Significance of Social Capital in Community Resilience and Performance of Food Security Project in Loima Sub-County, Turkana County, Kenya


  • Ekiru M. School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • Dr. Angeline Sabina Mulwa chool of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya
  • Prof. Dorothy Ndunge School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi,



Social Capital, Food Security, Food Insecurity, Pastoralist, Project Performance


This paper examines the influence of social capital on performance of food security projects in pastoral livelihood system. This study used semi-structured questionnaires, interview guides and observation check lists to gather data and information. A total of 491 households were sampled across 11 sub-locations. The study findings showed that social capital has a positive influence (r² = 0.2055), however, the correlation varies depending on the type of social capital. This implied that social capital explained 20.55% of the variations in performance of food security projects while the other percentage (79.45%) is explained by other variables which were not included for this study. In terms of comparison, bridging had the strongest influence (r=0.496), followed by linking (r=0.142) then bonding (r=0.102). The overall F statistic of F = 37.12 (p=0.05) was statistically significant since at (p = 0.000 < 0.05) hence was suitable to analyze the relationship between social capital and performance of food security projects. The study found out that bonding and bridging social capital were strong while linking social capital was weak in the community. The study concluded that strong bonding and bridging social capital were limited to enhancing short term absorptive and to less extend adaptive capacity of community while the weak linking capital in the study area was associated with low external engagement coupled with lack of resources and increased number of poor people hence impending long-term resilience building to food insecurity.

Author Biographies

Ekiru M., School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

PhD Candidate, School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Dr. Angeline Sabina Mulwa, chool of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya

Lecturer, School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya 

Prof. Dorothy Ndunge , School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi,

ecturer, School of Open and Distance Learning, University of Nairobi, Kenya  


[1]. Action Aid (2016): Resilience Handbook – A Guide to Integrated Resilience Programming.
[2]. Agrawal, A., Kononen, M, and Perrin, N. (2009). The role of local institutions in adaptation to climate change. Paper no. 118: Social development working papers.
[3]. Akçomak, S. (2009). Bridges in social capital: a review of the definitions and the social capital of social capital researchers, Working Paper #2009-002, United Nations University, Maastricht.
[4]. Aldrich, D. P. (2010). Separate and Unequal: Post-Tsunami Aid Distribution in Southern India. Social Science Quarterly, 1369-1389.
[5]. Aldrich, D. P. (2012). Social, not Physical, Infrastructure: The Critical Role of Civil Society After the 1923 Tokyo Earthquake. Disasters, 398-419.
[6]. Aukot, E., (2003). It is better to be a refugee than a Turkana in Kakuma: Revisiting the relationship between the host and refugees in Kenya. Refuge, Vol. 21, Number 3.
[7]. Béné et al. (2017). Squaring the Circle: Reconciling the Need for Rigor with the Reality on theGroundinResilienceImpactAssessment.
[8]. Burkley, A. L., Brown, K., Holben, D. H., Shubrook, J. H., & Schwartz, F. L. (2011). Adult Food Security and Social Capital. among Patients Using Free and Fee-for Service Diabetes Clinics in Rural, Appalachian Ohio. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, A100.
[9]. Cleaver, F. (2005). The inequality of social capital and the reproduction of chronic poverty. World Development, 33: 893-906.
[10]. Cutter et al. (2008): A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters.
[11]. Devereux, S., and Getu, M. (2013). The conceptualization and status of informal and formal social protection in sub-Saharan Africa. Organisation for Social Research in Eastern and Southern Africa.
[12].Di Gregorio, M., Hagedorn, K., Kiri, M., Korf, B., McCarthy, N., Meinzen‐Dick, R., Swallow, B., Mwangi, E., and Markelova,H., (2012). “Property Rights and Collective Action for Poverty Reduction: A Framework forAnalysis.” In Collective Action and Property Rights for Poverty Reduction: Insights from Africa and Asia.
[13]. Edwards, B. & Foley, M. (1998). Social capital and the political economy of our discontent. American Behavioral Scientist, 40(5), 669-678.
[14]. Flora, C.B., Flora, J.L., Fey, S., (2004). Rural communities: legacy and change. West view Press, Boulder, CO.
[15]. Food and Agriculture Organization. (2000). The state of food insecurity in the world. Rome, Italy: FAO.
[16. Fox, J. (1996). How does civil society thicken? The political construction of social capital in rural Mexico. World Development, 24, 1089–1103.
[17]. Global Report on Food Crises (2020). Joint analysis for better decisions. Food Security Information Network publication.
[18]. Grootaert, C. and Narayan, D. 2004. Local institutions, poverty and household welfare in Bolivia. World Development, 32, 1179-1198.
[19]. Haroon, S., Mazur, R.E., and Cornelia, B.F. (2018). Social capital dimensions in household food security interventions: implications for rural Uganda. Agriculture and Human values 35,117- 129 (2018).
[20]. Heale, R., and Twycross, A. (2015). Validity and reliability in quantitative studies. Evidence- based nursing, ebnurs-2015.
[21]. Hoddinott, J., S. Dercon, and P. Krishnan. (2009). “Networks and Informal Mutual Support in Ethiopian Villages: A Description.” In Institutional Economics Perspectives on African Agricultural Development.
[22]. Holben, D.A. (2002). An overview of food security and its measurement. Nutrition Today, 37(4), 156-163.
[23]. Hunt, W., Vanclay, F., Birch, C., Coutts, J., & Flittner, N. (2011). Agicultural Extention: Building Capacity and Resilience in Rural Industries and Communities. Rural Sociology, 112-127.
[24]. International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI, 2009). Expanding livestock insurance Coverage in Turkana County.
[25]. Kareithi, J.N. (2010), “Declining social capital and vulnerability to livelihood risks in Turkana district, Kenya”. Journal of the Institute of African Studies, Vol. 11, pp. 33-46.
[26]. Keck, M., and P. Sakdapolrak. 2013. “What Is Social Resilience? Lessons Learned and the Way Forward.” Erdkunde, 67 (1): 5–19.
[27]. Keenan, D.P., Olson, C., Hersey. J.C. and Parmer S.M. (2001). Measures of food insecurity/security. Journal of Nutrition Education, 33, 49-58.
[28]. Kennedy, E. and Haddad, L. (1992). Food security and nutrition, 1971-91: lessons learned and future priorities. Food Policy 17(1), 2-6.
[29]. Kiboro, C.N. (2018). Impact of social capital on the resettlement of internally displaced persons: The case of Nakuru and Uasin Gishu Counties Kenya, College of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Nairobi.
[30]. Mertens, D. M. (2014). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Sage publications.
[31]. Morrow, S. E. (2013). Social capital, food security, and resource utilization in a low income population. Ann Arbor, MI: Masters Abstracts International.
[32]. Morton, L. W., Bitto, E. A., Oakland, M. J., and Mary, S. (2008). Accessing Food Resources: Rural and Urban Patterns of Giving and Getting Food. Agriculture and Human Values, 107-120.
[33]. Moser, C. (2010). Pro-poor adaptation to climate change in urban centers: Case studies of vulnerability and resilience in Kenya and Nicaragua, 54947-GLB.
[34. Nakagawa, Y., and R. Shaw. (2004). “Social Capital: A Missing Link to Disaster Recovery.” International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 22 (1): 5–34.
[35]. Narayan, D., Pritchett, L. (1999). Cents and sociability: household income and social capital in rural Tanzania. Econ. Dev. and Cult. Change 47, 871-897.
[36]. Njuki, J. M., M. T. Mapila, S. Zingore, and R. Delve. (2008). “The Dynamics of Social Capital in Influencing Use of Soil Management Options in the Chinyanja Triangle of Southern Africa.” Ecology and Society, 13 (2): 9.
[37]. Omolo, N. and Mafongoya, P. (2019). "Gender, social capital and adaptive capacity to climate variability: A case of pastoralists in arid and semi-arid regions in Kenya", International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, Vol. 11 No. 5, pp. 744- 758.
[38]. Omondi, D.O., (2013). Why Turkana people must benefit from the oil and water discoveries in their native land. Published on the Kenyan Standard Newspaper of 1st October, 2013.
[39]. OXFAM (2017). The Future is a Choice: OXFAM Framework and Guidance for Resilient Development.
[40]. Pretty, J. & Ward, H. (2001). Social capital and the environment. World Development, 29(2), 209-227.
[41]. Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
[42]. Rose, R. (2000). How much does social capital add to individual health? A survey study of Russians. Social Science & Medicine, 51(9), 1421-1435.
[43]. Rutland, A., and Killen, M. (2015). A developmental science approach to reducing prejudice and social exclusion: Intergroup processes, social‐cognitive development, and moral reasoning. Social Issues and Policy Review, 9(1), 121-154.
[44]. Saegert, S., Thompson, J., Warren, M. (2001). Social capital and poor communities, Russen Sage Foundation, New York.
[45]. Shackleton, S., Ziervogel, G., Sallu, S., Gill, T., and Tschakert, P. (2015). Why is socially‐just climate change adaptation in sub-Saharan Africa so challenging? A review of barriers identified from empirical cases. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 6(3), 321- 344.
[46]. Tajfel, H., Turner,J.C., Austin,W.G., and Worchel,S. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict. Organizational identity: A reader, 56-65.
[47]. Thomas, J. R., Silverman, S., and Nelson, J. (2015). Research methods in physical activity, 7E. Human kinetics.
[48]. Tumbo, S. D., K. D. Mutabazi, K. F. G. Masuki, F. B. Rwehumbiza, H. F. Mahoo, S. J. Nindi, and J. G. Mowo. (2013). “Social Capital and Diffusion of Water System Innovations in the Makanya Watershed, Tanzania.” The Journal of Socio‐economics 43:24–36.
[49]. United States Agency for International Development Center for Resilience. (2018). Economics of resilience to drought: Kenya analysis.
[50]. Uphoff, N. Wijayaratna, C.M., (2000). Demonstrated benefits from social capital: the productivity of farmer organizations in Gal Oya, Sri Lanka. World Development, 28, 1875-1890.

[51]. Watson,D.J., and Bisbergen, J.V. Livestock Market access and opportunities in Turkana Kenya. ILRI research report 3, 106, Nairobi, Kenya.




How to Cite

Ekiru , M., Mulwa, D. A. S. ., & Kyalo , P. D. N. . (2020). Significance of Social Capital in Community Resilience and Performance of Food Security Project in Loima Sub-County, Turkana County, Kenya. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(5), 589–606.