Gender Identity

Main Article Content

Maria Patrícia Ribeiro
Diana Moreira
Rui Coelho
Altamiro Pereira
Fernando Almeida

Abstract

The aim was to contribute to future research on Gender Identity associated with other domains of human reality, while looking to not forget that, over time, it was an essential topic in Arts and Sciences, reflecting a curiosity to define, interpret, and research “representations” of masculine and feminine roles regarding the “actors” (men or women) of the “acts”, as well as their “spectators” (the other men and women, who are all of us). Currently, there seems to be an intensifying of undifferentiation of the roles assigned to Gender, a kind of androgyny, though without this meaning the existence of internal resonance of this undifferentiation, as if one walked towards a narcissistic society, as if it were mental hermaphroditism. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Ribeiro, M. P., Moreira, D., Coelho, R., Pereira, A., & Almeida, F. (2018). Gender Identity. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(10). https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.510.5207
Section
Articles

References

Adams, G. (1998). Objective measure of ego identity status: A reference manual. Guelph, Ontario: University of Guelph.

Adams, G., Shea, J., & Fitch, S. (1979). Toward the development of an objective assessment of ego-identity status. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 8, 223-237.

Althof, S. (2000). Erectile dysfunction: Psychotherapy with men and couples. In S. R. Leiblum & R. C. Rosen (Eds.). Principles and practices of sex therapy (pp. 242-275). New York: Guilford.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.


Anastasi, A. (1982). Psychological Testing. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Andersen, L., & Cyranowski, M., (1995). Women’s Sexuality. Behaviors, Responses and Individual Differences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(6), 891-906.

Angelides, S. (2001). A History of Bisexuality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33(2), 170-172.

Badinter, E. (1992). XY On Masculine Identity. Lisboa: Asa Editora.

Bailey, J., & Zucker, K. (1995). Childhood sex-typed behavior and sexual orientation: A conceptual analysis and quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 31, 43-55.

Barker, J., Mathis, J., & Powers, C. (1953). Drawing characteristics of male homosexuals. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 9, 185-188.

Barnett, M. (1960). Vaginal awareness in the infancy and childhood of girls. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 14, 129-141.

Bégoin, J. (2000). A Adolescência: Descoberta e Integração da Identidade Sexual. Revista da Sociedade Portuguesa de Psicanálise, 20, 3-16.

Bem, S. (1974). The measurement of psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 42, 155-162.

Bem, S. (1975). Sex role adaptability: One consequence of psychological androgyny. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 634-643.

Bem, S. (1977). On the utility of alternative procedures for assessing psychological androgyny. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 45, 196-205.

Bem, S. (1981a). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex typing. Psychological Review, 88, 354-364.

Bem, S. (1983). Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. Signs, 8, 598-617.

Bem, S. (1985). Androgyny and gender schema theory: A conceptual and empirical integration. In T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.). Nebraska Symposium of Motivation: Psychology and gender (pp. 179-226). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Bem, S. (1998). Gender schema theory and its implications for child development: Raising gender-aschematic children in a gender-schematic society. In D. Anselni & A. Law (Eds.). Questions of Gender: Perspectives and Peradoses (pp. 262-274). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Berzins, J., Welling, M., & Weller, F. (1978). A new measure of psychological androgyny based on the personality research form. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 126-136.

Bettelheim, B. (1954). Symbolic. Wounds Glencoe, III: Free Press.
Biller, H. (1976). The father and personality development: Paternal deprivation and sex role development. In M. Lamb (Ed.) The role of the father in child development (pp. 319-358). New York: Wiley.

Blanchard, R., & Freund, K. (1985). Measuring masculine gender identity in females. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 205-214.
Block, J. (1973). Conceptions of sex role. Some cross cultural and longitudinal perspectives. American Psychologist, 28, 512-526.

Bower, H. (2001). The Gender Identity Disorder in the DSM-IV Classification: A Critical Evaluation. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 35(1), 1-8.

Bronson,W. (1959). Dimensions of ego infantile identification. Journal of Personality, 27, 532-545.

Campo, J., Nijman, H., Merckelbach, H., & Evers, C. (2003). Psychiatric Comorbidity of Gender Identity Disorders: A Survey among Dutch Psychiatrists. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(7), 1332-1336.

Cass, V. (1979). Homosexual identity formation: A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219- 235.

Chodorow, N. (1974). Family structure and feminine personality. In M. Z. Rosaldo & L. Lamphere (Eds.), Women, culture and society (pp. 43-66). Stanford. CA: Stanford University Press.

Coleman, E. (1982). Development stages of the coming-out process. American Behavior Scientist, 25, 477.

Constantinople, A. (1973). Masculinity-femininity: An exception to the famous dictum? Psychological Bulletin, 80, 389-407.

Costos, D. (1986). Sex Role Identity in Young Adults: Its Parental Antecedents and Relation to Ego Development. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(3), 602-611.

David, C. (1975). Présentation du Rapport: La Bissexualité Psychique: Eléments d’une Réévaluation. Revue Française de Psychanalyse XXXVéme, XXXIX, 695-803.

Davis, D. (1998). The Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders. Transcultural Psychiatry Special Issue: Culture in DSM-IV, 35(3), 401-412.

Douvan, E. (1960). Sex difference in adolescent character processes. Merril Palmer Quarterly, 6 203-211.

Edwards, V., & Spence, J. (1987). Gender-related traits, stereotypes and schemata. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 146-154.

Egan, S., & Perry, D. (2001). Gender Identity: A Multidimensional Analysis with Implications for Psychosocial Adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37(4), 451-463.

Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.

Foucalt, M. (1994). História da Sexualidade I. A Vontade de Saber. Lisboa: Relógio de Água.

Fraiberg, S. (1972). Some characteristics of genital arousal and discharge in latency girls. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 27, 439-475.

Franck, K., & Rosen, E. A. (1949). A projective test of masculinity-femininity. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 13, 247-256.

Freud, S. (1905). Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Freud, S. (1908). Hysterical Phanthasys and their Relation to Bisexuality. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Freud, S. (1915). Instincts and their Vicissitudes. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Freud, S. (1917). Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.

Freud, S. (1923). The Ego and the Id. Madrid: Editorial Biblioteca Nueva.
Freund, K., Langevin, R, Satterberg, J., & Steiner, B. (1977). Extension of the Gender Identity Scale for Males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 507-519.

Freund, K., Steiner, B., & Chan, S. (1982). Two Types of Cross-Gender Identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11(1), 49-63.

Gangestad, S., Bailey, J., & Martin, N. (2000). Taxometric Analysis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(6), 1109-1121.

Gough, H. (1957). Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Gough, H. (1975). Manual for the California Psychological Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Graham, J. (1977a). The MMPI: A Practical Guide. New York: Oxford University Press.

Graham, J. (1977b). Review of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Special Scales. In Advances in Psychological Assessment. Volume 4. Paul McReynolds (Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Graham, J., Schroeder, H. E., & Lilly, R. (1971). Factor analysis of items on the social introversion and masculinity-femininity scales of the MMPI. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 367-370.

Green, R. (1974). Sexual identity conflict in children and adults. New York: Basic Books.

Greenson, R. (1968). Dis-identifying from the mother: its special importance for the boy. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 49, 370-374.

Grotevant, H. (1992). Assigned and chosen identity components: A process perspective on their integration. In G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullotta, & R. Montemayor (Eds.). Adolescent identity formation (pp. 73-190). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Guilford, J., & Zimmerman, W. (1949). The Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey: Manual of instruction and interpretation. Beverly Hills, CA: Sheridan Supply Co.

Harris, J. (1995). Where is the child’s environment? A group socialization theory of development. Psychological Review, 102, 458-489.

Haslam, N. (1997). Evidence that male sexual orientation in a matter of degree. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 862-870.

Hathaway, R., & Mckinley, J. (1943). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Minneapolis. EUA: University of Minnesota Press.
Heilbrun, A. (1976). Identification with the father and sex role development of the daughter. Family Coordinator, 25, 411-416.

Heinich, N. (1996). Estados da mulher. A identificação feminina na ficção ocidental. Lisboa: Editorial Estampa, Lda.

Hetherington, E. (1965). A development study of effects of sex of the dominant parent on sex role preference, identification, and imitation in children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 843-851.

Irvine, J. (1995). Sexuality education across cultures. Scarborough, Ontario: Jossey-Bass.

Jung, C. (1959). The archetypes of the collective unconscious: The collected works of CG. University of Minnesota: Pantheon Books.

Jung. (1971). Psychological types: The collected works of CG. University of Minnesota: Pantheon Books.

Kagan, J. (1964). Acquisition and significance of sex typing and sex role identity. In M.L. Hoffman & L.W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research (Vol. 1, pp. 137-168). New York: Russel Sage Foundation.

Kelly, J., & Worell, L. (1976). Parent behaviors related to masculine, feminine and androgynous sex role orientations. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 44, 843-851.

Kestenberg, J. (1968). Outside and inside male and female. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 16, 457-520.

Klein, A. (1993). Little big men: Bodybuilding subculture and gender construction. New York: State University of New York.

Klonsky, D., Serrita, J., Turkheimer, E., & Oltmanns, T. (2002). Gender Role and Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6(5), 464-476.

Kohlberg, L. (1966). A cognitive-developmental analysis of children sex-role concepts and attitudes. In E.E. Maccoby (Ed.) The development of sex differences pp. 82-173). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Konik, J., & Stewart, A. (2004). Sexual Identity Development in the Context of Compulsory Heterosexuality. Journal of Personality, 72(4), 815-844.

Kubie, L. (1974). The drive to become both sexes. Psychoanalytic, 43, 349-426.

Lacan, J. (1966). Ècrits, Paris: Editions du Seuil.

Larsen, R., & Seidman, E. (1986). Gender Schema Theory and Sex Role Inventories: Some Conceptual and Psychometric Considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(1), 205-211.

Lynn, D. (1976). Fathers and sex role development. Family Coordinator, 25, 403-409.

Maccoby, E. (1998). The two sexes. Growing up apart, coming together. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.

Moulton, R., Liberty, P. Jr., Burnstein, E., & Altucher, N. (1966). Patterning of parental affection and disciplinary dominance as a determinant of guilt and sex typing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4, 356-363.

National Science Foundation (1996). Women, minorities, and persons with disabilities in science and engineering: 1996 (National Science Foundation Publication No. 96-311). Arlington, VA: Author.

Nosek, B., Banaji, M., & Greenwald, A. (2002). Math = Male, ME = Female, Therefore Math ≠ ME. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(1), 44-59.

O’Heron, C., & Orlofsky, J. (1990). Stereotypic and Nonstereotypic Sex Role Trait and Behavior Orientations, Gender Stöller Identity, and Psychological Adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(1), 134-143.

Orlofsky, J. (1979). Parental antecedents sex role orientation in college men and women. Sex Roles, 5, 495-512.

Orlofsky, J. (1981). Relationship between sex-role attitudes and personality traits and the Sex- Role Behavior Scale-1: A new measure interests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 927-940.

Pleck, J. (1975). Masculinity-femininity. Current and alternative paradigms. Sex Roles, I, 161-178.

Pleck, J. (1977). The psychology of sex roles: Traditional and new views. In L. A. Cater, A. F. Scott, & Martine (Eds.). Women and men: Changing roles, relationships, and perception (pp. 181-199). New York: Praeger.
Poeschl, G., Múrias, C., & Ribeiro, R. (2003). As Diferenças entre os Sexos: Mito ou Realidade?. Análise Psicológica, 2(XXI), 213-228.

Rekers, G. (1972). Pathological sex-role development in boys: Behavioral treatment and assessment. Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles. Ann Arbor, MI: University Microfilms.

Rekers, G. (1975). Stimulus control over sex-typed play in cross-gender identified boys. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 20, 136-148.
Rekers, G. (1977). Assessment and treatment of childhood gender problems. In B.B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology, Volume I (pp. 267-306). New York: Plenum Press.
Rekers, G. (1985). Gender identity problems. In P. A. Bornstein & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Handbook of clinical behavior therapy with children (pp.. 658-699). Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

Rienzi, B., Forquera, J., & Hitchock, D. (1995). Gender Stereotypes for Proposed D.S.M.-IV Negativistic, Depressive, Narcissistic, and Dependent Personality Disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 9(1), 49-55.
Rosenfeld, H. (1971). A Clinical Approach to the Psychoanalytic Theory of Life and Death Instincts: An Investigation into the Aggressive of Narcissism. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 52, 169-178.

Rouart, J. (1975). Narcisse et la Bisexualité Psychique ou le Suspens Narcissique. Revue Française de Psychanalyse, 5(6), 993-1012.

Rubinstein, G. (2003). Macho Man: Narcissism, Homophobia, Agency, Communion, and Authoritarianism – A Comparative Study among Israeli Bodybuilders and a Control Group. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 4(2), 100-110.

Ruble, D., & Martin, C. (1998). Gender development. In N. Eisenberg, (Ed.), Handbook of childpsychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 933-1016). New York: Wiley.

Serkownek, K. (1975). Subscales for Scales 5 and 0 of the MMPI. Unpublished Manuscript.

Shepler, B. (1951). A comparison of masculinity-femininity measures. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 15, 484-486.

Silverman, A. (1986). La Identificacion en la Formacion Saludable y Patologica del Carácter. Libro Anual de Psicoanálisis, 103-112.

Spence, J. (1984a). Gender identity and its implications for the concepts of masculinity and femininity. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 32, 59-96.

Spence, J. (1984b). Masculinity, femininity and gender-related traits: A conceptual analysis and critique of current research. Progress in Experimental Personality Research, 1, 1-97.

Spence, J. (1985). Gender identity and its implications for the concepts of masculinity and femininity. In T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.). Nebraska symposium on motivation: Psychology and Gender (Vol. 32, pp. 59-95). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Spence, J. (1993). Gender-related traits and gender ideology: evidence for a multifactorial theory. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 624-635.

Spence, J. (1999). Thirty years of gender research: A personal chronicle. In W. B. Swann, J. H. Langlois & Gilbert, L. A. (Eds.). Sexism and stereotypes in modern society. The gender science of Janet Taylor Spence, (pp. 255-289). Washington: American Psychological Association.

Spence, J., & Buckner, C. (1995). Masculinity and femininity: Defining the undefinable. In P. J. Kalbfleisch & M. J. Cody (Eds.), Gender, power, and, communication in human relationships (pp. 105-138). Hillsdale, NJ: Eribaum.

Spence, J., & Hall, S. (1996). Children’s gender-related self-perception, activity preferences, and occupational stereotypes: A test of three models of gender constructs. Sex Roles, 35, 659-691.

Spence, J., & Helmreich, R. (1978). Masculinity and femininity: Their psychological dimensions, correlates, and antecedents. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Spence, J., & Helmreich, R. (1980). Masculine instrumentality and feminine expressiveness: their relationships with sex role attitudes and behaviors. Psychology of Women Quarterly 5(2), 147-163.

Spence, J., Helmreich, R., & Holaban, C. (1979). Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to neurotic behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1673-1682.

Spence, J., Helmreich, R., & Stapp, J. (1975). Ratings of self and peers on sex role attributes and their relations to self-esteem and conceptions of masculinity and femininity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 29-39.

Stöller, R. (1968). Sex and Gender. New York: Aronson.

Stöller, R. (1975). Sex and Gender. The transsexual Experiment. New York: Aronson.

Stöller, R. (1984). Sex and Gender. The development of masculinity and femininity. Maresfield Library: Karnac Books.

Storms, M. (1979). Sex role identity and relationships to sex role attributes and sex role stereotypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1779-1789.

Terman, L., & Miles, C. (1936). Sex and personality: Studies in masculinity and femininity. New York: McGraw Hill.

Tiefer, L. (1995). Sex is not a natural act. Boulder, CO: Westview.

Torok, M. (1979). The significance of penis envy woman. In J. Chasseguet-Smirgel (ed.), Female Sexuality Ann Arbor. Univ. of Michigan Press.

Vieira, C. (2004). Empirical Studies Implications of the Male and Female Characteristics: Masculinity, Femininity and Androgyny. Psychologica, 623-633.

Wakefield, J. Jr, Sasek, J., Friedman, A., & Bowden, J. (1976). Androgyny and other measures of masculinity-femininity. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Pathology, 44, 766-660.

Weinberg, G. (1972). Society and the healthy homosexual. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

White, K., & Speisman, J. (1977). Adolescence. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Whitkin, H., Lewis, H., Hertzman, M., Machover, K., Bretnall-Meissner, P., & Wagner, S. (1954). Personality through perception – an experimental and clinical study. New York: Harper & Brothers.

Yarhouse, M. (2001). Sexual Identity Development: The Influence of Valuative Frameworks on Identity Synthesis. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38(3), 331-341.

Yunger, J., Carver, P., & Perry, D. (2004). Does Gender Identity Influence Children’s Psychological Well – Being?. Developmental Psychology, 40(4), 572-582.