A Real Time Embedded System Architecture for Autonomous Underwater Sensors Localization


  • Redouane Es-sadaoui National Institute of Posts and Telecommunications Rabat, Morocco
  • Jamal Khallaayoune National Institute of Posts and Telecommunications Rabat, Morocco
  • Tamara Brizard Aspremont, France




Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks, localization, smart sensors, embedded system


Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UWASNs) consist of a variable number of autonomous sensors or vehicles that are deployed over a given area to perform smart sensing and collaborative monitoring tasks. In UWASNs, sensor localization plays a critical role. Motivated by the advent of embedded systems and their widespread adoption in localization, this paper presents the design and architecture of an autonomous embedded system, that uses acoustic signal to communicate underwater. The proposed architecture implements a set of embedded interfaces, such as inter-processor communication link and serial interfaces, which facilitates its integration with other systems. The implementation of a straightforward localization algorithms based on the Phase Difference and the Time of Arrival techniques is also described. The ability of the developed system to localize underwater sensors was tested during sea trials.



(1) Akyildiz, I.F.; Pompili, D.; Melodia, T. Underwater acoustic sensor networks: Research challenges. Ad Hoc Netw. 2005, 3, 257-279 .

(2) Kang Hoon Lee, Chang Ho Yu, Jae Weon Choi and Young Bong Seo, "ToA based sensor localization in underwater wireless sensor networks," 2008 SICE Annual Conference, Tokyo, 2008, pp. 1357-1361. doi: 10.1109/SICE.2008.4654869

(3) Huai Huang and Yahong Rosa Zheng, "AoA assisted localization for underwater Ad-Hoc sensor networks," OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey, Monterey, CA, 2016, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/ OCEANS.2016.7761388

(4) V. Mandalapa Bhoopathy, M. Ben Haj Frej, S. Richard Ebenezer Amalorpavaraj and I. Shaik, "Localization and mobility of underwater acoustic sensor nodes," 2016 Annual Connecticut Conference on Industrial Electronics, Technology & Automation (CT-IETA), Bridgeport, CT, USA, 2016, pp. 1-5. doi: 10.1109/CT-


(5) Sungryul Kim, Younghwan Yoo, "SLSMP: Time Synchronization and Localization Using Seawater Movement Pattern in Underwater Wireless Networks". nternational Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks. Vol 10, Issue 1, 2014 10.1155/2014/172043.

(6) MOUSAVI, ZAHRA and REZA JAVIDAN. “A Combined Localization-Synchronization Method for Underwater Communication.” International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security. VOL. 2, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014, 414–422. ISSN 2308-9830

(7) Y. Xu, W. Dandan and F. Hua, "Underwater acoustic source localization method based on TDOA with particle filtering," The 26th Chinese Control and Decision Conference (2014 CCDC), Changsha, 2014, pp. 4634-4637.

(8) P. Jiang, "An underwater sensor network localization algorithm based on Time-of-Arrivals (TOAs)," 2013 Ninth International Conference on Natural Computation (ICNC), Shenyang, 2013, pp. 1552-1556.

doi: 10.1109/ICNC.2013.6818228

(9) S. Zhu, N. Jin, L. Wang, X. Zheng, S. Yang and M. Zhu, "A novel dual-hydrophone localization method in underwater sensor networks," 2016 IEEE/OES China Ocean Acoustics (COA), Harbin, 2016, pp. 1-4.

doi: 10.1109/COA.2016.7535787

(10) C. H. Yu, K. H. Lee, Hyun Pil Moon, J. W. Choi and Y. B. Seo, "Sensor localization algorithms in underwater wireless sensor networks," 2009 ICCAS-SICE, Fukuoka, 2009, pp. 1760-1764.

(11) Texas Instruments, “TMS320C54x DSP Functional Overview”. September 1998 – Revised May 2000.

(12) Texas Instruments, “TMS320C54x DSP Reference Set, Volume 5: Enhanced Peripherals”. March 2007.




How to Cite

Es-sadaoui, R., Khallaayoune, J., & Brizard, T. (2017). A Real Time Embedded System Architecture for Autonomous Underwater Sensors Localization. Transactions on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.14738/tmlai.54.3224



Special Issue : 1st International Conference on Affective computing, Machine Learning and Intelligent Systems