Archives of Business Research <p><strong>Archives of Business Research </strong><strong>(ISSN 2054-7404)</strong> is an international, double-blind peer-reviewed, open-access journal published by the Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom. This journal is published online <strong>monthly</strong> to keep readers up to date with the latest developments.</p> <p>The <strong>Archives of Business Research (ABR)</strong> applies theory developed from <strong>business research</strong> to actual <strong>business</strong> situations. Recognizing the intricate relationships between the many areas of <strong>business activity</strong>, <em>ABR</em> examines a wide variety of business <strong>decisions</strong>, <strong>processes</strong> and <strong>activities</strong> within the actual business setting.</p> <p>Theoretical and empirical advances in buyer behaviour, finance, organizational theory and behaviour, marketing, risk and insurance and international business are evaluated on a regular basis. Published for executives, researchers and scholars alike, the Journal aids the application of empirical research to practical situations and theoretical findings to the reality of the business world.</p> <p>The scopes of the journal include, but are not limited to, the following topics: business, marketing, management, finance, economics, accounting. It provides an academic platform for professionals and researchers to contribute innovative work in the field.</p> ScholarPublishing on behalf of Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Archives of Business Research 2054-7404 Bank Guarantees in the Czech Republic <p><strong>The article is focused on the legal regulation of bank guarantees in the Czech Republic. Bank guarantees have a significant benefit for conducting foreign trade. Although the legal regulation in the Civil Code is relatively new, it follows on from earlier laws and international business practices. The article points out some specifics of Czech legal regulation and important court case law.</strong></p> Petr Liška Copyright (c) 2023 Petr Liška 2023-01-12 2023-01-12 11 1 1 11 10.14738/abr.111.13696 A Study On Performance Of Financial Institutions In Ghana <p>The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of Ghanaian financial institutions. This study has used four proxies intended to measure the performance of financial institutions namely: financial access, financial depth, financial efficiency and financial stability. The overall proxies are consisted of thirty variables. In the study, there are four objectives: measuring service of financial access in Ghanaian financial institutions is the first one. The second objective is to examine the size of Ghanaian financial institutions. The third and fourth objectives are to measure the efficiency and stability of Ghanaian financial sector. We created a development of financial performance model describing the variables in this study. The main analysis of the study is Mean calculation and Weighted Least Squares Multiple Regression Analysis (WLS.) This study investigated secondary data. The data was analyzed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) in descriptive statistics and Excel Software. The result showed significance in financial access (F= 43.352 P= .000) with r-value (r= 949**) and financial depth (F= 42.973 P= .000) with r-value (r= 925**) while financial efficiency and stability showed insignificance. This holistic study that combined access, depth, efficiency and stability proved that Ghanaian financial institutions are inefficient and there is instability as well.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Husein Mohamed Irbad Copyright (c) 2023 Husein Mohamed Irbad, M. G. Jayaprakash 2023-01-12 2023-01-12 11 1 12 24 10.14738/abr.111.8306 A Study of Integrated Model for Electricity Supply Chain Considering Renewable Energy Fraction and Demand Variation <p>This paper aims to derive integrated model for electricity supply chain considering renewable energy fraction and demand variation. Currently, attention is being paid to increasing the ratio of renewable energy generation in the electric power market which called Green Energy Coefficient (GEC). This paper aims to derive an integrated model of electricity supply chain considering renewable energy fraction and demand variation using multi-agent reinforcement learning. The subjects of the models are the consumption market model, the electricity market model, and the production market model. Also, the pricing process in electricity supply chain is analyzed using the proposed multi-agent simulations.</p> Kosuke Takahashi Copyright (c) 2023 Kosuke Takahashi 2023-01-12 2023-01-12 11 1 12 21 10.14738/abr.111.13768 How hard do women climb the ladder? <p>This paper reviews the literature on the glass ceiling and glass cliffs relating to female career enhancement. Two theories relevant to the issue are highlighted and four relevant issues on the predicament of female employees being promoted to the management level are presented. First, the rate of female employees promoted to a higher management position is far below than men. Second, factors that impede their career enhancement vary from personal to the organizational level. Third, women who break the glass ceiling face challenges as a leader. Fourth, this paper reviews the literature on what employers and female individuals could do to improve the situation.</p> RAHIMAH MOHAMED YUNOS SYAHRUL AHMAR AHMAD Copyright (c) 2023 RAHIMAH MOHAMED YUNOS, SYAHRUL AHMAR 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 35 47 10.14738/abr.111.13572 UTILIZATION OF E-COMMERCE AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE MSME INCOME IN JAMBI PROVINCE IN COVID-19 ERA <p>Over the past two years, the whole world has been fighting the Covid-19 outbreak. Covid-19 has an impact on lifestyle changes for humans in the world. Social restrictions must be implemented for the purpose of reducing the outbreak of the epidemic. The impact of social restrictions has a negative impact on micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) which experience a decrease in income until they experience bankruptcy. For this reason, MSMEs need a strategy to increase income during the Covid-19 period. E-commerce is the right strategy used by MSMEs to increase income so that MSMEs can survive in the Covid-19 era.</p> Wiralestari Copyright (c) 2023 Wiralestari 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 48 54 10.14738/abr.111.13536 Clinical Coding Error With Potential Loss Of Hospital Income During Implementation Of The Indonesian Case Base Groups Casemix System <p>The diagnostic code is also the basis for determining the cost of health services. Diagnostic codes that are not qualified will cause losses to the hospital both financially and in policy making. This research method uses qualitative research methods. by using a case study approach (case study). The population which is used are medical record documents of inpatients at dr. Soeratno Gemolong Hospital in Trisemester 4 (October, November, December) in 2019, obtained a sample of 80 documents from a population of 804 documents. The sampling technique used is simple random sampling. The results of the study that the coding accuracy of the Casemix Indonesian Case Base Groups (INA-CBGs) system at Dr. Soeratno Gemolong Hospital Sragen Hospital there are 42 accurate diagnosis codes and 38 inaccurate diagnosis codes, while the inaccuracy of the diagnosis code is caused by the coding error of the main diagnostic code, coding error of the Secondary diagnosis code, coding error &nbsp;Primary and secondary diagnosis code and coding error of the Diagnosis and procedure code. There is a difference between the claim rate from the inaccurate coding and the claim rate from the accurate coding, where the inaccurate coding claim rate generates revenue for the hospital of IDR. 22,816,048 whereas if the claim rate from the correct coding will result in an additional IDR. 41,221,848 for the hospital, so that due to the coding error, the hospital will experience a decrease in income or loss of IDR.18,405,800.</p> anton susanto Copyright (c) 2023 anton susanto 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 55 60 10.14738/abr.111.12755 How Should We Balance Domestic and Foreign Debts in Order to Avoid Debt Trap? <p>Many attempts have been made to examine the effect of debts on economic growth, in order to find out the ways to avoid debt trap, where national revenue is obliged to be spent mainly for repaying debts rather than constructing infrastructures for long-term economic development, making it even more difficult to repay the debts, like Sri Lanka that fell into its worst financial crisis in 2022. In the present paper, we explore the proper debt management to avoid the debt trap, by laying out a theoretical model that incorporates both domestic and foreign debts based on Fujita (2022) and Padoan et al (2012).</p> <p>Main results we obtain are summarized as follows. (1) In order to avoid the debt trap, in accordance with increase in ratio of domestic debt to GDP, , government should increase ratio of foreign debt to GDP, &nbsp;up to certain level of , , and reduce &nbsp;after that. (2) if domestic interest rate does not increase so much in accordance with increase in difference of growth rates of domestic debt and GDP, government should reduce &nbsp;if foreign interest rate increases; if domestic interest rate increases sharply in accordance with increase in difference of growth rates of domestic debt and GDP, government should increase &nbsp;if foreign interest rate increases.</p> Yasunori Fujita Copyright (c) 2023 Yasunori Fujita 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 61 67 10.14738/abr.111.13797 The Effect of Work Environment, Reward, and Organization Culture on Employee Performance Through Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variables <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><strong>The purpose of this empirical study is to analyze the influence of the Work Environment, Rewards, Organizational Culture on Employee Performance which is mediated by Job Satisfaction. The data used in this research is primary data taken by distributing questionnaires using a purposive sampling method involving 190 frontliner employees of state-owned banks in South Jakarta, Indonesia. The analytical tool in this study is Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using AMOS version 24. The results of this study are that there is a positive and significant effect of work environment and rewards on job satisfaction, but organizational culture has no effect on job satisfaction, there is a positive and significant effect work environment and job satisfaction on employee performance, but rewards and organizational culture have no effect on employee performance. there is a positive and significant effect of work environment and rewards on employee performance through the mediation of job satisfaction. However, organizational culture has no effect on employee performance through the mediation of job satisfaction. From the results of this study, it is recommended that state- owned banks should provide a clean and comfortable workplace for frontliner employees, and encourage supervisors to appreciate the work of frontliner employees by giving praise or recognition.</strong></p> </div> </div> </div> Mochamad hadi wijaya Hadi Copyright (c) 2023 Mochamad hadi wijaya Hadi 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 68 84 10.14738/abr.111.13814 Strategic Communication and Artificial Intelligence: Reviewing Emerging Innovations and Future Directions <p><strong>This review examines the adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) as a novel technology for strategic communication. This study includes a survey of pertinent literature that highlights innovative communication linked to AI applications in public relations, marketing and branding, political communication, and customer relations with the goal of enlightening both research and practice. Emerald Insight and Google Scholar, two essential online databases, were used to retrieve and analyse information from peer-reviewed journal articles and chapters (n = 17) published between 2017 and 2022. Based on the main inquiries raised by the research, significant themes were discovered and critically explored. Political communication with AI, AI-focused public relations and marketing approach, and conversational AI assistants were the major themes in the research on strategic communication and AI integration. These studies were primarily the outcome of quantitative and mixed-method techniques used in a western environment. This review satisfies the need for research on AI and strategic communication that makes inferences applicable to the context in Ghana. The study's conclusion outlines a research agenda for the future, emphasising the need for research on particular topics like integration of AI voice assistants in relationship marketing domains, adoption of wearable technology and its relevance to customers' health consciousness as well as privacy concerns of emerging innovation. Future studies should also focus on developing more evidence-based AI suggestions for strategic communication practitioners, as well as a thorough methodological and theoretical discussion of how to further close the gap between research and practice in the African setting.</strong></p> Belinda Osei-Mensah Elizabeth Owusu Asiamah Rainbow Sackey Copyright (c) 2023 Belinda Osei-Mensah 2023-01-21 2023-01-21 11 1 85 102 10.14738/abr.111.13616 Relationship Marketing Strategies in the Dimension Stone Sector <p><strong>This research investigated the most effective relationship marketing (RM) strategies in the US dimension stone sector (DSS) market: the overall objective of this research was to investigate which RM strategies are the most suitable, in order to improve the international dimension stone market. Methodologically, qualitative research was implemented, focusing on grounded theory. We interviewed three Brazilian distributors established in the USA, and fifteen national distributors who export dimension stones. Data analysis indicated that the RM strategies which best suited the sector in the American market were: prospecting for new customers, international partnerships, and customer loyalty. Thus, we identified the profile which best suited American consumer potential.</strong></p> Antonio Carlos Guidi Nadia Kassouf Pizzinatto Copyright (c) 2023 Antonio Carlos Guidi, Nadia Kassouf Pizzinatto 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 11 1 103 119 10.14738/abr.111.13804 Moderating Effect of Quality Delivery on Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Relationship of Multiple-Use Hotels <p><strong>The main objective of this study was to determine the moderating effect of quality delivery on the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty of multiple-use hotels in Davao City, Philippines. Adopted survey questionnaires were given to a sample of 300 customers from various multiple use three star hotels in Davao City. This study employed non-experimental design utilizing descriptive correlation technique. The statistical tools used were mean, Pearson r and hierarchical logistic regression modgraph. Results revealed that the level of customer satisfaction and quality delivery are very high whilst the level of loyalty are found to be high. Further finding revealed that customer satisfaction is related to loyalty. Quality delivery also showed a positive significant relationship to positive significant relationship to loyalty. In determining the moderating effect of quality delivery, results revealed that the quality delivery demonstrated a significant moderating effect on the relationship between customer satisfaction and loyalty of multi-use hotels. The multiple-use hotels who have higher quality delivery to their customers have also higher level of customer satisfaction and loyalty.</strong></p> Kiven G. Olivar Ariel W. De Leon Copyright (c) 2023 Kiven Olivar 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 11 1 120 134 10.14738/abr.111.13387 Leadership and its Impact on Supervision in the Hospitality Industry <p><strong>The hospitality industry has a high human capital requirement that depends on leadership to provide supervision for the utmost customer satisfaction. Based on this, this research looks at the impact of leadership on supervision among hotels in Ghana. This research was a causal research design. It investigated the correlational effect of leadership on supervision in the hospitality industry in Ghana. Data obtained from Ghana Tourism Authority’s National Data 2020 on Tourism Human Resource put the employees of 3 to 5 stars hotels as the study population at 7,347. The researcher used a Raosoft sample size calculator to determine a sample size of 366 at a 95% confidence level. A convenience sample technique was used to collect the data. Self-constructed instruments with Cronbach alpha of Leadership .710 and Supervision .751 were used to measure reliability. In answering the relationship question correlation analysis was used to establish the relationship. The study showed a highly positive significant relationship between leadership and supervision. It is recommended that abusive supervision by the leader should be monitored highly and controlled to motivate the supervisee to impact the hotel's performance.</strong></p> Williams Kwasi Peprah Peprah Patricia Copyright (c) 2023 Williams Kwasi Peprah 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 11 1 135 143. 10.14738/abr.111.13813 The Effect of Brand Loyalty. Brand Awareness, Brand Image Against Brand Equity On Indomie Products <p style="font-weight: 400;"><strong>This study aims to find out the extent to which Indomie products (brands) can influence consumer interest in Indomie products. Brand equity keeps customers loyal to products of any type and price. Currently, the selection criteria are at the technical level of the brand. The three basic components are: consumer perception, negative or positive effects, and the resulting value. Quantitative methods were used in the study. Data collection was carried out using questionnaires. The respondents of this study were buyers of Indomie products. Then the number of samples taken amounted to 150 respondents spread throughout Indonesia. The analysis technique used is SEM analysis and is processed with the AMOS application. The results showed that brand image has a positive and significant effect on brand awareness, brand awareness and brand image have a positive and significant effect on brand loyalty, and brand awareness and brand loyalty have a positive and significant effect on brand equity.</strong></p> Rizaldy Kabangunan Anas Hidayat Copyright (c) 2023 Rizaldy Kabangunan, Anas Hidayat 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 11 1 144 155. 10.14738/abr.111.13831 Workplace Bullying and its Impact on Employees’ Morale <p>The problem of workplace bullying is one of the most important issues facing society and companies in particular. Many scholars have identified the problem as abuse, fear, harassment, and persecution. Bullies may also be co-workers, clients, customers, suppliers, bosses, and supervisors. Workplace bullying may be seen as a certain, somewhat frequent, unfavourable dynamic that occurs over time in companies. Bullying at work has been linked to various workplace-related problems, including poor health outcomes, decreased job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and increased intention to quit. Bullying is a serious workplace issue that harms both the environment and the workers. This research synthesizes the literature on workplace bullying and how it affects employee morale, productivity, and satisfaction in light of these negative effects of bullying at work.</p> Namra Humza Copyright (c) 2023 Namra Humza 2023-01-20 2023-01-20 11 1 156 162. 10.14738/abr.111.13919 Environmental Education to Preserve the Environment in Current Legislation in Angola <p>In Angola, the environmental problem is manifested as an explicit concern, so that, in the Basic Law of the Environment, it is directed that all citizens have the right and the duty to receive environmental education for better understand the phenomena of environmental balance, an essential basis for conscious action in defense of the National Environmental Policy.</p> <p>The present study aims to identify the existing guidelines in the legislation in force in Angola for environmental education and the preservation of the environment, as well as the contradictions that occur in local community participation, in this context. In the investigation, the review of laws and decrees, interviews with local rulers and participant observation were used as methods. The study allowed us to conclude that in the legislation in force in Angola there are sufficient guidelines for environmental education and the preservation of the environment, but for the creation of a healthy environment there are weaknesses in local community participation, mainly due to the negligence of some of the local governments that aggravate the situation, due to the non-compliance with the norms for the preservation of the environment and the inadequacies in the incorporation of environmental education in the educational process that guarantees the local community participation in the defense of the national environmental policy.</p> Augusto José Fazenda Copyright (c) 2023 Augusto José Fazenda 2023-01-25 2023-01-25 11 1 163 172. 10.14738/abr.111.13698 The Socio-Psychological and Cultural Motives of ASEAN Tourist <p><strong>This study aimed to examine the level of motives of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) tourists in terms of Socio-psychological motives and Cultural motives based on the responses of ASEAN tourists. The research used descriptive method in assessing the factors affecting the decision making of ASEAN tourist to travel based on the theory of Ap and Crompton. The study used modified questionnaire designed to obtain socio-psychological and cultural motives. The research concluded that the level of ASEAN travel motivation is very high, it indicates that the ASEAN Tourists has a very high travel motive. There is no significant difference in Travel Motives of ASEAN tourist when analyzed according to the profile of respondents. Socio-Psychological Motives or Push Factors were perceived as Moderately Important, suggesting that ASEAN must improve the tourist attractions and sustain the affordable cost for living and education. Further, local government should sustain the economic and tourism stability for foreign investors.</strong></p> Kymwell Hinlayagan Kiven Olivar Copyright (c) 2023 Kymwell Hinlayagan, Kiven 2023-01-27 2023-01-27 11 1 173 187. 10.14738/abr.111.13695 Analysis of Strategic Factors for Successful Integrated System Implementation: Experiences from the Co-operative University of Kenya <p>An integrated resource planning (ERP) system is essential for automation of manual routine tedious organizational processes.&nbsp; It is meant to improve efficiency and effectiveness at work. However, implementation of such systems, if not properly organized and appropriate strategies put in place to ensure its success, may take unnecessarily longer time than anticipated, or the whole system abandoned all together. This study sought to establish the most effective strategies that ensure successful and timely integrated system implementation.&nbsp; Systems theory and Process theory approaches were used to anchor the study.&nbsp; Case study was adopted as the research design.&nbsp; The population of the study comprised twelve (12) departments within Co-operative University of Kenya where different system modules were rolled out for implementation. Primary data was collected using semi-structured questionnaires. Since data collected was largely categorical in nature, Chi-square was used to analyze relationship between variables. &nbsp;It was established that personal interest and optimism is the most influential strategy in determining success and pace in integrated system implementation. The key recommendation that the study offers as insight to policy makers, body of theory and practitioners is the need to deliberately concentrate on strategies that induce personal interest and optimism among employees so as to ensure success during implementation of a new system or change.</p> Orucho Michael Ngala Copyright (c) 2023 Orucho Michael Ngala 2023-02-02 2023-02-02 11 1 188 196. 10.14738/abr.111.13911