Main Article Content
This paper adopted a qualitative study of questionnaires to identity how selected intercultural contact factors are correlated with psychological and sociocultural adaptation.
It is found that psychological and sociocultural adaptation situations of African merchants in Guangzhou are both moderately well;psychological adaptation of African merchants was proved to be correlated with 5 intercultural contact factors.; the sociocultural adaptation of African merchants was proved to be correlated with 5 intercultural contact factors;correlation analysis proved that outgroup social support has a stronger positive correlation with both psychological and sociocultural adaptation than ingroup social support, which is the main source of social support for African merchants;the overlapping and strength differences of correlations show that the two acculturation dimensions of African merchants are distinct and interrelated, thus verified the Colleen Ward's two-dimension acculturation model in the group of African merchants in Guangzhou.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Ataca, B., & Berry, J. W. (2002). Psychological, sociocultural, and marital adaptation of Turkish immigrant couples in Canada. International Journal of Psychology, 37(1), 13-26.
Baubock, R., Heller, A., & Zolberg, A. (Eds.) (1996). The challenge of diversity: Integration and pluralism in societies of immigration. Aldershot: Avebury.
Berry, J. W. (1980). Acculturation as varieties of adaptation. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Acculturation: Theory, models and some new findings (pp. 9-25). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Berry, J. W. (2001). A psychology of immigration. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 611-627.
Berry, J. W. (2003). Conceptual approaches to acculturation. In K. Chun, P. Balls--Organista, & G. Marin (Eds.), Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement and applied research (pp. 17-37). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Berry, J. W. (2008). Globalisation and acculturation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 32, 328-336.
Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaptation. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 46, 5-68.
Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491-511.
Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Power, S., Young, M., Bujaki, M. (1989). Acculturation attitudes in plural societies. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 38, 185-206.
Berry, J. W. (2006a). Mutual attitudes among immigrants and ethnocultural groups in Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30, 719-734.
Berry, J. W, Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transitions: Acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y.H., Segall, M.H., & Dasen, P.R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Berry, J. W. (1974). Psychological aspects of cultural pluralism. Culture Learning, 2, 17-22.
Berry, J. W., & Sam, D. L. (1997). Acculturation and adaptation. In J.W. Berry, M.H. Segall, & C. Kagitcibasi (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology, Vol. 3: Social behaviour and applications (2nd edn.; pp. 291-326). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Berry, J. W. (2006b). Stress perspectives on acculturation. In D. L. Sam & J. W. Berry (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 43-57). Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Bourhis, R. Y., Moise, L. C., Perreault, S., & Senecal, S. (1997). Towards an interactive acculturation model: A social psychological approach. International Journal of Psychology, 32, 369-386.
Bradley, C. (1994). The Well-Being Questionnaire. In C. Bradley (Ed.), Handbook of psychology and diabetes: A guide to psychological measurement in diabetes research and practice (pp. 89-109). Chur, Suisse: Harwood Academic Press.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back translation for cross cultural research. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 1(3), 185-216.
Chen, X. L. (2009, July 24). A Self-statement of an African businessmen in China. CAAC News. http://editor.caacnews.com.cn/mhb/html/2009-07/24/
Choi, J., & Thomas, M. (2009). Predictive factors of acculturation attitudes and social support among Asian immigrants in the USA. International Journal of Social Welfare, 18(1), 76-84.
Dao, T. K., Lee, D., & Chang, H. L. (2007). Acculturation level, perceived English fluency, perceived social support level, and depression among Taiwanese international students. College Student Journal, 41(2), 287-295.
Feliciano, C. (2001). The benefits of biculturalism: Exposure to immigrant culture and dropping out of school among Asian and Latino youths. Social Science Quarterly, 82, 865-879.
Felix, N. (2002). Acculturation strategies among adolescents from immigrant families in Portugal. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26, 17-38.
Furham, A., & Bouchner, S. (1982). Social difficulty in a foreign culture: An empirical analysis of culture shock. In S. Bochner (Ed.), Cultures in contact. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Gibson, M. A. (2001). Immigrant adaptation and patterns of acculturation. Human Development, 44, 19-23.
Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. (1963). Beyond the melting pot. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Glazer, N., & Moynihan, D. (1975). Introduction. In N. Glazer, & D. Moynihan (Eds.), Ethnicity:Theory and experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life. The role of race, religion and national origins. New York: Oxford University Press.
Graves, T. D. (1967). Psychological acculturation in a tri-ethnic community. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 23, 337-350.
Gudykunst, W. B., & Kim, Y. Y. (1997). Communicating with strangers an Approach to intercultural communication, NY McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Hawes, F., & Kealey, D. J. (1981). An empirical study of Canadian technical assistants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5, 239-258.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Huang, Z. F., & Huang, F. F. (2019). Review of Acculturation Models and its Influencing Factors. Journal of Jiaying University (Philosophy & Social Science), 37 (1), 116-122.
Hwang, C. H. (1981). Studies in the Chinese personality: A critical review. Paper presented at the Joint Asian Regional Meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology and the International Council of Psychologists, Taipei, Republic of China.
Kim, Y. Y. (1988). Communication and cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Kim, Y. Y. (1995). Cross-cultural adaptation: An integrative theory. In R. Wiseman (Ed.), Intercultural communication theory (pp. 170-193). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Kim, Y. Y. (Eds.). (2001). Becoming intercultural: An integrative theory of communication and cross-cultural adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Kim, Y. Y. (2005a). Adapting to a new culture: An integrative communication theory.
In W. Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural communication
(pp. 375-400). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kim, Y. Y. (2017). Cross-cultural adaptation. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication.
Kim, Y. Y. (2009). Cross-Cultural Adaptation Theory. In Stephen, W. Littlejohn, Karen, A. Foss (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Communication Theory (pp. 243-248). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Liebkind, K. (2001). Acculturation. In R. Brown & S. Gaertner (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of social psychology (Vol. IV, pp. 386-406). Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell.
Liebkind, K., & Jasinskaja-Lahti, I. (2000). The influence of experiences of discrimination on psychological stress: A comparison of seven immigrant groups. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 1-16.
Lin, X. Y. (2019, August). African Merchants Start doing Business from Baohan Street. Globe, 16.
Li, Z. G. (2009). The Local Response of "Transnational Immigration" Social Space in the Context of Globalization -- Case study of Xiaobei Area in Guangzhou. Geography research, 28 (4), 920-932.
Masgoret. A. & Ward, C. (2006). Culture learning approach to acculturation. In D. L. Sam and J. W. Berry. The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (pp. 58-77). Cambridge University Press.
Mays, V. M., Cochran, S. D., & Barnes, N. W. (2007) Race, Race-Based Discrimination, and health Outcomes Among African Americans. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 201-225.
McCubbin, H. I., Patterson, J., Glynn, T. (1996). Social Support Index (SSI). In H. I. McCubbin, A. I. Thompson, M. A. McCubbin (Eds.), Family assessment: resiliency, coping, and adaptation. Inventories for research and practice. Madison: University of Wisconsin.
Myles, J., & Hou, F. (2003). Neighbourhood attainment and residential segregation
among Toronto’s visible minorities; http://www.statcan.ca/english/research/
11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2003206.pdf (accessed 18 March 2020).
Noh, S., Beiser, M., Kaspar, V., Hou, F., & Rummens, J. (1999). Perceived racial discrimination, depression and coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 40, 193-207.
Noh, S., Kaspar, V. (2003). Perceived discrimination and depression: Moderating effects of coping, acculturation, and ethnic support. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 232-238.
Oh, Y., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E . ( 2002). Acculturation, stress, and depressive symptoms among Korean immigrants in the United States. Journal of Social Psychology, 142(4), 511-26.
Oppedal, B., Røysamb, E., & Sam, D. L. (2004). The effect of acculturation and social support on change in mental health among young immigrants. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 481-494.
Padilla, A. M., & Perez, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25(1), 35-55.
Park, S., Paik, H., Skinner, J. D., Ok, S., & Spindler, A. A. (2003). Mothers’ acculturation and eating behaviors of Korean American families in California. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 35, 142-147.
Phinney, J. S. (2006). Acculturation is not an independent variable: Approaches to studying acculturation as a complex process. In M.H. Bornstein & M.H.L. Cote (Eds.), Acculturation and parent child relationships. Measurement and development (pp. 79-95). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Phinney, J. S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use
with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7(2), 156-176.
Phinney, J. S., & Devich-Navarro, M. (1997). Variations in bicultural identifification among African American and Mexican American adolescents. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 7, 3-32.
Phinney, J. S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults: A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514.
Phinney, J. S., Horenczyk, G., Liebkind, K., & Vedder, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration and well-being: An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 493-510.
Phinney, J. S., & Kohatsu, E. (1997). Ethnic and racial identity development and mental health. In J. Schulenberg, J. Maggs, & K. Hurrelman (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions in adolescence (pp. 420-443). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Redfield, R., Linton, R., & Herskovits, M. J. (1936). Memorandum for the study of acculturation. American Anthropologist, 38, 149-152.
Remennick L. (2003). What does integration mean? Social insertion of Russian immigrants in Israel. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 4(1), 23-49.
Research group of Guangzhou Development Research Institute. (2014). Analysis of Current Situation of Foreign Population Management in Guangzhou and Suggested Countermeasures. Guangzhou: Guangzhou University.
Roebers, C. M., & Schneider, W. (1999). Self-concept and anxiety in immigrant children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 23(1),125-147.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Rudmin, F. W. (2003), Critical History of the Acculturation Psychology of Assimilation, Separation, Integration, and Marginalization, Review of General Psychology, 7(1), 3-14
Safdar, S., Struthers, W., & van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2009). Acculturation of Iranians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 468-491.
Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W. (Eds.). (2006). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
Scott, D. R., Jason, D., Eun-Young, S., Jorge, A., Mario, Downs., & Beth, A. R. (2013). Social Support among Immigrant Latino Men: A Validation Study. Am J Health Behav, 37 (5), 620-628.
Searle, W. & Ward, C. (1990). The prediction of psychological and socio-cultural adjustment during cross-cultural transition. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, 449-464.
Shi, L. (2017). A Study on Acculturation of African Businessmen in China: Based on West African Businessmen in Guangzhou, M.A. Guangdong University of Foreign Studies.
Stevens, E. M., Masgoret, A. M., Ward, T. (2007). Problems of Psychological and Sociocultural Adaptation Among Russian-Speaking Immigrants in New Zealand. Social Policy Journal of New Zealand, 30, 178.
Stone Feinstein, B. E., & Ward, C. (1990). Loneliness and psychological adjustment of sojourners: New perspectives on culture shock. In D. M. Keats, D. Munro, & L. Mann (Eds.), Heterogeneity in cross-cultural psychology (pp. 537-547). Lisse, Netherlands: Swets & Zeitlinger.
Sumer, S., Poyrazli, S. & Grahame, K. (2008). Predictors of Depression and Anxiety Among International Students. Journal of Counselling & Development, 86 (4), 429-437.
Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., & Austin, W. G., (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations, (pp. 7-24). Chicago: Nelson-Hall.
Tucker, M., Bonial, R., & Lahti, K. (2004). The definition, measurement and prediction of intercultural adjustment and job performance among corporate expatriates. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28, 221-251.
Van de Vijver, F. J. R., & Leung, K. (1997). Methods and Data Analysis for Crosscultural Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Vedder, P., & van de Vijver, F. J. R. (2006). Methodological aspects: Studying adolescents in thirteen countries. In J.W. Berry, J. S. Phinney, D. L. Sam, & P. Vedder (Eds.) Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity and adaptation across national contexts. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Verkuyten, M., & Nekuee, S. (1999). Subjective well-being, discrimination and cultural conflict: Iranians living in the Netherlands. Social Indicators Research, 47, 281-306.
Ward, C. (1996). Acculturation. In D. Landis & R. Bhagat (Eds.), Handbook of
intercultural training (2nd ed.; pp. 124-147). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ward, C. (2001). The A, B, Cs of acculturation. In D. Matsumoto (Ed.), The handbook of culture and psychology (pp. 411-445). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
Ward, C., Bochner, S., & Furnham, A. (2001). The psychology of culture shock. Hove: Routledge.