Main Article Content
It was reported that 326 Japanese Encephalitis (JE) cases in Indonesia in 2016, majority cases (69.3%) occurred in Bali. It shows that Bali is a prone-area to JE incidence. Previous studies noted that JE is closely related to rural and suburban areas where rice culture and pig farming coexist. This study aims at i) determining knowledge and preventive practices of JE by farmer households; (ii) observing types of mosquitos around farmer households; and (iii) mapping the potency of JE spread using geo-spatial information.
Result from this research shows that farmer households have limited knowledge and preventive actions to the incidence of Japanese encephalitis. Preventive actions carried out by respondents were not for JE incidence as such. Nonetheless, farmer’s response to source of vectors and cleanliness are good preventive actions not just to JE incidence but also for other diseases. In this research, setting up mosquito’s light traps nearby pig pens and rice fields has been successful. The result shows that Culex tritaeniorhynchus was dominant type of mosquito trapped. This is an indication that the selected areas are susceptible to the incidence of JE as the Culex sp was reported as the most competent of JE vector in Asia. Maps of the JE spread in Badung regency also coincidence with the places of Culex sp trapped and the dense of rice field. Based on the limitation of knowledge and preventive actions carried out by farmer households, it is important for the stakeholders in the regency including Regional Health Office and health care workers to socialize the occurrence of JE in the community and how to prevent against the disease.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
2. Kari, K., Liu, W., Gautama, K., Jr, M.P.M., Clemens, J.D., Nisalak, A., Subrata, K., Kim, H.K., Xu, ZY. 2006. A hospital-based surveillance for Japanese encephalitis in Bali, Indonesia. BMC Med., 7: p.2–8.
3. Paramarta, IG., Kari, K., Hapsara, S. 2009. Faktor Risiko Lingkungan pada Pasien Japanese Encephalitis. Sari Pediatri. 10(5), p.308-313.
4. Liu, W., Gibbons, R., Kari, K., Clemens, J., Nisalak, A., Marks, F., Xu ZY. Risk factors for Japanese encephalitis: a case-control study. 2010. Epidemiol Infect., 138: p. 1292–7.
5. World Health Organization (WHO). 2015. Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly epidemiological record February 2015, p. 69-88.
6. Adi, A.A.A.M., Astawa, N.M., Damayanti, P.A.A., Kardena, I.M., Erawan, I.G.M.K., Suardana, I.W., Putra, I.G.A.A., Matsumoto, Y. 2016. Seroepidemiological Evidence for the Presence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Ducks, Chickens, and Pigs, Bali-Indonesia. Bali Med. J.; 5: p. 89–193.
7. Damayanti, P.A.S, Adi, A.A.A.M., Astawa, N.M., Sudarmaja, I.M, Kardena, I.M., Swastika, I.K. 2017. Incidence of Japanese Encephalitis among Children is associated with the Presence of Pigs in Bali, Inonesia. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal.10 (3).
8. Campbell, G.L., Hills, S.L., Fischer, M., Jacobson, J.A., Hoke, C.H., Hombach, J., Marfin, A.A., Solomon, T., Tsai, T.F., Vivien D.T., Ginsburg, A.S. Japanese encephalitis burden. 2011. Bull. World Health Organ., 89: p. 766–774.
9. Rosen,L., Roseboom, L.E., Gubler, D.J., Lien, J.C., Chaniotis, B.N. 1985. Comparative susceptibility of mosquito species and strains to oral and parenteral infection with dengue and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg May 34 (3): p. 603 -15.
10. Wang, H. et al. 2012. Isolation and identification of a distinct strain of Culex Flavivirus from mosquitoes collected in Mainland China. Virology J, 9 (73).
11. Sendow, I and Bahri, S. 2005. The Development of Japanese Encephalitis in Indonesia. Wartazoa.Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 15 (3):p. 111-118
12. Lindahl, J., et al. 2012. Occurrence of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Mosquito Vectors in Relation to Urban Pig Holdings. Am J Trop Med Hyg Dec 87(6): p.1076–1082.
13. Wang, H and Liang, G. 2015. Epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: past, present and future prospects. Theraupectics and Clinical Risk Management. 19 March 2015. Open Access Journal under Dove Press.
14. Longbottom, J., Browne, A.J., Pigott, D.M. et al. Mapping the spatial distribution of the Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles, 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae) within areas of Japanese encephalitis risk. Parasites Vectors 10, 148 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2086-8