Mineral Fertilizers and Plant Growth Retardants: Its Effects on Cottonseed Yield, Quality and Contents
Keywords:Calcium; Cottonseed; Nitrogen; Phosphorus; Plant Growth Retardants; Potassium; Zinc
Cotton is the principal crop of Egyptian agriculture, it is grown mainly for its fiber, but cottonseed products are also of economic importance. Cottonseed is presently the main source of edible oil and meal for livestock in Egypt. Economic conditions in modern agriculture demand high crop yields in order to be profitable and consequently meet the high demand for food that comes with population growth. Oil crop production can be improved by development of new high yielding varieties, and the application of appropriate agronomic practices. There is limited information about the most suitable management practice for application of N, P, K, Zn, Ca and PGRs in order to optimize the quantity and quality of oil and protein of cottonseed. In maximizing the quantity and quality of a crop's nutritional value in terms of fatty acids and protein, field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, foliar application of zinc and calcium, the use of a plant growth retardant (Pix), on cottonseed, protein, oil yields, and oil properties of Egyptian cotton. From the findings of this study, it seems rational to recommended applied of N, P, K, foliar application of Zn and Ca, the use of PGR Pix, could bring about better impact on cottonseed yield, seed protein content, oil and protein yields, oil refractive index, unsaponifiable matter, and unsaturated fatty acids in comparison with the ordinary cultural practices adopted by Egyptian cotton producers.
(2) Reddy, A.R., Reddy, K.R., Padjung, R. and Hodges, H.F. (1996) Nitrogen nutrition and photosynthesis in leaves of Pima cotton. J. Plant Nutr. 19, 755-770.
(3) Rinehardt, J.M., Edmisten, K.L., Wells, R. and Faircloth, J.C. (2004) Response of ultra-narrow and conventional spaced cotton to variable nitrogen rates. J. Plant Nutr. 27, 743-755.
(4) Ansari, M.S. and Mahey, R.K. (2003) Growth and yield of cotton species as affected by sowing dates and nitrogen levels. J Res, Punjab Agric. Univ. 40, 8-11.
(5) Patil, B.N., Lakkineni, K.C. and Bhargava, S.C. (1996) Seed yield and yield contributing characters as influenced by N supply in rapeseed-mustared. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 177, 197-205.
(6) Frink, C.R., Waggoner, P.E. and Ausubel, J.H. (1999) Nitrogen fertilizer: retrospect and prospect. In Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 96: 1175-1180
(7) Kheir, N.F., Harb, E.Z., Moursi, H.A. and El-Gayar, S.H. (1991) Effect of salinity and fertilization on flax plants (Linum usitatissimum L.). II. Chemical composition. Bull. Faculty Agric., Univ.Cairo, Egypt 42, 57-70.
(8) Taiz, L. and Zeiger, E. (1991) Plant Physiology: Mineral Nutrition. The Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. Redwood City, CA, USA, 100-119 pp.
(9) Rodriguez, D., Zubillaga, M.M., Ploschuck, E., Keltjens, W., Goudriaan, J. and Lavado, R. (1998) Leaf area expansion and assimilate prediction in sunflower
growing under low phosphorus conditions. Plant Soil. 202, 133-147.
(10) Sasthri, G., Thiagarajan, C.P., Srimathi, P., Malarkodi, K. and Venkatasalam, E.P. (2001) Foliar application of nutrient on the seed yield and quality characters of nonaged and aged seeds of cotton cv. MCU5. Madras Agric. J. 87, 202-206.
(11) Stewart, W.M., Reiter, J.S. and Krieg, D.R. (2005) Cotton response to multiple application of phosphorus fertilizer. Better Crops with Plant Food 89, 18-20.
(12) Singh, V., Pallaghy, C.K. and Singh, D. (2006) Phosphorus nutrition and tolerance of cotton to water stress: I. Seed cotton yield and leaf morphology. Field Crops Res. 96, 191-198.
(13) Ibrahim, M.E., Bekheta, M.A., El-Moursi, A. and Gaafar, N.A. (2009) Effect of arginine, prohexadione-Ca, some macro and micro-nutrients on growth, yield and fiber quality of cotton plants. World J. Agric. Sci. 5, 863-870.
(14) Gebaly Sanaa, G. and El-Gabiery, A.E. (2012) Response of cotton Giza 86 to foliar application of phosphorus and mepiquat chloride under fertile soil condition. J. Agric. Res. 90, 191-205.
(15) Sangakkara, U.R., Frehner, M. and Nösberger, J. (2000) Effect of soil moisture and potassium fertilizer on shoot water potential, photosynthesis and partitioning of carbon in mungbean and cowpea. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 185, 201-207.
(16) Colomb, B., Bouniols, A. and Delpech, C. (1995) Effect of various phosphorus availabilities on radiation-use efficiency in sunflower biomass until anthesis. J. Plant Nutr. 18, 1649-1658.
(17) Gormus, O. (2002) Effects of rate and time of potassium application on cotton yield and quality in Turkey. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 188, 382-388.
(18) Aneela, S., Muhammad, A. and Akhtar, M.E. (2003) Effect of potash on boll characteristics and seed cotton yield in newly developed highly resistant cotton varieties. Pakistan. J. Bio. Sci. 6, 813-815.
(19) Pervez, H., Ashraf, M. and Makhdum, M.I. (2004) Influence of potassium rates and sources on seed cotton yield and yield components of some elite cotton cultivars. J. Plant Nutr. 27, 1295-1317.
(20) Pettigrew, W.T., Meredith, W.R. Jr. and Young, L.D. (2005) Potassium fertilization effects on cotton lint yield, yield components, and reniform nematode populations. Agron. J. 97, 1245-1251.
(21) Sharma, S.K. and Sundar, S. (2007) Yield, yield attributes and quality of cotton as influenced by foliar application of potassium. J. Cotton Res. Develop. 21, 51-54.
(22) Welch, R. M. (1995) Micronutrient nutrition of plants. CRC Critical Rev. Plant Sci. 14, 49-82.
(23) Oosterhuis, D., Hake, K. and Burmester, C. (1991) Leaf feeding insects and mites. Cotton Physiology Today, July 1991, 2, 1-7 Cotton Council of America.
(24) Rathinavel, K., Dharmalingam, C. and Paneersel vam, S. (2000) Effect of micronutrient on the productivity and quality of cotton seed cv. TCB 209 (Gossypium barbadense L.). Madrase Agric. J. 86, 313-316.
(25) Li, L-L., Ma, Z-B., Wang, W-L. and Tai, G-Q. (2004) Effect of spraying nitrogen and zinc at seedling stage on some physiological characteristics and yield of summer cotton. J. Henan Agric. Univ. 38, 33-35.
(26) Rensing, L. and Cornelius, G. (1980) Biological membranes as components of oscillating systems. Biologische Rundschau. 18, 197-209.
(27) Ma, L-G and Sun, D-Y. (1997) The involvement of calcium in the light signal transduction chain for phototropism in sunflower seedling. Biologia Plantarum. 39, 569-574.
(28) Ochiai, E -L. (1977) Bioinorganic Chemistry. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 515 pp.
(29) Zhao, D-L. and Oosterhuis, D.M. (2000) Pix Plus and mepiquat chloride effects on physiology, growth, and yield of field-grown cotton. J. Plant Grow. Regul. 19, 415-422.
(30) Wang, Z-L., Yin, Y-P. and Sun, X-Z. (1995) The effect of DPC (N, N-dimethyl piperidinium chloride) on the 14CO2-assimilation and partitioning of 14C assimilates within the cotton plants interplanted in a wheat stand. Photosynthetica 31, 197-202.
(31) Kumar, K.A.K., Patil, B.C. and Chetti, M.B. (2004) Effect of plant growth regulators on biophysical, biochemical parameters and yield of hybrid cotton. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 16, 591-594.
(32) Palomo Gil, A. and Chávez González, J.F. (1997) Response of the early cotton cultivar CIAN 95 to nitrogen fertilizer application. ITEA. Producción Vegetal. 93, 126-132.
(33) Sarwar Cheema, M., Akhtar, M. and Nasarullah, M. (2009) Effect of foliar application of mepiquat chloride under varying nitrogen levels on seed cotton yield and yield components. J. Agric. Res. 47, 381-388.
(34) Patil, D.B., Naphade, K.T., Wankhade, S.G., Wanjari, S.S. and Potdukhe, N.R. (1997) Effect of nitrogen and phosphate levels on seed protein and carbohydrate content of cotton cultivars. Indian J. Agric. Res. 31, 133-135.
(35) Sawan, Z.M., Hafez, S.A. and Basyony, A.E. (2001a) Effect of nitrogen and zinc fertilization and plant growth retardants on cottonseed, protein, oil yields, and oil properties. J. Amer. Oil Chemists' Soc. 78, 1087-1092.
(36) Sawan, Z.M., Hafez, S.A. Basyony, A.E. (2001b) Effect of phosphorus fertilization and foliar application of chelated zinc and calcium on seed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of cotton. J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge) 136, 191-198.
(37) Sawan, Z.M., Hafez, S.A., Basyony, A.E. and Alkassas, A.R. (2007b) Nitrogen, potassium and plant growth retardant effects on oil content and quality of cotton seed. Grasas Y. Aceites 58, 243-251.
(38) Sawan, Z.M., Fahmy, A.H. and Yousef, S.E. (2009) Direct and residual effects of nitrogen fertilization, foliar application of potassium and plant growth retardant on Egyptian cotton growth, seed yield, seed viability and seedling vigor. Acta Ecologica Sinica. 29, 116-123.
(39) Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1985) Official Methods of Analysis, 14th ed.; AOAC, Arlington, VA.
(40) Kates, M. (1972) Laboratory Techniques in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology edited by T.S. Work, and E. Work, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam.
(41) American Oil Chemists’ Society (1985) Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, edited by R.O. Walker 3rd ed., American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, IL.
(42) Vogel, A.I. (1975) A Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 3rd ed.; English Language Book Society and Longman Group: Harlow, UK.
(43) Ashoub, A.H., Basyony, A.E. and Ebad, F.A. (1989) Effect of plant population and nitrogen levels on rapeseed oil quality and quantity. Ann. Agric. Sci., Moshtohor, Egypt 27, 761-770.
(44) Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1980) Statistical Methods. 7th ed., Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.
(45) Guinn, G. (1984) Boll Abscission in Cotton. In: Crop Physiology: Advancing Frontiers, U.S. Gupta (ed.). Published by Mohan Primlani for Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. 66 Janpath, New Delhi, India, pp. 177-225.
(46) Abdel-Malak, K.I., Radwan, F.E. and Baslious, S.I. (1997) Effect of row width, hill spacing and nitrogen levels on seed cotton yield of Giza 83 cotton cultivar. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 75, 743-752.
(47) Saleem, M.F., Shakeel, A., Bilal, M.F., Shahid, M.Q. and Anjum, S.A. (2010) Effect of different phosphorus levels on earliness and yield of cotton cultivars. Soil Environ. 29, 128-135.
(48) Sugiyama, T., Mizuno, M. and Hayashi, M. (1984) Partitioning of nitrogen among Ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvat carboxylase, and pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase as related to biomass productivity in maize seedlings. Plant Physiol. 75, 665-669.
(49) Glass, A.D.M. (1989) Plant Nutrition. An Introduction to Current Concepts. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Boston/Portola Valley, USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
(50) Zeng, Q-F. (1996) Researchers on the effect of zinc applied to calcareous soil in cotton field. China Cottons 23, 21.
(51) Bybordi, A. and Mamedov, G. (2010) Evaluation of application methods efficiency of zinc and iron for canola (Brassica napus L.). Notula Scientia Biologicae 2, 94-103.
(52) Shui, J.G. and Meng, S.F. (1990) Effects of lime application on cotton yield in red soil fields. China Cottons 1, 26-29.
(53) Wright, S.D., Munk, D., Munier, D., Vargas, R., Weir, B., Roberts, B. and Jimenez, M. Jr. (1995) Effect of aminofol/Boll-Set Plus calcium zinc on California cotton. In Proceedings Beltwide Cotton Conferences, San Antonio, TX, USA, January 4-7: Volume 2. Memphis, USA, National Cotton Council.
(54) Kosheleva, L.L., Bakhnova, K.V., Semenova, T.A. and Mil’Kevich, Zh.A. (1984) Effect of phosphorus nutrition on metabolism of young fiber flax plants in relation to assimilate distribution in them. Referativnyi Zhurnal 6, 533.
(55) El-Debaby, A.S., Hammam, G.Y. and Nagib, M.A. (1995) Effect of planting date, N and P application levels on seed index, lint percentage and technological characters of Giza 80 cotton cultivar. Ann. Agric. Sci., Moshtohor, Egypt 33, 455-464.
(56) Pandrangi, R.B., Wankhade, S.G. and Kedar, G.S. (1992) Response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to N and P grown under rainfed conditions. Crop Research (Hisar). 5, 54-58.
(57) Bora, P.C. (1997) Effect of gypsum and lime on performance of Brassica varieties under rainfed condition. Indian J. Agron. 42, 155-158.
(58) Davidson, F.M. and Long, C.M. (1958) The structure of the naturally occurring phosphoglycerides. 4. Action of cabbage leaf phospholipase. Biochem. J. 69, 458.
(59) Shchitaeva, V.A. (1984) Effect of zinc on metabolic activity of the root system of fine-fibered cotton. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR,
Biologicheskaya 4, 8-13.
(60) Sawan, Z.M., El-Farra, A.A. and Mohamed, Z.A. (1988) Effect of nitrogen fertilization, foliar application of calcium and some micro-elements on cottonseed, protein and oil yields and oil properties of Egyptian cotton. Annali di Botanica (Rome). 46, 167-174.
(61) Gushevilov Zh. and Palaveeva Ts. (1991) Effect of long-term systematic fertilizer application on sunflower yield and quality. Pochvoznanie i Agrokhimiya 26, 20-26.
(62) Legé, K.E., Cothren, J.T. and Morgan, P.W. (1997) Nitrogen fertility and leaf age effects on ethylene production of cotton in a controlled environment. J. Plant Growth Regul. 22, 23-28.
(63) McConnell, J.S. and Mozaffari, M. (2004) Yield, petiole nitrate, and node development responses of cotton to early season nitrogen fertilization. J. Plant Nutr. 27, 1183-1197.
(64) Saleem M.F., Bilal M.F., Awais M., Shahid M.Q. and Anjum S.A. (2010) Effect of nitrogen on seed cotton yield and fiber quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The J. Animal Plant Sci., 20, 23-27.
(65) Wiatrak, P.J., Wright, D.L. and Marois, J.J. (2006) Development and yields of cotton under two tillage systems and nitrogen application following white lupine grain crop. J. Cotton Sci. 10, 1-8.
(66) Hamed, F.S., Abo El-Hamd, A.S., Ibrahim, M.M. and El-Sayed, A.E.M. (2012) Effect of some cultural practices on growth, flowering, earliness characters and yield of cotton plant variety Giza 90 (Gossypium barbadense L.). Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 90, 1649-1673.
(67) Pettigrew, W.T. (1999) Potassium deficiency increases specific leaf weights of leaf glucose levels in field-grown cotton. Agron. J. 91, 962-968.
(68) Cakmak, I., Hengeler, C. and Marschner, H. (1994) Partitioning of shoot and root dry matter and carbohydrates in bean plants suffering from phosphorus, potassium and magnesium deficiency. J. Exp. Botany. 45, 1245-1250.
(69) Mullins, G.L., Schwab, G.J. and Burmester, C.H. (1999) Cotton response to surface applications of potassium fertilizer: a 10-year summary. J. Prod. Agric. 12, 434-440.
(70) Gebaly Sanaa, G. (2012) Physiological effects of potassium forms and methods of application on cotton variety Giza 80. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 90, 1633-1646.
(71) Pípolo, A.E., Athayde, M.L.F., Pípolo, V.C. and Parducci, S. (1993) Comparison of different rates of chlorocholine chloride applied to herbaceous cotton. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. 28, 915-923.
(72) Prakash Ram, Mangal Prasad and Pachauri, D.K. (2001) Effect of nitrogen, chlormequat chloride and FYM on growth yield and quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Ann. Agric. Res. 22, 107-110.
(73) Mekki, B.B. (1999) Effect of mepiquat chloride on growth, yield and fiber properties of some Egyptian cotton cultivars. Arab Univ. J. Agric. Sci. 7, 455-466.
(74) Palomo Gil, A., Godoy Avila, S. and Chávez González, J.F. (1999) Reductions in nitrogen fertilizers use with new cotton cultivars: yield, yield components and fiber quality. Agrociencia 33, 451-455.
(75) Ali, S.A. and El-Sayed, A.E. (2001) Effect of sowing dates and nitrogen levels on growth, earliness and yield of Egyptian cotton cultivar Giza 88. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 79, 221-232.
(76) Bednarz, C.W. and Oosterhuis, D.M. (1999) Physiological changes associated with potassium deficiency in cotton. J. Plant Nutr. 22, 303-313.
(77) Ghourab, M.H.H., Wassel, O.M.M. and Raya, N.A.A. (2000) Response of cotton plants to foliar application of (Pottasin-P)TM under two levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Egypt. J. Agric. Res. 78, 781-793.
(78) Lamas, F.M. (2001) Comparative study of mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride application in cotton. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira 36, 265-272.
(79) Froment, M.A., Turley, D. and Collings, L.V. (2000) Effect of nutrition on growth and oil quality in linseed. Tests of Agrochemicals and Cultivars No. 21, 29-30.
(80) Zubillaga, M.M., Aristi, J.P. and Lavado, R.S. (2002) Effect of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilization on sunflower (Helianthus annus L) nitrogen uptake and yield. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 188, 267-274.
(81) Madraimov, I. (1984) Potassium fertilizers and oil content of cotton seeds. Khlopkovodstvo 6, 11-12.
(82) Fan, S-L., Xu, Y-Z. and Zhang, C-J. (1999) Effects of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the development of cotton bolls in summer. Acta Gossypii Sinica 11, 24-30.
(83) Stitt, M. (1999) Nitrate regulation of metabolism and growth. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 2, 178-186.
(84) Kar, C., Barua, B. and Gupta, K. (1989) Response of the safflower plant (Carthamus tinctorius L. cv. JLA 900) towards plant growth retardants dikegulac sodium, CCC and SADH. Indian J. Plant Physiol. 23, 144-147.
(85) Narang, R.S., Mahal, S.S. and Gill, M.S. (1993) Effect of phosphorus and sulphur on growth and yield of toria (Brassica campestris subsp. oleifera var toria). Indian J. Agron. 38, 593-597.
(86) Mekki, B.B., El-Kholy, M.A. and Mohamed, E.M. (1999) Yield, oil and fatty acids content as affected by water deficit and potassium fertilization in two sunflower cultivars. Egypt. J. Agron. 21, 67-85.
(87) Holmes, M.R.J. and Bennett, D. (1979) Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on the fatty acid composition of oil from low erucic acid rape varieties. J. Sci. Food Agric. 30, 264-266.
(88) Seo, G-S., Jo, J-S. and Choi C-Y. (1986) The effect of fertilization level on the growth and oil quality in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Korean J. Crop Sci. 31, 24-29.
(89) Khan, N.A., Ansari, H.R., Samiullah. (1997) Effect of gibberellic acid spray and Basal nitrogen and phosphorus on productivity and fatty acid composition of rapeseed-mustard. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 179, 29-33.
(90) Salama, A.M. (1987) Yield and oil quality of sunflowers as affected by fertilizers and growth regulators. Növénytermelés 36, 191-202.
(91) Mekki, B.B. and El-Kholy, M.A. (1999) Response of yield, oil and fatty acid contents in some oil seed rape varieties to mepiquat chloride. Bull. Nation. Res. Center, Egypt 24, 287-299.
(92) Downey, R.K. and Rimmer, S.R. (1993) Agronomic improvement in oil seed Brassicas. Adv. Agr. 50, 1-66.