Nearly Reversible ECG Steganography based on Polar Coordinate System with Digital Replacement Technique


  • CHING YU YANG National Penghu University of Science & Tevhmology
  • Chi-Kai Huang



Data Hiding, ECG Steganography, Polar Coordinate System, Digital Replacement


In this paper, we present a nearly reversible data hiding for electrocardiogram (ECG) hosts. Based on the polar coordinate system domain, medical diagnosis and personal data can be embedded in an ECG signal by the simple digital replacement technique. Simulations revealed that the restored ECG with near lossless quality can be obtained by the proposed method at receiver site. In addition, the perceived quality of the marked ECG is very good with a high payload size. Moreover, the resultant signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), peak SNR, and payload of the proposed method outperforms those of existing techniques. Since the computation cost is low, the proposed method can be used in portable biometrics or ECG measuring instruments.


. Shehzad, D., et al., LSB image steganography based on blocks matrix determinant method. Internet and Information Systems, KSII Transactions on, 2019. 13(7): p. 3778-3793.

. Alhomoud, A.M., Image steganography in spatial domain: current status, techniques, and trends. Intelligent Automation and Soft Compting, 2021. 27(1): p.69-88.

. Liu, Y., et al. Video steganography: a review. Neurocomputing, 2019. 335(3): p.238-250.

. Zheng, P.J., et al., A robust image watermarking scheme in hybrid transform domains resisting to rotation attacks. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 2020. 79(3): p.18343-18365.

. Kadian, P., et al., Robust digital watermarking techniques for copyright protection of digital data: a survey,” Wireless Personal Communications, 2021. 118(2): p.3225-3249.

. Agarwal, N., et al., Survey of robust and imperceptible watermarking. Multimedia Tools and Applications, 2019. 78(8): p. 8603-8633

. Yang, C.Y. and W.F. Wang, Effective electrocardiogram steganography based on coefficient alignment. Journal of Medical System, 2016. 40(3), DOI: 10.1007/s10916-015-0426-9.

. Jero, S.E., et al., Imperceptability-robustness tradeoff studies for ECG steganography using continuous ant colony optimization. Expert Systems with Applications, 2016. 49(1): p. 123-135.

. Pandey, A., et al., A novel fused coupled chaotic map based confidential data embedding-then-encryption of electrocardiogram signal. Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, 2019. 39(2): p. 282-300.

. Christian, M., et al., Hiding secret message in electrocardiogram based on discrete cosine transform. Int. Conf. on Innovative Computing and Management Science, July 19-22, 2019, Osaka, Japan.

. Yang, C.Y., et al., Adaptive electrocardiogram steganography based on 2D approach with predetermined rules. Asian Journal of Computer and Information Science, 2020. 8(1): p. 1-10.

. Yang, C.Y., et al., Adaptive data-hiding in electrocardiogram based on integer wavelet transform domain and incremental approach. 2020 9th Int. Conf. on Industrial Technology and Management (ICITM 2020), Feb. 11-13, London, UK (2020).

. Moody, G.B and R.G. Mark, The impact of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine, 2001. 20(3): p. 45-50.




How to Cite

YANG, C. Y., & Huang, C.-K. (2021). Nearly Reversible ECG Steganography based on Polar Coordinate System with Digital Replacement Technique. Transactions on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence, 9(6), 9–19.