Temperature, Precipitation and Relative Humidity Fluctuation of Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1985-2016)


  • Saifullah Khan Institute of Social Sciences, BZU, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan
  • Yasser Alghafari Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia




Climatology, Climate Change, Seasonal Change, Hajj and Ummrah, Summer Season, Winter Season


The study presents the temperature, rainfall and relative humidity fluctuation of Makkah Al Mukarramah, Saudi Arabia for a time period of 1985-2016 in terms of general climatology, climate change, seasonal pattern and extreme weather condition. This is a city in the Tihamah plain of western Saudi Arabia, the capital of Makkah Province, birth place of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) and holistic place in Islam. The factors that control the climate are surface water, coastal management, overgrazing, forestry, livestock, drought, desertification, industrialization, landuse change, tourism, altitude, location and marine influence etc. The mean monthly temperature of the city is 32?C having mean maximum of 38?C and mean minimum of 25 degree Celsius. The mean monthly temperature of the city shows an increase of one degree Celsius having -0.1?C decrease in maximum and -1.1?C in minimum temperature. Generally, there is a rise and fall in the temperature condition and shows periodic pattern after each ten years throughout the period. The total precipitation of the city is 189 millimeters (7.4inches); having an increase of 36millimeters (1.4inches) and shows an increasing trend. The relative humidity of the area is 46percent with an increase of 0.7percent. January and February are the wettest, while June and July are the hottest months of the city. The area shows an arid continental climate having two main seasons that is winter (5 months) and summer (7 months), which can further be sub-divided into four rainy seasons namely winter, post-winter, summer, and post-summer seasons. Annually, the temperature condition of the area rises from January to June, remains stable till September and slackens upto December. The heaviest rainfall of Makkah Al Mukarramah recorded in January, February and September and constitutes as wettest months of the year. The lowest rainfall of the city seems in June and July (driest months). To overcome the issue of climate change at Makkah Al Mukarramah, it is recommended to control wars, air pollution, improve forests, and to establish well canal system in the area.

Author Biographies

Saifullah Khan, Institute of Social Sciences, BZU, Multan, Punjab, Pakistan

Assisatant Professor, Physical Geography

Yasser Alghafari, Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Presidency of Meteorology and Environment (PME), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia


(1) Alghafari, Y. Khan, S. (2016). Temperature and Precipitation of Madinah Al Munawarah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1959-2015), Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 6, pp. 402-414. Online. http://www.scirp.org/journal/acs; http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/acs.2016.63033.

(2) Abdou, A. E. A. (2014). Temperature Trend on Makka, Saudi Arabia. Atmospheric and Climate Sciences, Vol. 4, pp. 457-481. http://www.scirp.org/journal/acs; http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/acs.2014.43044.

(3) Alharbi, A. B. (2015). Native Settlements in Makkah Al Mukarramah Area and Factors Affecting its Distribution, Advances in Anthropology, Vol. 5, pp. 267-273. Online. http://www.scirp.org/journal/aa; http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/aa.2015.54020.

(4) Alrowaily, A. etal. (2016). Impact Analysis of Flooding Area in Saudi Arabia, International journal of scientific and technical research in engineering (IJSTRE), Vol. 1. (2). pp. 1-7.Online. www.ijstre.com.

(5) Determann, J. M. (2012). Globalization, the State, and Narrative Plurality; Historiography in Saudi Arabia, The Thesis submitted for the Degree of Ph.D in History, Department of History, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK. P. 349.

(6) Hussein, M. T. Bassam, A. M. A. Zaidi, F. K. (2014). Extreme Natural Hazards, Disaster Risks and Societal Implications, Chapter-12. Natural Hazard in Saudi Arabia. Cambridge University Press. © Cambridge University Press, pp. 243-251.

(7) CRITCHFIELD H.J., 1987., General Climatology., 4th Edition., Prentice’ Hall of India New Delhi-110001., p. 429.

(8) Khan J.A., May, 1993., The Climate of Pakistan., Rahber Publishers Karachi., p. 79.

(9) Blair, T.A., 1942., Climatology., General and Regional., Prentice-Hall, INC. New York., p. 478.

(10) Trewartha, G.T., 1968., An Introduction to Climate., 4th Edition., Mc Grawhill Kogakusha, LTD., p. 408.




How to Cite

Khan, S., & Alghafari, Y. (2018). Temperature, Precipitation and Relative Humidity Fluctuation of Makkah Al Mukarramah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (1985-2016). Transactions on Engineering and Computing Sciences, 6(1), 42. https://doi.org/10.14738/tmlai.61.3978