External Group Labeling of Objects in 2D Medical Images Using Spring-Mass Model
Keywords:External labeling, Force-Directed Method,
The parallel processing of verbal elements like textual labels, annotations etc. with non-verbal i.e. visual elements, provides maximum integration of human mind. Textual labels and annotations aid in understanding medical data visualization. But it is a very challenging task to generate hand-made like illustration labels in an automated system. The paper presents a noble approach for dynamic external labeling of segmented 2D computer tomography (CT) slices. Various efficient algorithms are approached to solve labeling problems in modular form. The system emphasizes on the readability and clarity of labels while generating dynamic group labels in real time for 2D slices using external labeling layout.
(1) K. Ali, K. Hartmann, & T. Strothotte, “Label layout for interactive 3D illustrations” in Journal of the WSCG, 13:1–8, 2005.
(2) Carlo Arcelli and Gabriella Sanniti di Baja, “Finding local maxima in a pseudo-euclidean distance transform” in Computer Vision, Graphics and Image Processing, 43(3):361–367, 1988.
(3) B. Bell and S. Feiner, “Dynamic space management for user interfaces” in Proceedings of Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, p 238–248, 2000.
(4) W. Chigona, H. Sonnet, F. Ritter, and T. Strothotte, “Shadows with a message” in Smart Graphics: Third International Symposium on Smart Graphics 2003, pp. 91–101. Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2003.
(5) M. B. Dillencourt, H. Samet, and M. Tamminen, “A general approach to connected-component labeling for arbitrary image representations” in J. ACM 39(2), pp. 253–280, 1992.
(6) M. Formann and F. Wagner. “A packing problem with applications to lettering of maps” in ACM Symp. on Comp. Geometry, volume 7, pages 281–288, 1991.
(7) T.M.J. Fruchterman and E.M. Reingold, “Graph drawing by force-directed placement” in Software-Practice and Experience, 21(11):1129– 1164, 1991.
(8) Furnas, G.W. "Generalized fisheye views”, Proc. ACM SIGCHI'86 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Boston, April, pp. 16-23, 1986
(9) T. Götzelmann, K. Hartmann, and T. Strothotte "Annotation of animated 3D objects" in Online Proc. 18th Simulation and Visualization Conference, Magdeburg, Germany, March 2007
(10) K. Hartmann, K. Ali, and T. Strothotte, “Floating Labels: applying dynamic potential fields for label layout” in Smart Graphics: 4th International Symposium (SG 2004), pp. 101–113, 2004.
(11) Ramesh Jain, Rangachar Kasturi, and Brian G. Schunck in Machine Vision, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995.
(12) S. Loncaric and D. Kovacevic, “A method for segmentation of CT
head images” in Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing, pp.388-395, Fl., Italy, 1997
(13) Z. Majcenic and S. Loncaric, “CT image labeling using simulated annealing algorithm” in Proceedings of the IX European Signal Processing Conference, Vol. 4, pp. 2513-2516, Island of Rhodos, Greece, 1998.
(14) Thomas Porter and Tom Duff, “Compositing digital images” in Computer Graphics, 18(3), July 1984, 253-259
(15) B. Preim, A. Raab, and Thomas Strothotte, “Coherent zooming of illustrations with 3D-graphics and text” in Proceedings of Graphics Interface, pages 105–113, 1997.
(16) F. Ritter, H. Sonnet, K. Hartmann, and Th. Strothotte, “Illustrative Shadows: integrating 3D and 2D information displays” in International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, pages 166–173, 2003.
(17) W. Rogers, Textbook of Anatomy, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 1992.
(18) Rosenfeld and J. Pfaltz, “Distance functions in digital pictures” in
Pattern Recognition, vol 1, p33–61,1968.
(19) J. Sobotta, R. Putz, and R. Pabst, editors. Sobotta: Atlas of Human Anatomy. Volume 2: Thorax, Abdomen, Pelvis, Lower Limb. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 12. English edition, 1997.
(20) S. Oeltze-Jafra and B. Preim. (2014). Survey of labeling techniques in medical visualizations. In Proceedings of the 4th Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine (VCBM '14). Eurographics Association, Aire-la-Ville, Switzerland, Switzerland, 199-
Kang, Y.S., Park, S.H. & Joo, Y.J. Spat. Inf. Res. (2016) 24: 3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s41324-016-0003-4.