Bioremediation of Hydrocarbon Contaminated Soil: Assessment of Compost Manure and Organic Soap
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of compost manure and organic soap on hydrocarbon degradation in petroleum products contaminated soil. 10 kg of top soil collected at a depth of 0-20 cm, air dried and sieved, were poured into plastic containers. The soil samples were was pounded with 1 L of spent engine oil, 1 L of kerosene, 1 L of petrol and 1 L of diesel daily for five days. The containers were placed under natural environmental conditions for three weeks to enable full acclimatization of the petroleum products with the soil. A completely randomized design comprising T1 (Polluted soil without treatment ‘control’); T2 (10 kg contaminated soil + 500 g organic soap); T3 (10 kg contaminated soil + 500 g compost manure); and T4 (10 kg contaminated soil + 500 g compost manure + 500 g organic soap) was used for this study. Some physical characteristics (soil porosity and specific gravity) and Total Hydrocarbon Content (THC) of the soil samples were tested for, after the full acclimatization of the soil samples, and at the end of the 10 week experimental period, in accordance with standard methods. Results of the study showed that addition of the compost manure and organic soap the contaminated soil samples significantly (p ≤0.05) degraded the THC, and improved the soil physical characteristics. The result showed that the combination of compost manure and organic soap gave the best remediation result (from 957.21 mg/kg to 154.36 mg/kg), followed by organic soap (from 957.21mg/kg to 203.61 mg/kg), and then compost manure (from 957.21 mg/kg to 262.03 mg/kg). At the end of the experimental period, vegetative growth was observed in the treated soil samples; whereas, in the control soil samples vegetative growth was absent. Results obtained from this study have shown that amending petroleum products contaminated soils with compost manure and organic soap will enhance remediation of petroleum products contaminated sites.
(1) Suresh, B. and Ravishankar, G. A. (2004). Phytoremediation–A novel and promising approach for environmental cleanup. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 24, (2-3): 97-124.
(2) Ghosh, M. and Singh, S.P. (2005). A review on phytoremediation of heavy metals and utilization of its by products. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research, 3: 1-18.
(3) Abha, S. and Singh, C.S. (2010). Hydrocarbon pollution: Effects on living organisms, remediation of contaminated environments, and effects of heavy metals co-contamination on bioremediation. Introduction to Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Processes and Bioremediation of Oil- Contaminated Sites. Dr. Laura Romero-Zerón (Ed.)
(4) Akpokodje O. I. and Uguru, H (2019). Phytoremediation of petroleum products contaminated soil. Archives of Current Research International, 18 (1): 1-8.
(5) Martínez-Jerónimo, F., Cruz-Cisneros, J.L. and García-Hernández, L. (2008). A comparison of the response of Simocephalus mixtus (Cladocera) and Daphnia magna to contaminated freshwater sediments. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 71:26–31.
(6) Wang, X. Y., Feng, J. and Zhao, J. M. (2010). Effects of crude oil residuals on soil chemical properties in oil sites, Momoge Wetland, China. Environ. Monit. Assess., 161: 271–280.
(7) Liste, H..H., and Felgentreu, D. ( 2006). Crop growth, culturable bacteria, and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in a long-term contaminated field soil. Appl. Soil Ecol., 31: 43–52
(8) Peng, S., Zhou, Q., Cai, Z. and Zhang, Z (2009). Phytoremediation of petroleum contaminated soils by Mirabilis jalapa L. in a greenhouse plot experiment. J. Hazard. Mater. 168:1490–1496.
(9) Okoh, A. I. (2006). Biodegradation alternative in the clean up of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants. A review. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 1 (2): 38–50.
(10) Kumar, B. L. and Gopal, D. S. (2015). Effective role of indigenous microorganisms for sustainable environment. Biotech., 5(6): 867-876.
(11) United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (2001). Ground Water Issue Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground Water at Hazardous Waste Sites, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Office of Research and Development EPA/540/S-01/500, National Risk Management Research Laboratory Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Center Ada, Oklahoma Superfund Technology Support Center for Ground Water, ManTech Environmental Research Services Corporation, OK 74820.
(12) Merkl, N. (2005) Phytoremediation of petroleum-contaminated soil. Margraf Publisher Weikershim, 125
(13) Akpokodje, O. I, Uguru, H. and Esegbuyota, D. (2019) Evaluation of phytoremediation potentials of different plants’ varieties in petroleum products polluted soil. Global Journal of Earth and Environmental Science. 4(3):41-46
(14) Pivetz, B.E. (2001). Phytoremediation of Contaminated Soil and Ground water at Hazardous Waste Sites. Man Tech Environmental Resources Services Corporation, Ada, Ok,
(15) Karenlampi, S., Schat, H., Vangronsveld, J., Verkleij, J.A.C., van der Lelie, D., Mergeay, M. and Tervahauta. A. I. (2000). Genetic engineering in the improvement of plants for phytoremediation of metal polluted soils. Environmental Pollution 107: 225-231.
(16) Onyemauche, A.G., Godson, T. F. and Diselph M.B. (2018). Tolerance and bioaccumulation of TPH in Caesalpinia Pulcherrima L and Imperata Cylindrica L. of crude oil contaminated Soils amended with cow dung. American Journal of Earth and Environmental Sciences. 1 (3): 107-114.
(17) Mrozik, A., and Piotrowska-Seget, Z. (2009). Bioaugmentation as a strategy for cleaning up of soils contaminated with aromatic compounds. Microbiological Research, 165:363—375
(18) Eboibi, O., Akpokodje, O. I., and Uguru, H. (2018). Bioremediation of soil contaminated with cassava effluent using organic soap solution. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology.12:50-57
(19) Tanee, F. B. G. and Jude, K. (2017). Effect of detergent and sawdust addition on hydrocarbonreduction and growth of Abelmoschus esculentus L (Okra) in a petroleum-contaminated soil. Nig. J. Biotech. 33: 24-33
(20) Okolo, J. C., Amadi, E. N. and Odu, C. T. I. (2005). Effects of soil treatment containing poultry manure on crude oil degradation in sandy loam soil. Appl. Ecol Environ. Res. 3 (1): 47–53.
(21) Ogboghodo, I., Erebor, E., Osemwota, I.O. and Isitekhale, H.H.E. (2004). The effects of application of poultry manure to crude oil polluted soils on maize growth and soil properties. Environ Monit and Assess. 96: 153–161
(22) Onuh M. O., Madukwe D. K. and Ohia G. U. (2008). Effects of poultry manure and cow dung on the physical and chemical properties of crude oil polluted soil, Science World Journal, 3 (2): 1-7
(23) American Public Health Association (APHA), (1995). A Manual on Soxhlet Ext.APHA 5520D
(24) Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC). (1990). Official methods of analysis. 15th Edn. Association Official Analytical Chemists. Washington D.C. 805-845.
(25) Gavrilescu M. (2010) Environmental Biotechnology: Achievements, Opportunities and Challenges. Dynamic Biochemistry, Process Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, 4(1): 1-36.
(26) Ausma, S,. Edwards, G.C., Fitzgerald-Hubble, C.R., Halfpenny-Mitchell, L.., Gillespie, T.J. and Mortimer, W.P. (2002). Volatile hydrocarbon emissions from a diesel fuel contaminated soil bioremediation facility. Air Waste Manage. Assoc, 52: 769-780.
(27) Ijah, U.J.J. and Safiyanu, H. (1997). Microbial degradation of Escravos light crude oil in soil amended with chicken dropping and NPK fertilizer, 10th Annual Conference of Biotechnology Society of Nigeria
(28) Lee, K., Park, J.W. and Ahn, I.S. (2003). Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 105: 157–167.
(29) Adesodun, J.K. and Mbagwu, J.S.C (2008). Biodegradation of waste lubricating petroleum oil in a tropical alfisol as mediated by animal droppings. Bioresource Technology, 99:5659-5665
(30) Abosede, E.E. (2013). Effect of crude oil pollution on some soil physical properties. J. Agric & Vet. Sc., 6(3): 14-17.
(31) Udonne, J.D. and Onwuma, H.O. (2014) A study of effects of waste lubricating oil on the physical/chemical properties of soil and the possible remedies. Journal of Petroleum and gas Engineering. 5(1):9-14.
(32) Amadi, A., Dickson, A. and Maate, G.O. (1993). Remediation of oil polluted soils: Effects of organic and inorganic nutrient supplements on the performance of maize. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 66:59–76.
(33) Palmroth, M. R., Pichtel, J. and Puhakka, J.A (2002). Phytoremediation of subarctic soil contaminated with diesel fuel. Bioresour. Technol. 2002, 84, 221–228.
(34) Ogbo, E.M. (2009). Effect of diesel fuel contamination on seed germination of four crops plants – Arachis hypogea, Vigna unguiculata, Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays. Afri. J. Biotech., (2):250-253.
(35) Merkl N, Schutze-Kraft R, and Arias, M. (2005). Influence of fertilizer level on phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated soils with the tropical grass Brachiariabrizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich.) Stapf. In: Merkl N (Eds). Phytoremediation of Petroleum-contaminated Soil. Margraf Publisher, Weikershim; 71–83
(36) Lee, K., Tremblay, G. H., and Cobanli, S. E (1995). Bioremediation of oil beach sediments: Assessment of inorganic and organic fertilizers. Proceedings of 1995 oil spill conference of American Petroleum Institute, Washington DC. 101-119.