Archives of Business Research <p>ABR is founded by Services for Science and Education (SSE) United Kingdom where it is strongly believe that excellence in research is the key to benefiting academics, businesses, societies and other relevant stakeholders at local, national, regional and international levels.</p> ScholarPublishing on behalf of Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Archives of Business Research 2054-7404 Determinants Of Liquidity Risk: A Study Of Commercial Banks In Pakistan <p>The aim of this research is to examine the determinants of liquidity risk of commercial banks in Pakistan. For this research, the data of 20 commercial banks of Pakistan is collected annually for eight years ranging from 2012-2020. This study uses the Panel data regression analysis approach. Liquidity ratio as a dependent variable has been selected as measures liquidity risk whereas five independent variables size of bank, liquid assets ratio, capital adequacy ratio, Leverage, Non-performing loans have been selected for different types of bank-specific factors. Fixed effect regression analysis and random effect analysis has been performed, the Hausman test used to see whether the fixed effect model or random model is suitable. The findings of this study are beneficial for policymaker, manager, economic agents to control on risk factors. The results of this study show the size of bank (SOB), liquid assets ratio (LAR), capital adequacy ratio (CAR) has a negative and statistically significant effect on liquidity ratio. However, Leverage (LEV) has a positive and statistically significant effect on liquidity risk meaning that increase in leverage increase the liquidity risk but Non-performing loans (NPLs) has a negative and statistically insignificant relationship with liquidity risk.</p> Syeda Zain Fatima Hafiza Iram Naseem Copyright (c) 2021 Syeda Zain Fatima, Hafiza Iram Naseem 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 9 4 1 14 10.14738/abr.94.9948 Vetting of Bloomberg’s ESG Governance ISS:QualityScore [GQS] <p><strong><em>Context</em></strong> Of the plethora of market navigation platforms, the <em>Environment, Social, and Governance </em>[<em>ESG</em><em><sup>Ó</sup></em>]-platform offered by Bloomberg<sup>Ô</sup> Professional Services<sup>* </sup>is one of the most richly endowed, including nearly 2,000 data-fields that provide an invaluable context for better understanding the “Stakeholder-impact” of the firm’s activities. A recent amelioration of the ESG-platform is the link with Institutional Shareholder Services [ISS] that offers a taxonomy where firms are assigned to Governance-risk decile-groups based upon ISS:<strong>G</strong>overnance<strong>Q</strong>uality<strong>S</strong>cores: (GQS<sup>Ô</sup>). The GQS-platform offers a data-driven approach to scoring &amp; screening designed to help investors monitor company governance activities so as to better inform their decision-making. <strong><em>Study Design</em></strong> Clear is: Market Intel-Platforms only have <u>one</u> simple <em>raison d’être</em>: <strong><em>To provide a relative advantage in teasing out market winners relative to the “Squawk-On-The Street”</em></strong>. If this is the case, information professionals, in a best practices context, are tacitly obligated to offer vetting tests of platforms such as the GQS to service investors in need an independent and reliable evaluation to Ferret-out useful market guidance platforms. In this endeavor, we offer a vetting evaluation of a random sample of firms included in the two polar-ISS:GQS:Classifications: GQS[1] &amp; GQS[10]]. <strong><em>Point of information</em></strong> The intent of the GQS-Vetting is not to “reverse-engineer” the results of the GQS-assignment protocol so as to arrive an “inferentially” de-coded approximation of the actual ISS:GQS-protocol. Our vetting addresses the question: <em>Is there a logical reason to reject the belief that the set of GQS-assignment protocols are not well formed thus creating Governance-risk-groupings that have no intra-group coherence and so exhibit no inter-group differentiability.</em> <strong><em>Results</em></strong> Initially, we used a <em>Strawman-Vetting</em> test followed by FPE-inferential tests using specific and sensitive Income Statement and Balance Sheet Panel-profiles from a random sample of the firms in: GQS[1] &amp; GQS[10]. We find that the triage-focus of GQS[1] is “Revenue at the Margin” while that of GQS[10] is “Asset[Net] Management”. Also, both groups have exhibited impressive attention to managing Working Capital. <strong><em>Summary</em></strong>: The ISS:GQS-assignment protocols seem to be well-formed and capable of offering useful differentiation.</p> Edward J. Lusk Mia Wells Copyright (c) 2021 Edward J. Lusk, Mia Wells 2021-04-11 2021-04-11 9 4 15 42 10.14738/abr.94.9952 A path analysis on the strategic determinants of the average revenue per user in the Saudi telecom sector <p>This study compared a restructured hierarchical regression using structural equation modeling (SEM) with a path analysis SEM Regression using The Rules of Casual Order.&nbsp; The dataset originated from Jones &amp; Alshammari (2017) which studied the Value-Added Intellectual Coefficient (VAIC) determinants and capital expenditures (CAPEX) effects on the average revenue per user (ARPU). The comparisons showed CLE and CEEcap explained 61% of ARPU.&nbsp;&nbsp; For every 1 unit of change in CLE and CEEcap combined, produces 2 units of change in ARPU.&nbsp; The results on HCE<sub>cap</sub> and SCE<sub>cap</sub> were inconsistent, regression weights were insignificant at the p ≤ .001 level, and both determinants did not correlate with Revenue.&nbsp; This study showed that causation can be established prior to any multivariate or SEM statistical procedures. The rules of casual order are an effective way of designing a model based on reality and show the true effects among observed variables.</p> Talal Alsaif Copyright (c) 2021 Talal Alsaif 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 4 43 56 10.14738/abr.94.9991 Improvement of Interstellar Material and Energy Flows <p><strong>Objectives</strong></p> <p>A novel approach is suggested to utilize the inherent forces of the universe for the benefit of mankind, by applying the model for Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE) to improve the major flows of gas, dust, material and energy between stars and galaxies. This endeavour is regarded as promoting the altruism and benevolence by increasing life-forms’ chances to survive.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong></p> <p>It is shown how the torus-shaped flows of gas, dust material and energy between stellar bodies in cosmos can be improved with the EUROPE model in order to preserve universe and secure its existence by allocating shadow costs to waste-like flows and unwanted radiation in this torus. The fewer shadow costs being allocated to the stellar residuals, the more efficient the cosmic torus flows, expressed in equivalents of antimatter released, by inducing incentives to improve the conditions for all inhabitants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong></p> <p>The methodology promotes the economy when travelling in space, advances the technology used and improves the environment, when outer space in the future is explored and exploited. A single key factor enables monitoring, managing and evaluating the development of universe and the flows of gas, dust, material and energy between various stellar objects, such as the distant stars and whole galaxies.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>I recommend using the EUROPE model to monitor, manage and evaluate the wastes and spillages of all material and energy phenomena throughout the known universe, to uphold its very existence.</p> Jan Stenis Copyright (c) 2021 Jan Stenis 2021-04-13 2021-04-13 9 4 57 66 10.14738/abr.94.9981 Intercultural Human Resource Management Practices And Employees’ Satisfaction In Quoted Food And Beverages Mncs In Nigeria <p>This study investigated the impact of intercultural human resource management practices (Training and development; Employee empowerment; and Compensation practices) on employees’ satisfaction in food and beverages MNCs in Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The target population comprises 6,356 staff of quoted food and beverages MNCs in Nigeria. Taro Yamane statistical formulae was used to determine the sample size of 1,568. Purposive sampling technique was used to determine the respondents which included Nigerians and Other Nationals working in the quoted food and beverages MNCs. A structured survey questionnaire was adapted, validated, and used for the construct ranged between 0.61 and 0.93. The response rate to the 1,568 copies of the questionnaire administered was 74%. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential (Student T-test of multiple regression analysis) statistics. Hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using SPSS 20. Findings revealed that Training and Development practices, Employee empowerment practice, and Compensation practice had significant positive influence on employees’ satisfaction among Nigerians and Other Nationals in food and beverages MNCs in Nigeria (β = .064 - .526; P&lt; .000 - .021; β = .107 -&nbsp; .312; P&lt; .000) : (β = .168 - .299; P&lt; .000: β = -.15; P&gt; .566; - .225 -.246; P&lt; .000) (β = -.144 -.421; P&lt; .000; β = -.004; P&gt; .886): (β = -.105 - .456; P&lt; .000 -.001): respectively, except for collectivity and individuality that had negative and insignificant influences on employees’ satisfaction among Nigerians with respect to compensation and employee empowerment.</p> K. K. Arogundade Copyright (c) 2021 K. K. Arogundade 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 9 4 67 82 10.14738/abr.94.9960 A 3D involvement comprehension model for the digital innovation fostering initiatives of the financial services industry. <p>The financial services industry word-wide is active not only in financing the innovation, but also in creating opportunities for digital innovation take-up that will ultimately lead to economic growth and entrepreneurial success. By analyzing the activities of the four major financial institutions in Greece in the area of innovation support activities, a 3D model is constructed that clearly demonstrates the strategic area that is shaped for initiatives that foster innovation in the financial services industry sector. This model is also useful as a strategic positioning tool as well as a comprehension model for those actors that would like to enter into this area and gain an understanding of the projects and activities already run by the actors in this field.</p> Dimitrios S. Stamoulis Copyright (c) 2021 Dimitrios S. Stamoulis 2021-04-16 2021-04-16 9 4 83 90 10.14738/abr.94.9968