Archives of Business Research <p>ABR is founded by Society for Science and Education (SSE) United Kingdom where it is strongly believe that excellence in research is the key to benefiting academics, businesses, societies and other relevant stakeholders at local, national, regional and international levels.</p> ScholarPublishing on behalf of Services for Science and Education, United Kingdom en-US Archives of Business Research 2054-7404 <div id="deed-rights" class="row" dir="ltr"> <div class="col-sm-offset-2 col-sm-8"> <h3>You are free to:</h3> <ul class="license-properties"> <li class="license share"><strong>Share</strong>&nbsp;— copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format</li> <li class="license remix"><strong>Adapt</strong>&nbsp;— remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially.</li> </ul> </div> <a class="screen-only" href=""><img src="" alt="This license is acceptable for Free Cultural Works."></a></div> <div class="row" dir="ltr">&nbsp;</div> <div class="row" dir="ltr">The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. More details can be found <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">here</a>.</div> Wind power renewable energy generation to reduce Cost and the greenhouse effect <p>The objective of this research is to analyze and provide economic bases for the use of wind energy, replacing the thermals plants in process of cost reduction, their positive impact on the economy and the environment. The energy obtained through the force of the winds is one of the oldest of the energies known and used by man. This conception of energy production was again evaluated and tested more objectively after the 1980s, especially in the USA and Europe with strong support from ERDA-Energy Research and Development Administration in the development of special turbines to capture energy from the winds and make it economically viable and sustainable. Experiments show that the use of wind energy as an economically and ecologically correct alternative for use in small and large power plants and reduce climate change.)</p> Hamilton Pozo Washington Luiz Pereira Soares Getulio Kazue Akabane Copyright (c) 2020 Hamilton Pozo; Washington Luiz Pereira Soares; Getulio Kazue Akabane 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 1 21 10.14738/abr.81.7494 Dr. A Strategy for a Thai Hospital <p>The paper proposes a strategy for a Hospital in Thailand. These strategies are chosen based on the goal to be achieved, our current situation and understanding the environment we working in. Prior to adopting any strategies we need to (a) identify the strategic goals (b) identify where we are including our strength and weakness , (c) understand the environment we working in including competitors and economic environment, and (d) suggest a strategy that will achieve the goal and take us from where we are to where we want to go. The strategy needs to work within the environment we are in and take into consideration our current status.</p> <p>The paper is useful for those involved in business strategy.</p> Ameen Talib Copyright (c) 2020 Ameen Talib 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 22 37 10.14738/abr.81.7601 Research on the Factors Affecting the Total Factor Productivity of Chinese Life Insurance Companies <p>Based on the latest method of total factor productivity research at home and abroad, this paper uses the panel data of 17 Chinese life insurance companies from 2007 to 2016 to estimate the total factor productivity of Chinese insurance companies using the Malmquist index analysis method of DEA model. The measurement method is a regression analysis of several factors affecting the total factor productivity of Chinese insurance companies. The empirical results show that among the micro factors, the asset-liability ratio, asset turnover, operating efficiency and company size have a significant impact on the total factor growth rate of Chinese life insurance companies. Among the macro factors, GDP growth rate, inflation rate and unemployment rate have a significant impact on the total factor growth rate of Chinese life insurance companies.</p> Zhe Sun Copyright (c) 2020 Zhe Sun 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 38 50 10.14738/abr.81.7426 Effectiveness of Marketing Mix Strategies on Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Retention in Banking: Case Study of Zenith Bank Plc, Nigeria <p>The objective of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of Zenith Bank marketing mix strategies on customer satisfaction, loyalty and retention and how to improve on them. Data were collected from primary sources through a questionnaire made up of descriptive options in a 5- scale Likert research format. The data were subjected to empirical analysis using the SPSS software to estimate the mean distribution, standard deviation, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, analysis of variance (ANOVA) as well as multiple regression analysis to test the set hypotheses.</p> <p>The result of the analysis revealed that though each of the elements of the marketing mix strategies influences the effectiveness of Zenith Bank marketing, product, process and personnel were more significant in contributing to meeting customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer retention. The study recommended the need for the Bank to continue to improve on these significant strategies as well as improving on other strategies that could attract, meet and exceed customer expectations such as enhancing transaction process flow, continuous training of the Bank personnel and providing the latest technological innovations to ensure error free transactions. The study further recommended the need to increase the Bank corporate social responsibility by sponsorship of social events that could increase its marketing visibility as well as avoiding incidences of cash shortage at ATM points to reduce customer complaints.</p> Elma Asekome Copyright (c) 2020 Elma Asekome 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 51 64 10.14738/abr.81.7609 Institutional and Business Cross-border Cooperation in the Textile and Clothing Industry <p>In the European context, two cross-border regions, the North (Portugal) and Galicia (Spain), play a major role in the textile and clothing industry, although with significant differences in the business strategies they follow. These differences are essentially related to the specialization of North Portugal in small and medium-sized production activities, in opposition to the specialization of large Galician companies in more value-added activities, particularly in the retailing and marketing of their own brands. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of both institutional and business cooperation efforts to bolster cross-border competitiveness in this sector of activity. Methodologically, a quantitative approach is employed, based on the statistical analysis of databases that characterize this business sector, as well as a qualitative approach, based on in-depth interviews, not only with business managers involved in cross-border production networks, but also with the sector’s most representative institutional actors. The results suggest there is an ongoing cross-border clustering process, derived particularly from more intense institutional cooperation. This process requires greater maturity in terms of business relations, as they still seem to be restricted by some cultural barriers associated to the border effect.</p> Flávio Nunes Copyright (c) 2020 Flávio Nunes 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 65 73 10.14738/abr.81.7580 Economic Analysis Of The Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) In Nigeria <p>The study examined the factors that determine Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Nigeria.&nbsp; It assessed the extent to which exchange rate, interest rate, degree of trade openness affects foreign direct investment inflow to Nigeria.&nbsp; The study used data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) Bulletin and World Bank (1981 - 2017).&nbsp; The results were interpreted based on the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method, apart from series of test statistics and some diagnostics on data was performed. The estimated linear regression model reveals that the degree of openness positively and significantly affect FDI. Exchange rate has a positive but non-significant relationship with FDI and interest rate has a negative relationship with FDI, but it is not statistically significant. The study therefore recommends that economic policies that allow free trade should be formulated since macroeconomic policies are important in stabilization, enhance standard growth and improvements in the standard of living as a result of improved and higher productivity.</p> Emmanuel Oluwagbenga Adebayo Suleiman Purokayo Gambiyo Copyright (c) 2020 Emmanuel Oluwagbenga Adebayo, Suleiman Purokayo Gambiyo 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 74 81 10.14738/abr.81.7542 The Moderating Effect of Gender on Adaptive Coping Mechanisms and Financial Stress <p>It is a fact that financial stress impact university students. Given this notion, this research looked at the moderating impact of gender on the adaptive coping mechanism of private university students on their financial stress. The research was a descriptive-correlational design. The study conveniently employed 369 respondents of the primer private university in Ghana (Valley View University), out of a population of 9,000 to answer self-constructed questionnaires with Cronbach Alpha of .806 for adaptive coping mechanism and .845 for financial stress. The data were analyzed descriptively based on the central tendency with SPSS and regression Process v3.2 by Andrew F. Hayes model 1. The study revealed that there was a very high financial stress among private university students in Ghana and they have a high adaptive coping mechanism. The students used emotion-focus than problem-focus coping mechanisms in managing their financial stress. Also, there was a moderate positive significant association between financial stress and adaptive coping mechanism. However, the adaptive coping mechanisms could predict financial stress by 11.65%. There was a significant enhancing moderating effect of gender on adaptive coping mechanisms and financial stress relationship. With time the males' financial stress moderately decrease based on their rate of change to adaptive coping mechanism, while the females have a high increasing coping mechanism in managing their financial stress. The study recommends that an investigation into the outstanding 88.35% of adaptive coping mechanisms which can predict the financial stress of private university students in Ghana.</p> Francis Osei-Kuffour Williams Kwasi Peprah Copyright (c) 2020 Francis Osei-Kuffour, Williams Kwasi Peprah 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 82 93 10.14738/abr.81.7347 Debt Finance and Corporate Performance: Firm Level Empirical Evaluation <p>Debt finance relevance or financial leverage debate has continued to gain more strength in every discussion of firm capital structure locally and beyond. To some researchers, the application of debt finance could worsen performance of firms and create difficult economic scenario; to others, debt finance could induced better business performance and profitability. It is on the premise of the foregoing arguments that this study sought to investigate the effect of long and short tenured debt on return on assets (ROA) as well as return on equity (ROE) of corporate manufacturing firms in Nigeria. To achieve this, the study relied on firm level data generated from annual report of the National Salt Corporation of Nigeria (NASCON) Plc for a 12-year period (2007-2018). Data were analyzed using time series analysis while the computer-based multivariate linear regression approach aided by Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used in the test of the two stated hypotheses. Consistently, the two null hypotheses were sustained since their significant values (sig-value) were greater than 0.05 and their corresponding t-values positive. The paper thus concludes that although long and short tenured debt finances may not significantly impact positively on ROA and ROE, long tenured debt could slightly enhance corporate performance. Accordingly, the study recommends among others that, financial managers of corporate manufacturing firms should design optimum capital structure for long and short tenured debt finances considering the varied impact of both on corporate performance.</p> Edward Ogbonnia Eleje Agha Eze Okechukwu Eli Oyavuru Chikanele Copyright (c) 2020 Edward Ogbonnia Eleje, Agha Eze Okechukwu, Eli Oyavuru Chikanele 2020-01-13 2020-01-13 8 1 94 106 10.14738/abr.81.7617 The Impact of Logic of Marketing Research on Marketing ROI: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Investigation <p>Not Available</p> Wael Kortam Ghada Gad Copyright (c) 2020 Wael Kortam, Ghada Gad 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 8 1 152 162 10.14738/abr.81.7663 Contribution of Chinese and Indian tourism to Australia: A comparative econometric study <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Under the current widespread economic integration of new international trade theory, the world’s two most populous countries, China and India, have achieved high growth, reducing poverty, increasing income and living standards and, as a result, provided good sources of much needed income-generating tourism to international destinations in recent years. The trend in rising tourism including education from China and India to Australia is exponential, and particularly important where the country’s geographical, cultural and educational quality attributes are internationally key attractions. Appropriate studies of this trend and economic outcomes, with robust and reliable empirical findings for credible analysis have been inadequate to date. The project addresses this gap by proposing to investigate the economic contributions of China and India’s tourism to Australia, and their determination for strategic international policy analysis. Significantly, this is done from an economic integration framework, which is also the expenditure (as opposed to production or income) perspective of the United Nations System of National Accounts 1993/2008. A multi-simultaneous equation model of endogenous Australian growth and Chinese and Indian tourism determination is developed. The model novelly incorporates gravity theory and classical consumer demand contributors, Ironmonger-Lancaster commodity attributes and Johansen policy impact add-and sub-factors explicitly in the economic integration framework, and is estimated by system methods with official economic and tourism 1992-2016 data. The findings will provide appropriate and much needed evidence-based inputs on the major economic integration contributors to Australia’s growth, Chinese and Indian tourism causality to key stake-holders such as tourism policy-makers, analysts and operators for international strategic policy analysis and practical implementation.</p> </div> </div> </div> Jo Vu Tran Van Hoa Copyright (c) 2020 Jo Vu , Tran Van Hoa 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 8 1 107 120 10.14738/abr.81.7498 The wealth of nations and economic governance, international evidence <p>The paper suggests that wealth maximization and sustainability model (WMS) conforms to the basic maximization rule advocated by finance theory and they can therefore be dealt with within the same theoretical framework. A nation can develop and create wealth to the maximum of its potential only when it efficiently manages its development, i.e. when it observes the rule of national wealth maximization. Wealth is increasing unevenly around the world, as is the quality of living conditions. This prompts the following questions: What drives wealth maximization and sustainability (WMS), and how can it be made to last? To answer these two questions thepaper suspects economic governance to impact tremendously wealth creation and accumulation, and tests its effect using a sample of 40 rich countries for the year 2019. It reveals important findings that make it possible to sketch a model of wealth maximization and sustainability.</p> Ahmed Naciri Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Naciri 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 8 1 121 137 10.14738/abr.81.7667 INFLUENCES OF INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT, EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT, BUSINESS ETHICS AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP TOWARD BUSINESS PERFORMANCES THROUGH DIFFERENTIATION STRATEGIES AND COMPETING SUPERIORITIES IN SMALL INDUSTRIES IN SURABAYA CITY <p>The purpose of this study is to examine and analyze the influence of: (1) internal environment, external environment, business ethics, entrepreneurial orientation on differentiation strategies; (2) internal environment, external environment, business ethics, entrepreneurial orientation, differentiation strategies on competitive advantage; (3) internal environment, external environment, business ethics, entrepreneurial orientation, differentiation strategies, competitive advantage on business performance. This research is an explanatory type of research with a quantitative approach. The populations in this study were all Small Industries in Surabaya as many as 384 Small Industries in Surabaya, while the samples used were 349 Small Industries in Surabaya. Data collection is done by questionnaire. The data analysis technique used is the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with AMOS program. Based on the results of the analysis shows that: (1) internal environment, external environment,&nbsp; business ethics, entrepreneurial orientation significantly influences on differentiation strategy; (2) business ethics, entrepreneurial orientation, differentiation strategy has a significant influences on competitive advantage, while internal environment and external environment does not have a significant influences on competitive advantage; (3) internal environment, entrepreneurial orientation, differentiation strategies, competitive advantage has a significant influences on the performance of small industries, while external environment and business ethics has no significant influences on the performance of small industries.</p> Jaya Adi Gama Tengtarto Copyright (c) 2020 Jaya Adi Gama Tengtarto 2020-01-20 2020-01-20 8 1 138 151 10.14738/abr.81.7551