Relational Sociological Analysis of Uncertainties: The case of COVID-19 In Turkey


  • Aytul Kasapoglu Baskent University
  • Alev Akbal



Relational sociology, ambage, ambiquity, contingency, turning point,liminality, COVID-19, pandemi.


 The main research  problem of this study is that due to the uncertainties experienced, rationality has been replaced by feelings like morale panic and not all of the precautions will be applied by 55%, although it is known to be 90%. The main purpose of this article, Turkey and all experienced Covidien-19 (Corono virus)from the effects of a new virus in the world, is to examine the sociological basis of the news (reports) in the Turkish media The concepts of "uncertainties", "turning point" and "liminality" in social relations and values, classified by Harrison White (1992), constitute the theoretical basis of this relational sociological  study. The research questions, in which the article was sought in the critical analysis of the media, were formed on the basis of this theoretical framework. Uncertainties in social relations and values have been tried to be revealed through political discourse analysis of pictures and messages (Van Dick, 2016). Research findings revealed that the news in the media related to COVID-19virus caused attitudes and behaviors similar to those observed in previous bird flue (2005) and pig flue (2010) outbreaks in Turkey. In other words, while ontological insecurities lead to irrational reactions (morale panic) with the contribution of the media,  serious measures , such as curfews of people over 65, are not taken too seriously despite all warnings of the Minister of Health and Science Committee. On the other hand, it can be said that the authoritarian tendencies towards broader measures such as the curfew proclamation in the whole country have increased.

Author Biography

Aytul Kasapoglu, Baskent University

Department of Sociology


Abbott, A.D. (1981) Status and Status Strain in the Profession. American Journal of Sociology 80: 819-835Abbott, A.D. (2001) Time Matters: On Theory and Method. Chicago: Chicago UP.
Akbal,A. (2016) Korku Kültürü ve Belirsizliğin Sosyolojik Analizi: Basında Domuz Gribi Örneği. In Uygulamalı Ilişkisel Sosyoloji (ed.A.Kasapoglu). İstanbul:Yeni İnsan (pp.257-292)
Altheide,D.L. (2002) Creating Fear: News and the Construction of a Criss. Piscataway,New Jersey: Transaction Publishers .
Altheide, D,L. (2009) Moral Panic: From Sociological Concept to Public Discourse. Crime, Media and Culture 5: 79-99.
Alves,H.M.M. (1982) The Formation of National Security State: The State and the Opposition in Military Brazil :2.
Bauman,Z. (2006) Liquid Fear: Cambridge Polity.
Bauman,Z. (2007)Liquid Times:Living in an Age of Ancertainty: Cambridge:Polity.
Bearman, P.S.,Faris, R., Moody, J. (1999) Blocking the Future: New Solutions for Old Problems in Historical Social Science, Social Science History 23: 501-535.
Beck,U. (1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. Newbury Park,CA : Sage.
Beckman, C.M.,Haunschils, P.R., Phillips, D.J. (2004) Friends or Strangers ? Firm –Specific Uncertainty, Market Uncertainty and Network Partner Selection, Organization Science 15: 259-275
Bourdieu, P. (1983) The Field of Cultural Production, or the Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12:311-356.
Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinctions: A Social Critiques of the Judgement of Taste. Cambridge MA.
Bourdieu, P. (1998) Practical Reason. Stanford: Stanford UP
Cohen,S. (1972) Folk Devils and Moral Panics: The Creation of the Mods and Rockers. Oxford: Martin Robertson.
Connidis, I.A., Mc Mullin,J.A. (2002) Sociological Ambivalence of Family Ties: A Critical Perspective, Journal of Marriage and Family,64: 558-567.
Connidis, I.A. (2015) Exploring Ambivalance in Family Ties. Journal of Marriage and family, 77: 77-95.
Critcher, C.(2003) Moral Panics and Media. Philadelphia,PA: Open University Press.
Critcher,C. (2011) For a Political Economy of Moral Panics. Crime, Media, Culture, 3: 269-275.
Crichton, M. (2004) State of Fear (ISBN 0-06-621413-0)
Dasgupta, P. (1988) Trust as a Commodity İç. Trust: Making a Breaking Co-operative Relations. /ed. D. Gambetta). Oxford, UK: Basil Blackwell. (pp.49-72).
Durkheim,E. (1995) The Elemantary Forms Of Religious Life, (Transleted. Karen E. Fields), The Free Press, New York,
Emirbayer,M. (1997) Manifesto for a Relational Sociology.American Journal of Sociology,103:281-317.
Falkof,N. (2017) The Devil,Destroyed Us: Satanism and Gender Violence in South Africa. Feminist Nedia Sudies, 3 :426-439)
Falkof , N.(2018) On Moral Panic: Some Directions for Further Development. Critical Sociology (
Furedi,F. (2001)Korku Kültürü (Trans.B.Yıldırım) Istanbul, Ayrıntı.
Furedi, F. (2005) Politics of Fear: Beyond left and Right (ISBN 0 8264-8728-9)
Garland, D.(2008) On the Concept of Moral Panic. Crime, Media, Culture, 1:9-30.
Gerbner,S.G., Gross,L.,Morgan,M.,Signorielli, N. (1980) The Mainstreaming of America: Violence Profile. Journal of Communication 28, 176-207.
Giddens,A. (1991)Modernity and Self-identity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Goffman, E. (1959) The Production of Self in Everyday Life. Gardencity, NY: Doubleday.
Goode,E., Ben Yehuda,N. (1994) Moral Panics The Social Construction of Deviance. Cambridge MA, Blackwell.
Goode,E., Ben Yehuda,N. (2011) Grounding and Defending the Soci
ology of Moral Panic. In S.P.Hier (ed) Moral Panic and the Politics of Anxiety.London: Routledge (pp.20-36).
Hall,S., Critcher,C., Jefferson,T.,Roberts, B.(1978) Policing the Crisis :Mugging the State and Law Oeder.London: Macmillan.
Hier, S.P.(2018) Moral Panics and Digital Media Logic: Notes on Changing Research Agenda. Crime,Media, Culture (
Howarth,A. (2013) A Superstorm: When Moral Panic and New Risks Discourses Convergence in the Media, Helath Risk and Soceity,681-698.
Hunt,A. (2011) Fractious Rivals: Moral Panics and Moral Regulation. In. S.P.Hier (ed) Moral Panic and Politics of Anxiety. London: Routledge (53-70).
Hutton,W., Giddens,A. (2000) Is Globalization Americanization? Will Hutton and Antony Giddens in Conversation (
Hutton,W. (2020) Coronavirus Won’t end Globalization, but Change it Hugely for the Better. Opinion, (The March.2020 05.00 EDT)
Ingraham,C., Reeves,J. (2016)New Media, New Panics: Critical Studies in Media Communication, 5: 455:467.
Jones,J., Peccei,J.S. (2004) Language and Politics.In. L.Thomas (ed.) Language, Soceity.and Power.New York:Routledge.
Kasapoglu,A. (1982 ;1999) Sağlık Örgütlerinde Personelin Sosyal İlişkileri. In. Sağlık Sosyolojisi. (ed). M.Ecevit. Ankara: Sosyoloji Derneği Yay.
Kasapoğlu,A.,Odabas,Y.Z., Kaya,N. (2009) The case of Avian Influenza in Turkey: European Societies, 1-16 .
Kasapoglu, A. (2016) Muğla Atölyesinden Esintiler. Muğla: Menteşe Belediyesi.
Kasapoglu, A. (2017) “A Relational Sociological Study on the Effects of Uncertainties in the Case of Influenza in Turkey.” International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8:618-630. (http/
Kaya,N.Ç., Kasapoglu, A., Odabas , Y.(2009)”Do Global Threats Leads to Awareness or Alienation: The Case of Avian Influenza in Turkey”. Journal of Environmental Sciences,1: 29-37.
Mills.C.W. (2000) Toplumbilimsel Düşün (Trans.U.Oskay) Istanbul: Der.
Neuman,L.W. (2009) Toplumsal Araştırma Yöntemleri,I. (Trans.S.Ozge).Istanbul: Yayın Odası.
Ozdemir, A. (2017) Umre Yolculuğunun Önemi ve Sağlayacağı Kazanımlar, Avrasya Sosyal ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi. 10: 1-11.
Seeman,M. (1959) On the Meaning of Alienation. American Sociological Review, 6; 783-791.
Taylor, C. (2017) Modernliğin Sıkıntıları (Çev. U. Canbilen), İstanbul: Ayrıntı.
Turner, V.W. (1988) Anthropology of Performance. New York: PAJ.
Udvarhelyi,E.T. (2014) The Crimininalization of Homelessness as State of Strategy in Hungary. Antipode, 3: 271-291.
Van Dijk ,T.A. (1993) Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis ? Discourse and Society,2:249-283.
Veloxity (2020) Evde-kal-cagrisina-İstanbulunun-en fazla-hangi-semtleri katildi (https//
Walker,R. (2017) Selling Sex, Mothering and Keeping Well in the City: Reflecting on the Everyday Experiences of Cross-border Migrant Women Who Sell Sex in Johannesburg. Urban Forum,1 : 59-73.
White,H.C. (1992) Identity and Control: A Structural Theory of Social Action. Princeton NJ: Princeton UP.
White, H.C. (2002) Markets From Networks: Socioeconomic Models of Production. Princeton N.J.: Princeton UP.
White, H.C. (2008) Identity and Control: How Social Formations Emerges. Princeton N.J.: Princeton UP.
White, H.C.,Godart, F.C., Corona, V.P. (2007) Mobilizing Identities: Uncertainty and Control Strategy, Theory, Culture and Society 24:181-202.
White, H. C. (2010) Switching Under Uncertainty: The Coming and Becoming Meaning. Poetics 38:567-586.
White, H.C, Godart, F.C.,Thiemann, M. (2013) “Turning Points and the Space of Possibles: A Relational Perspective on the Different Forms of Uncertainty”. In. Applying Relational Sociology: Relations, Networks and Society. ( eds. François Depelteau ve Christopher Powel). New York: Palgrave (ss.137-154)
Young,J. (1971) The Drugtakers :The Social Meaning of Drug Use. London: Paladin.
Young,J.(2009) Moral Panic:Its Origins in Resistance, Resessentiment and the Translation of Fantasy into Reality. British Journal of Criminology, 1: 4-16.
Zizek, S.(2019)Like a Thief in Broad Daylight : Power in the Era of Post-human Capitalism. Penguin audiobook ,read by Jamie East.
Zizek,S. (2020)” What I like About Coronovirus”.Spectator,USA, 14 March,




How to Cite

Kasapoglu, A., & Akbal, A. (2020). Relational Sociological Analysis of Uncertainties: The case of COVID-19 In Turkey. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(4), 197–228.