological transfer that fits into her domestic need for economic diversification via private sector-led initiatives.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Cosmas Odo, Kenneth N. Ozoemenam, Kingsley N. Edeh Copyright (c) 2021 cosmas Odo, Kenneth Ozoemenam, Kingsley N. Edeh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9176 Wed, 10 Feb 2021 17:20:30 +0000 Virtual Instructional Packages and Pre-Service Language Teachers' Communicative Skills: Empirical evidence from Nigerian Colleges of Education. https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9592 <p>The study investigated the effect of virtual instructional tools on the learning outcomes of pre-service English language teachers in Nigerian Colleges of Education. The rationale of the study was hinged on the premise of virtual instructional adaptation in a post-OVID-19 era. The design for the study was a two- group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design. The research design comprised pretest and post-test observations, treatment with virtual instruction and normal instruction in a non-virtual space. Using multistage sampling strategy, 100 samples were randomly selected from two Colleges of Education in Southwest Nigeria. The experimental and controls groups consisted of 50 samples each comprising 25 females and 25 males. The instruments for the study were validated achievement tests and marking guides including a test-retest reliability study with a reliability coefficient of 0.87 which was considered as moderately high for the reliability of the instruments. Two null hypotheses were raised and tested at 0.05 levels of significance using Two- Way ANOVA as statistical tools. The findings revealed that there was significant effect of virtual instructional tools on pre-service English language teachers’ learning outcomes using the&nbsp; pre-test mean scores and post-test mean scores. Also, the findings showed that there was significant gender effect of virtual instructional tools on the virtual learning outcomes of pre-service English language teachers’ communicative skills in English. Pedagogical implications of the findings in respect to virtual instructional tools in a post-COVID-19 era were highlighted and suggestions preferred towards enhancing pedagogical and communicative competencies of pre-service English teachers in Nigerian Colleges of Education.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Bankole Olagunju FALOYE , Oluwatoyin Tolu Obateru Copyright (c) 2021 FALOYE Bankole Olagunju, Oluwatoyin Tolu Obateru http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9592 Thu, 11 Feb 2021 12:30:43 +0000 The Moderating Effect of the Status of Using a Product on the Relationship Between Brand Experience and Word of Mouth Recommendations https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9677 <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of the status of using the product on the relationship between brand experience, satisfaction, loyalty and brand recommendation. Structural equation modeling (SEM) with multi groups was used for data analysis. The results of this study indicate that there is a strong relationship between brand experience, satisfaction, loyalty and brand recommendation. The effect of brand experience and brand satisfaction on WOM recommendations was higher in the new user group than in the established user group. While the effect of brand loyalty on WOM recommendations was higher for established users than for new users. The effect of brand experience on brand satisfaction was greater for established users than for new users. While the effect of brand experience on brand loyalty was greater in the new-user group, it was not significant. Finally, the effect of brand satisfaction on brand loyalty was greater for established users than for new users.</p> Ngatno Ngatno, Endang P Apriatni Copyright (c) 2021 Ngatno Ngatno, Endang P Apriatni http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9677 Thu, 11 Feb 2021 12:31:14 +0000 Student Perspectives of Academic Integrity in an Online Environment: A Pilot Study https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9680 <p class="Abstract" style="line-height: normal;"><span lang="EN-GB">The March 2020 COVID-19 pandemic caused many universities to move face-to-face and hybrid courses to completely online formats, resulting in increased challenges to academic integrity. Although academic misconduct and academic dishonesty among students is nothing new, the literature is inconclusive as to whether there is more cheating in online classes than in face-to-face classes. However, online education has made it much more difficult for instructors to detect instances of cheating. The purpose of this study is to identify student perceptions and attitudes regarding violations of academic integrity, particularly in online courses. An Internet survey link was sent to all students enrolled at a southwestern university. </span></p> Rhonda Richards Copyright (c) 2021 Rhonda Richards http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9680 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 11:38:18 +0000 Micro-Finance as a Triggering Mechanism for Empowering Women’s Entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9675 <p>The Micro-Finance sector has been identified as one of the main sectors that contributes to the eradication of poverty and to empowering women in developing countries. Women’s Entrepreneurship is considered an emerging trend among nations and contributes to the development of a country. It is also identified as an important means to end poverty and therefore, female empowerment through entrepreneurship has been well recognized. Micro-finance enables women’s entrepreneurial success; however, the context of the urban sector has not been well examined in the literature since most scholars perceive that poverty is mainly confined to the rural areas of a country. There are many services provided by the Micro- Finance sector. However, it is vital to identify their impact on Women’s Entrepreneurial success, particularly in the urban sector of the country. Accordingly, this study focuses on examining the impact of Micro-Finance, which includes Micro-Credit, Micro-Savings and Micro-Insurance, on Women’s Entrepreneurial success in Sri Lanka, specifically in the Colombo district. 240 women entrepreneurs who have obtained micro financial services in the Colombo district were used as the sample of this study. In order to arrive at a conclusion regarding the relationship between micro-credit, micro-savings, micro-insurance and entrepreneurial success, a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire has been used. The required data were collected by distributing the questionnaire through Google Forms. The statistical software package SPSS was used to analyze the collected data. It was identified that all the measurement items under Micro-Credit, Micro-Savings and Micro- Insurance exhibit significant relationships with Women’s entrepreneurship in the Colombo District, and therefore, all the hypotheses were accepted. Recommendations are provided to further enhance female presence and success in entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka.</p> Ayoma Sumanasiri, Prabhavi Chandrarathna Copyright (c) 2021 Ayoma Sumanasiri, Prabhavi Chandrarathna http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9675 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 11:38:33 +0000 Optimization of the consumption function under the North American Free Trade Agreement https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9733 <p>In the last 40 years, the country has turned to developing the primary and tertiary sectors with a tax policy heavily taxing goods outside the basic basket and generalizing others. On the other hand, Government implemented support programs for vulnerable sectors. The imbalance between what the government receives and grants created greater poverty, affecting mainly households in the first three income deciles. This work shows this imbalance in different scenarios using an optimization model.</p> Dora Ledesma, Lidia Hernández-Hernández, María Teresa Leonor Muciño-Porras Copyright (c) 2021 Dora Ledesma, Lidia Hernández-Hernández, María Teresa Leonor Muciño-Porras http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9733 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 11:38:47 +0000 Examining The Social Drivers Of Entrepreneurship: A Case Of Business Owners In Aboabo Market In Tamale https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9459 <p>This research examined the social drivers of entrepreneurship among business owners in Aboabo market in Tamale. A quantitative research approach was adopted and the target population was business owners in Aboabo market in Tamale. It was found that not all social drivers that influence decision to become entrepreneurs motivate entrepreneurs to remain in business. Also, family or close relation, belonging to a social club (social capital), previous work experience and social status positively affect business performance while being a married woman and being a woman does not affect entrepreneurial performance.&nbsp; Access to finance, family and friends involvement are major challenges of entrepreneurship whereas lack of social support, low educational background and gender discrimination are not major challenges of entrepreneurship. Based on these findings, the study recommended entrepreneur education, community support and easy access to finance through government intervention to help entrepreneurs relish their full potential to support economic growth and development significantly.</p> Abdul-Razak Abubakari, Kassim Samira Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul-Razak Abubakari, Kassim Samira http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9459 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Pandemic Aftershock: Revisiting Consumers’ Risk Perception Attitude and Perceived Safety towards an Audience-Centered Marketing Paradigm https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9724 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p><strong>Purpose</strong></p> <p>The purpose of this empirical research is to empirically investigate the effect of Covid-19 crisis on Egyptians’ risk perception attitude, perceived safety and local travel intentions inside Egypt for the aim of reaching significant marketing insights and recommendation to benefit the tourism sector during Covid-19 pandemic. Those marketing insights can help prepare citizens to deal with the crisis challenges for the objective of normalizing everyday practice, maintain productivity and help protect the stability of the community.</p> <p><strong>Design/methodology/approach</strong></p> <p>This research adopts the variables of the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), which provides a useful framework to understand how individuals respond to crisis/risk. This research empirically investigates the current insights, concerns and needs of 300 samples from the Egyptian community for the aim of reaching a practical method of normalization; thus, bridging what the researcher would like to call “<em>the blind spot</em>” or gaps of actions between decision makers and citizens. This research applies quantitative research method. Data were collected online. It is significant to pinpoint that this empirical investigation &nbsp;adopts the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM), which provides a useful framework to understand how individuals respond to crisis/risk communication messages for the purpose of investigating the research hypotheses; thus, this empirical study does not aim to extend nor to present a conceptual framework for the adopted Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) within the Egyptian milieu.</p> <p><strong>Findings</strong></p> <p>The research findings suggest new marketing implementations for overcoming the challenges facing the local tourism sector in Egypt due to Covid-19 pandemic crisis, and further recommends an audience-centered paradigm in marketing and communicating promotional messages.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value</strong></p> <p>To date, limited empirical research has investigated Egyptian tourists’ insights for sustaining the internal tourism sector in Egypt during normal and crisis times. This research is considered valuable to decision makers, marketers and academics alike as it provides up- to- date marketing insights and empirical results for the aim of normalizing the internal tourism practices in Egypt after the pandemic shock and even during the consecutive waves of Covid-19.</p> Ibrahim AL-Sahouly Copyright (c) 2021 Ibrahim AL-Sahouly http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9724 Mon, 15 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ON THE COMPETITIVENESS OF COASTAL FISHERMAN COMMUNITIES IN NORTH MINAHASA DISTRICT https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9683 <p>Supply Chain Management is an integrative method or approach to manage the flow of products, information, and money in an integrated manner that involves parties ranging from upstream to downstream consisting of suppliers, factories, distribution networks and logistics services. Supplier is one of the most important links in determining the quality of the product and the speed at which the product reaches the consumer. In the capture fisheries industry in North Sulawesi, the coastal fishing community in North Minahasa Regency is one of the spearheads of the success of the capture fisheries industry supply chain because it functions as a supplier to the fish processing industry in North Sulawesi.</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of Supply Chain Management, namely the variables of technical and managerial assistance, information sharing, trust, long-term relationships, and process integration on the competitiveness of coastal fishing communities in North Minahasa Regency. This study uses a causal associative research type. The analytical method used is Multiple Linear Regression Analysis.</p> <p>The results showed that technical and managerial assistance, information sharing and trust had a significant effect on the competitiveness of coastal fishing communities in North Minahasa regency, while long-term relationship variables and process integration had no significant effect on the competitiveness of coastal fishing communities in North Minahasa Regency.</p> Merlyn Mourah Karuntu, Indrie Debbie Palandeng, Mirah Rogi Copyright (c) 2021 Merlyn Mourah Karuntu, Indrie Debbie Palandeng, Mirah Rogi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9683 Tue, 23 Feb 2021 06:40:32 +0000 Financing Future Feed-in Electricity Tariffs from Currently Installed RES-E Generating Capacity https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9775 <p>This paper addresses the issue of financing the excess costs of electricity generation from currently installed renewable energy production capacity. We use a dynamic computable general equilibrium model of the Portuguese economy. We consider three issues: the effects of the excess-costs; the effects of annuitizing the costs; and, the effects of different financing mechanisms. Following the logic of the tariff deficit, we recommend the annuitizing of these excess costs. This strategy is justified on distributional grounds. We also find that financing through carbon taxation is a better alternative than passing these excess costs to electricity consumers in the form of higher future prices. This is consistent with the idea that renewable production is not an issue pertaining to the electricity market but rather a part of the national quest for decarbonization. Finally, we show that there is little reason to extend such preferential financing to future renewable capacity installation.</p> Alfredo Marvão Pereira, Rui Marvão Pereira Copyright (c) 2021 Alfredo Marvão Pereira, Rui Marvão Pereira http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9775 Sun, 28 Feb 2021 15:23:46 +0000 Exploring The Factors Affecting The Employees’ Productivity: A Case Study Of Selected SMEs In Lahore https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9682 <p>Every company strives to improve the productivity of the employees so that it can increase its revenues. Several studies have conducted to find the factors that can influence the productivity of the employees. This study explored the factors that that can affect the productivity of the employees in selected SMEs of Lahore. Focus group interviews were conducted to gather the data and open-ended questions were asked of employees. Study finds that productivity is affected by cooperation between colleagues, discrimination, and harassment. Moreover, it is also affected by work-life imbalance. It has also been explored that productivity is affected by financial rewards and unbiased evaluations. It is important for the companies to focus on these issues so that productivity of the employees can be improved.</p> Summera Arshad, Syeda Zain Fatima Copyright (c) 2021 Summera Naz, Syeda Zain Fatima http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9682 Sun, 28 Feb 2021 15:24:09 +0000 Words of Wisdom: Ukrainian Proverbs https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9807 <p>This study aims to analyze Ukrainian proverbs, which are the word of wisdom and living philosophies of Ukrainians. It covers not only functions and styles of Ukrainian proverbs, but also techniques used in them. Since Ukrainian proverbs have a great variety of subjects, this study focuses on 10 main ones, that are recognized as important in Ukrainian life and frequently appear as a topic of proverb: customs and superstitions, history, weather, health, God and priest, truth and justice, the rich and the poor, family relationships, immigrant life, and Ukrainian life in Soviet period. This study introduces the proverbs most frequently recited among Ukrainians with translation and explains their characteristics.</p> Sogu Hong Copyright (c) 2021 Sogu Hong http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9807 Sun, 28 Feb 2021 15:24:33 +0000 The Fisher Separation Theorem And Capital Budgeting Decisions Of Quoted Firms In Nigeria https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9735 <p>This study explored the Fisher separation theorem and capital budgeting decisions of quoted firms on the Nigerian stock exchange. A sample of 60 questionnaires were filled and returned by staffs from particular sectors like manufacturing, health and agriculture. &nbsp;Descriptive statistics was employed to illustrate the data while the Spearman rank order correlation test was used to determine if a significant relationship exist among the variables. From the estimates, the Net Present Value and Modified Internal Rate of Return are regularly employed by firms in making capital budgeting decisions. Also, when firms employ capital budgeting tools, it creates wealth for both managers and shareholders, providing support for the Fisher’s separation theorem. Finally, a correlation coefficient of 0.827 reflect a positive and linear relationship between capital budgeting decision and Shareholders’ value creation. Thus, an increase in capital budgeting decisions result to an increase in value creation. This outcome is consistent with findings from other economies and previous studies. It thus recommends that firms in the Nigerian environment should ensure they play down on shareholders’ desire for dividends and instead redirect their funds to more investments by employing suitable capital budgeting decisions.</p> Omiete Victoria Olulu-Briggs Copyright (c) 2021 Omiete Victoria Olulu-Briggs http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9735 Sun, 28 Feb 2021 15:24:54 +0000 Bonnie and Clyde Revisited: A Conceptual Model of the Behavior of the Instigators of the GameStop Short Squeeze of 2021 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9768 <p>The efficient market hypothesis assumes that investors act independently, but social-media-enabled behavior among amateur investors demonstrably violates this assumption.&nbsp; This was dramatically illustrated by a recent short squeeze in the shares of GameStop.&nbsp; By analogy with conceptual models in the behavioral sciences, we outline a conceptual model attempting to explain the behavior of the participants, and explore some of the implications of this conceptual model for investors.&nbsp; This case study illustrates a systematic inefficiency in option pricing which only become apparent when extreme market conditions are encountered.&nbsp; Although the cognitive biases of amateur investors are of little importance for understanding stock prices, this is a special case where their cognitive biases do matter.</p> Greg Samsa Copyright (c) 2021 Greg Samsa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9768 Sun, 28 Feb 2021 15:25:13 +0000 Constraints Of Community Participation On Domestic Solid Waste Management In Sodo City, Wolayita Ethiopia https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9241 <p><em>This study was undertaken to assess the constraints of community participation on domestic solid waste management activities in sodo city, Ethiopia. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were collected from 204 households who were randomly selected from four kebeles (Fana, Gebeya, Gido and Selame) of wolayita-sodo city. The primary data were gathered through survey questionnaire, key informant interview, focus group discussion, and field observation. The secondary data were collected from central statistics authority, city municipality, published and unpublished sources. The collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression model. The result shows that participation of communities on domestic solid waste management was low. The result from binary logistic regression model revealed that the probability of household participation on domestic solid waste management was positively and significantly constrained by educational level of households, household income, and household access to main road, small-scale enterprise service coverage and supply of waste facility. On the other hand, sex of household head and marital statuses were negatively and significantly constrained the probability of household participations on domestic solid waste management. As a result, widening the horizon of education and training, expanding small-scale enterprise service coverage, supply of waste facility and provision of road infrastructure within the community was suggested to reduce constraints of community participation on domestic solid waste management.</em></p> Merihun Fikru Meja, Nigatu Bushura Ayano Copyright (c) 2021 Merihun Fikru Meja, Nigatu Bushura Ayano http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9241 Thu, 04 Mar 2021 12:25:16 +0000 The Influence of Work Discipline, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Organizational Support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior Employees of PT Citra Baru Steel https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9816 <p>This study examines the effect of work discipline, organizational climate, and perceived organizational support on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. This study's population were employees of PT Citra Baru Steel, a private company engaged in the steel-making industry in Serang City, Banten. By using the nonprobability sampling method obtained 269 samples. The results showed that work discipline had a significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Organizational climate has a significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Perceived Organizational Support has no significant effect on Organizational Citizenship Behavior, while Work Discipline, Organizational Climate, and Perceived Organizational Support simultaneously positively affect Organizational Citizenship Behavior.</p> Samrotul Janiah, Setyo Riyanto Copyright (c) 2021 Samrotul Janiah, Setyo Riyanto http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9816 Thu, 04 Mar 2021 12:25:41 +0000 Long Term Effects of Major Macroeconomic Variables on the Brazilian Stock Market: A nonlinear ARDL application https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9771 <p>This research used NARDL methodology to investigate relevant macroeconomic variables influence on the Brazilian stock market index. We used monthly data from January/2000 to July/2020 and the six macroeconomic variables investigated are described as follows: net government's debt/GDP (DEBT), exports (EXPORT), consumer confidence (ICC), liquidity ratio (M4_PIB), interest rate (SELIC) besides the stock market index (IBOV). All monthly data were collected from IPEADATA. The main conclusions are that there is long run effect of IBOVESPA due to a decrease of government debt is clear and statistically significant, the long run effect in the liquidity ratio also affects IBOVESPA index. Moreover, the most outstanding result was the long run effect of decrease in the interest rate over the IBOVESPA index. Sustainable reductions in the interest rate would consistently stimulate the stock market index. Research outcomes also indicate that long run asymmetries of government debt, liquidity ratio and interest rate are reliable and statistically significant.</p> MARCELO MELO, WELIGTON GOMES Copyright (c) 2021 MARCELO MELO, WELIGTON GOMES http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9771 Thu, 04 Mar 2021 12:25:59 +0000 Management Control in Cameroon Municipal Areas: A Response to the Urgent Issue of Risk Management https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9792 <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x1 pg-1h2 pg-1y1 pg-1ff1 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">Abstract</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y2 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">Generally, Cameroon municipalies encounter organisaonal risks. This research has idened a</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y3 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">typology of such risks and presents management control as a cursor of enlightenment and</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y4 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">governance in controlled risk. This objecve is achieved aer using a quantave method through a</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y5 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">hypotheco-deducve approach aimed at tesng three hypotheses; the study was conducted using a</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y6 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">quesonnaire administered in 9 out of 10 regions in Cameroon. At the end, this study highlights that</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y7 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">management control in Cameroon municipal areas is void of proacve tools, and uses only tradional</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y8 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">tools. It also highlights that ways of implemenng management control in Cameroon municipalies</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x2 pg-1h3 pg-1y9 pg-1ff2 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">are not conducive to reduce risks.</div> <div class="t pg-1m0 pg-1x3 pg-1h3 pg-1ya pg-1ff1 pg-1fs0 pg-1fc0 pg-1sc0 pg-1ls0 pg-1ws0">Key words:<span class="pg-1ff2"> control management, organisaonal risks, municipality. </span></div> Isaac LEA, François-Xavier MAYEGLE Copyright (c) 2021 Isaac LEA, François-Xavier MAYEGLE http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.scholarpublishing.org/index.php/ABR/article/view/9792 Thu, 04 Mar 2021 12:27:47 +0000