Calculation of Inversion Time (TI) value for Fat suppression in the modified Spin Echo sequence method.
Fat suppression is commonly used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to suppress the signal from adipose tissue or detect adipose tissue. Due to short relaxation times, fat has a high signal on magnetic resonance images (MRI). This high signal, easily recognized on MRI. The high signal due to fat may be responsible for artifacts such as ghosting and chemical shift. Lastly, a contrast enhancing tumor may be hidden by the surrounding fat. These problems have prompted development of fat suppression techniques. in MRI. Fat may be suppressed on the basis of its difference in resonance frequency with water by means of frequency selective pulses or phase contrast techniques, or on the basis of its short TI relaxation time by means of inversion recovery sequences. The aim of this paper is to study the Fat suppression technique using Inversion recovery Pulse sequence by calculating TInull parameter for the pulse sequence.
(1) De Kerviler, E., et al. "Fat suppression techniques in MRI: an update." Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy 52.2 (1998): 69-75.
(2) D. J. Blezek, W. T. Dixon and P. J. Dhawale, "Single image phase-based MRI fat suppression expectation maximization algorithm," 2005 IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition (CVPR'05), 2005, pp. 540-546 vol. 2.
(3) Bley, T. A., Wieben, O., François, C. J., Brittain, J. H. and Reeder, S. B. (2010), Fat and water magnetic resonance imaging. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 31: 4–18. doi:10.1002/jmri.21895.
(4) Reeder, S. B., Yu, H., Johnson, J. W., Shimakawa, A., Brittain, J. H., Pelc, N. J., Beaulieu, C. F. and Gold, G. E. (2006), T1- and T2-weighted fast spin-echo imaging of the brachial plexus and cervical spine with IDEAL water–fat separation. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 24: 825–832. doi:10.1002/jmri.20721
(5) Yu, H., Reeder, S. B., McKenzie, C. A., Brau, A. C. S., Shimakawa, A., Brittain, J. H. and Pelc, N. J. (2006), Single acquisition water-fat separation: Feasibility study for dynamic imaging. Magn. Reson. Med., 55: 413–422. doi:10.1002/mrm.20771
(6) Zhang, W., Goldhaber, D. M. and Kramer, D. M. (1996), Separation of water and fat MR images in a single scan at .35 T using „sandwich” echoes. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 6: 909–917. doi:10.1002/jmri.1880060612
(7) Palosaari, Kari, et al. "Fat suppression gradient‐echo magnetic resonance imaging of experimental articular cartilage lesions: Comparison between phase‐contrast method at 0.23 T and chemical shift selective method at 1.5 T." Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 18.2 (2003): 225-231.
(8) Xiang, Q.-S. and An, L. (1997), Water-fat imaging with direct phase encoding. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 7: 1002–1015. doi:10.1002/jmri.1880070612
(9) Ma, J., Vu, A. T., Son, J. B., Choi, H. and Hazle, J. D. (2006), Fat-suppressed three-dimensional dual echo dixon technique for contrast agent enhanced MRI. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging, 23: 36–41. doi:10.1002/jmri.20470
(10) Miller, T. T., et al. "Fat-suppressed MRI of musculoskeletal infection: fast T2-weighted techniques versus gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images." Skeletal radiology 26.11 (1997): 654-658.
(11) Reeder, Scott B., et al. "Quantitative assessment of liver fat with magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy." Journal of magnetic resonance imaging 34.4 (2011): 729-749.
(12) Mirowitz, ScotiA, et al. "MR imaging of bone marrow lesions: relative conspicuousness on T1-weighted, fat-suppressed T2-weighted, and STIR images." AJR. American journal of roentgenology 162.1 (1994): 215-221.
(13) Lavdas, Ioannis, et al. "Stripline resonator and preamplifier for preclinical magnetic resonance imaging at 4.7 T." Magnetic Resonance Materials in Physics, Biology and Medicine 24.6 (2011): 331-337.
(14) Lin, Chen, Clark David Rogers, and Shadie Majidi. "Fat suppression techniques in breast magnetic resonance imaging: a critical comparison and state of the art." (2015).
(15) Tien, Robet Dt. "Fat-suppression MR imaging in neuroradiology: techniques and clinical application." AJR. American journal of roentgenology 158.2 (1992): 369-379.