Rural Tourism: A Grounded Theory on Limited Stakeholder Advocacy
Keywords:Hospitality, Tourism, Management
While many rural areas in the southeast look to tourism to help supplement diminishing financial opportunities due to the decline in manufacturing and farming, many communities still incur obstacles and are unable to sustain a viable tourist destination area. Without entrusting the Destination Marketing Organization (DMO) to identify stakeholders’ contributions for the betterment of the community as a destination brand and visitor demands, expectations cannot be met. Working within small-town politics, nativity of the benefits of tourism, and misaligned brand images, the DMOs and stakeholders appear ineffective in marketing the rural area as a destination that fully embodies the culture, history, and natural resources contained within their respective geographic boundaries.
Understanding how to build and obtain stakeholders’ confidence, a DMO can cultivate strategic relationships through social exchanges and strengthen trust within stakeholder groups. These relationships sustain an all-inclusive brand image for the rural destination area, increasing visitor satisfaction, and stakeholder investment.
. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: John Wiley.
. Bramwell, B., and Lane, B. (1993). Interpretation and sustainable tourism: the potential and the pitfalls. Journal of Sustainable Tourism 1(2), 71–80.
. Butler, R.W. and Hall, C.M. (1998). Tourism and recreation in rural areas: myth and reality. In Rural Tourism Management: Sustainable Options, Conference Proceedings, 9-12 Sept 1998. D Hall and L O'Hanlon (ed), Scottish Agricultural College, Auchenvyre, 97-108.
. Clark, G., & Chabrel, M. (2007). Measuring integrated rural tourism. Tourism Geographies, 9 (4), 371-386.
. Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research (3rd ed.): Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
. Destination Marketing Association International. (2015, July 21). Retrieved from https://destinationsinternational.org
. Douglas, Norman. & Douglas, Ngaire. & Derrett, Ros. (2001). Special interest tourism : context and cases. Milton, Qld : John Wiley & Sons, http://www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/wiley031/2002510507.html
. Eadington, W. R., and Smith, V. L. (1992). Introduction: The Emergence of Alternative Forms of Tourism. Tourism Alternatives, Smith, V. L., and Eadington, W. R. (Eds.), Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1-12.
. Fetterman, D.M. (1998). Ethnography: Step by Step. (Second Edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
. Fleischer, A., & Felsenstein. (2000). Support for rural tourism: Does it make a difference? Annals of Tourism Research, 27 (4), 1007-1024.
. Frederick, M. (1993). Rural tourism and economic development. Economic Development Quarterly, 7(2), 215–224.
. Gunn, C. (1988). Vacationscape: Designing Tourist Regions, 2nd ed. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
. Hatch, J. A. (2002). Doing qualitative research in education settings. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
. Hong, W. (1998). Rural tourism: a case study of regional planning in Taiwan. Taipei City, Republic of China on Taiwan: Food & Fertilizer Technology Center.
. Hwang, P., & Burgers, W. (1997). Properties of trust: An analytical view. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 69, 67-73.
. Jingming, H., & Lihua, L. (2002). A Study on the Conceptions of Rural Tourism. Journal of Southwest China Normal University (Philosophy & Social Sciences Edition), 9.
. Kumar, N. (1996). The power of trust in manufacturer-retailer relationship. Harvard Business Review, 74, 92-106.
. Lane, B. (1994). Sustainable Rural Tourism Strategies: A Tool for Development and Conservation, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2, 12-18.
. Lane, B. (2009). What is rural tourism? Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 2 (1-2), 7-21.
. Luhmann, N. (1979) Trust and Power. Chichester: Wiley.
. McCool, S. F., & Martin, S. (1994). Community attachment and attitudes toward tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 29-34.
. McIntosh, R.W., & Goeldner, C.R. (1984). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. New York, N.Y. John Wilay.
. Morgan, R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58(3), 20-38.
. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. (1994). Tourism strategies and rural development, OECD accessed 21 July 2015, <https://www.oecd.org/cfe/tourism/2755218.pdf>
. Pedford, J. (1996). Seeing is believing: the role of living history in marketing local heritage. The Marketing of Tradition, T. Brewer (ed.), Enfield Lock: Hisarlink Press, 13-20.
. Polkinghorne, D. (1989). Phenomenological research methods. In R. Valle & S. Halling (Eds), Existential-phenomenological perspectives in psychology (pp. 3-16). New York: Plenum
. Reeder R., & Brown D. (2005). Recreation, tourism, and rural well-being (ERR-7). Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service.
. Robinson S., & Rousseau D. (1994). Violating the psychological contract: Not the exception but the norm. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 245-259.
. Rousseau, D., Sitkin, S., Burt, R., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Journal of Management Review, 23(3), 393-404.
. Sebby, A.G., (2016). Social exchange between destination marketing organizations and stakeholders in Tennessee’s rural counties. PhD diss., University of Tennessee, https://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/4163
. Sheehan, L., Ritchie, J., & Hudson, S. (2007). The destination promotion triad: Understanding asymmetric stakeholder independencies among city, hotels, and DMO. Journal of Travel Research, 46, 64-74.
. Soteriades, M. (2012). Tourism destination marketing: Approaches improving effectiveness and efficiency. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, Technology, 3(2), 107-120.
. Thibaut, J. W., & Kelley, H. H. (1959). The social psychology of groups. Oxford, England: John Wiley.
. United States Department of Agriculture. (2014, November 23). Retrieved from http://www.rurdev.usda.gov/Home.html.
. United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2016, April 1). Retrieved from. https://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/smart-growth-small-towns-and-rural-communities.
. Wang, Y. (2008). Collaborative destination marketing: Roles and strategies of convention and visitors bureaus. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14(3), 191-209.
. Wang, Y. (2011). Destination marketing and management: Theories and applications, A. Pizam (eds.) CAB International, Wallingford, UK, 1–20.
. Wilson, S., Fesenmaier, D., Fesenmaier, J., & Van Es, J. (2001). Factor for success in rural tourism development. Journal of Travel Research, 40(132), 132-138.