An Empirical Research on the Relationship Between Employee Boreout and Performance: Mediating Role of Procrastination


  • Hadeel Al-Mashadani Istanbul Commerce University, School Social Sience, Sütlüce, İmrahor Cd. No:90, 34445 Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey



The purpose of this study was to discover whether employee boreout was related to employee task performance and whether employee procrastination was mediating this relationship. In order to achieve that, a cross-sectional research has been conducted. The data were collected from 400 employees who work in a telecommunication company operating in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates, using the survey technique, between the 16th of July and the 19th of August, 2022. Linear regression tests were used to analyze the collected data. Findings showed that there was a negative relationship between the crisis of meaning and task performance, job boredom and task performance, and the crisis of growth and task performance. This study also indicated that there was a positive relationship between procrastination and the crisis of meaning, job boredom, and the crisis of growth. Finally, it was revealed for the first time that procrastination was mediating the relationship between employee boreout and task performance.



B. M. Staw, “Organizational behavior: A review and reformulation of the field's outcome variables,” Annual review of psychology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 627-666, 1984.

C. Poirier, M. Gelin, and M. Mikolajczak, “Creation and validation of the first French scale for measuring bore-out in the workplace,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 12, 2021.

K. Bruursema, S. R. Kessler, and P. E. Spector, “Bored employees misbehaving: The relationship between boredom and counterproductive work behaviour,” Work & Stress, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 93–107, 2011.

S. E. Hobfoll, “Conservation of resources: A new attempt at conceptualizing stress.,” American Psychologist, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 513–524, 1989.

H. Moris and A. B. Nedosugova, “Coaching as instrument to identity and remedy for Boreout syndrome with employees,” Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Education Science and Social Development (ESSD 2019), 2019.

J. Shin and A. M. Grant, “When putting work off pays off: The curvilinear relationship between procrastination and creativity,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 772–798, 2021.

U. B. Metin, M. C. Peeters, and T. W. Taris, “Correlates of procrastination and performance at work: The role of having ‘Good fit,’” Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 228–244, 2018.

P. Rothlin and P. Werder, “Diagnose boreout: warum unterforderung im job krank macht,”Munchen, Deutschland, Redline Wirtschaft, 2007.

M. Abubakar, “Using hybrid SEM – artificial intelligence,” Personnel Review, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 67–86, 2019.

S. M. Shuhaimi and N. A. Marzuki, “The moderating effects of basic needs satisfaction at work on the relationships between burnout, work-family conflict and organizational commitment: Relevance of the conservation of resources (COR) theory,” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 2015.

U. Basar and N. Basim, “A cross-sectional survey on consequences of nurses' burnout: Moderating role of organizational politics,” Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 72, no. 8, pp. 1838–1850, 2016.

S. E. Hobfoll, “Conservation of Resource Caravans and engaged settings,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2011.

G. M. Alarcon, “A meta-analysis of burnout with job demands, resources, and attitudes,” Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol. 79, no. 2, pp. 549–562, 2011.

M. L. Cummings, F. Gao, and K. M. Thornburg, “Boredom in the workplace,” Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 279–300, 2015.

M.-L. Huo, “Career Growth Opportunities, thriving at work and career outcomes: Can covid-19 anxiety make a difference?,” Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, vol. 48, pp. 174–181, 2021.

L. Günthner, “Boreout statt burnout: eine psychische erkrankung ausgelöst durch langeweile, unterforderung und desinteresse am arbeitsplatz,” Hamburg, Deutschland, Diplomica Verlag GmbH, 2014.

P. Pandey, S. Singh, and P. Pathak, “An exploratory study on factors contributing to job dissatisfaction of retail employees in India,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 61, p. 102571, 2021.

T. Oshio, “Job dissatisfaction as a predictor of poor health among middle-aged workers: A 14-wave mixed model analysis in Japan,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health, vol. 47, no. 8, pp. 591–599, 2021.

M. S. Peralta, “Depression: It Matters!,” A Silent Culprit in Health and Disease, 2015, pp. 3-24

L. R. Petersen and A. Roy, “Religiosity, anxiety, and meaning and purpose: Religion's consequences for psychological well-being,” Review of Religious Research, pp. 49-62, 1985

F. ÖZSUNGUR, “The effects of BOREOUT on stress, depression, and anxiety in the workplace,” Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1391–1423, 2020.

I.S.A. Schüll, “Stressed by boredom in your home office? on „boreout “as a side-effect of involuntary distant digital working situations on young people at the beginning of their career,” 2021, [online]. Available:

R. M. Stock, “Is Boreout a threat to frontline employees' innovative work behavior?,” Journal of Product Innovation Management, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 574–592, 2014.

R. M. Stock, “A hidden threat of innovativeness: service employee boreout,” American Marketing Association, 2013.

C. Fritz and S. Sonnentag, “Recovery, health, and job performance: Effects of weekend experiences.,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 187–199, 2005.

P. Lanjananda and P. G. Patterson, “Determinants of customer‐oriented behavior in a health care context,” Journal of Service Management, 2009.

R. M. Stock, “Understanding the relationship between frontline employee boreout and customer orientation,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 4259–4268, 2016.

T.-M. Cheng, C.-Y. Hong, and B.-C. Yang, “Examining the moderating effects of service climate on psychological capital, work engagement, and service behavior among flight attendants,” Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 67, pp. 94–102, 2018.

O. M. Karatepe and T. T. Kim, “Investigating the selected consequences of boreout among Cabin Crew,” Journal of Air Transport Management, vol. 82, p. 101739, 2020.

Mei-Ying Wu, “The effects of internal marketing, job satisfaction and service attitude on job performance among high-tech firm,” AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT, vol. 5, no. 32, 2011.

D. Katz and R. L. Kahn, “The social psychology of organizations,” New York: Wiley, 1978.

J. M. Orr, P. R. Sackett, and M. Mercer, “The role of prescribed and nonprescribed behaviors in estimating the dollar value of performance.,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 1989.

J. P. Campbell, “Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.),” Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, pp. 687-732, 1990.

W. C. Borman, and S. M. Motowildo, “Expanding the criterion domain to include elements of contextual performance,” Personnel Selection in Organizations, pp. 71-98, 1993.

S. J. Motowidlo and J. R. Van Scotter, “Evidence that task performance should be distinguished from contextual performance.,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 475–480, 1994.

R.-T. Miao, “Perceived organizational support, job satisfaction, task performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in China,” Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, vol. 12, no. 2, 2011.

N. Befort and K. Hattrup, “Valuing task and contextual performance: experience, job roles, and ratings of the importance of job behaviors,” Applied HRM Research, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 17-32, 2003.

N. Kalia and B. Bhardwaj, “Contextual and task performance: Do demographic and organizational variables matter?,” Rajagiri Management Journal, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 30–42, 2019.

E. Kahya, “The effects of job performance on effectiveness,” International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 96–104, 2009.

J. R. Hackman, “Work redesign and motivation.,” Professional Psychology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 445–455, 1980.

B. D. Edwards, S. T. Bell, W. Arthur, Jr., and A. D. Decuir, “Relationships between facets of job satisfaction and task and contextual performance,” Applied Psychology, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 441–465, 2008.

S. Mo and J. Shi, “The voice link: A moderated mediation model of how Ethical Leadership Affects Individual Task Performance,” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 152, no. 1, pp. 91–101, 2016.

Carmeli, J. E. Dutton, and A. E. Hardin, “Respect as an engine for new ideas: Linking respectful engagement, Relational Information Processing and creativity among employees and teams,” Human Relations, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1021–1047, 2015.

P. M. Podsakoff, S. B. MacKenzie, R. H. Moorman, and R. Fetter, “Transformational leader behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leader, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 107–142, 1990.

R. K. Greenleaf, “Servant leadership: a journey into the nature of legitimate power and greatness,” Paulist Press, 2002.

P. E. Spector and S. Fox, “An emotion-centered model of voluntary work behavior,” Human Resource Management Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 269–292, 2002.

Q. Miao, N. Eva, A. Newman, and G. Schwarz, “Public service motivation and performance: The Role of Organizational Identification,” Public Money & Management, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 77–85, 2018.

B. E. Ashforth and F. Mael, “Social Identity Theory and the organization,” Academy of Management Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 20–39, 1989.

H. Yeh and D. Hong, “The mediating effect of organizational commitment on leadership type and job performance,” The journal of human resource and adult learning, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 55, 2012

J. A. Lepine, J. A. Colquitt, and A. Erez, “Adaptability to changing task contexts: Effects of general cognitive ability, conscientiousness, and openness to experience,” Personnel Psychology, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 563–593, 2000.

Minbashian, J. Earl, and J. E. H. Bright, “Openness to experience as a predictor of job performance trajectories,” Applied Psychology, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 2012.

E. A. Fong and H. L. Tosi, “Effort, performance, and conscientiousness: An agency theory perspective,” Journal of Management, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 161–179, 2007.

L. A. Witt, L. A. Burke, M. R. Barrick, and M. K. Mount, “The interactive effects of conscientiousness and agreeableness on job performance.,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 164–169, 2002.

B. H. Bradley, J. E. Baur, C. G. Banford, and B. E. Postlethwaite, “Team players and collective performance,” Small Group Research, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 680–711, 2013.

L. U. Johnson, A. Rogers, R. Stewart, E. M. David, and L. A. Witt, “Effects of politics, emotional stability, and LMX on job dedication,” Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 121–130, 2016.

J. M. Ntayi, “Work ethic, locus of control and Salesforce Task Performance,” Journal of African Business, vol. 6, no. 1-2, pp. 155–176, 2005.

H. M. Lefcourt, “Locus of control,” Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Attitudes, pp. 413–499, 1991.

T. M. Begley et al., “The relationships of type A behavior and optimism with job performance and blood pressure,” Journal of Business and Psychology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 215-227, 2000.

M. H. Murtza, S. A. Gill, H. D. Aslam, and A. Noor, “Intelligence quotient, job satisfaction, and job performance: The moderating role of personality type,” Journal of Public Affairs, vol. 21, no. 3, 2020.

P. Bernin and T. Theorell, “Demand-control-support among female and male managers in eight Swedish companies,” Stress and Health, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 231–243, 2001.

Y. Fried, H. A. Ben-David, R. B. Tiegs, N. Avital, and U. Yeverechyahu, “The interactive effect of role conflict and role ambiguity on job performance,” Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 19–27, 1998.

D. Shao, E. Zhou, P. Gao, L. Long, and J. Xiong, “Double-edged effects of socially responsible human resource management on employee task performance and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Mediating by Role Ambiguity and moderating by Prosocial motivation,” Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 8, p. 2271, 2019.

J. Singh, J. R. Goolsby, and G. K. Rhoads, “Behavioral and psychological consequences of boundary spanning burnout for customer service representatives,” Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 558–569, 1994.

C. L. Porath and A. Erez, “Does rudeness really matter? the effects of rudeness on task performance and helpfulness,” Academy of Management Journal, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1181–1197, 2007.

D. Scasserra, “The influence of perceived task difficulty on task performance,” M.S thesis, Rowan University, NJ, US, 2008

W. Li, A. Lee, and M. Solmon, “The role of perceptions of task difficulty in relation to self-perceptions of ability, intrinsic value, attainment value, and performance,” European Physical Education Review, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 301–318, 2007.

L. M. Cortina, V. J. Magley, J. H. Williams, and R. D. Langhout, “Incivility in the workplace: Incidence and impact.,” Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 64–80, 2001.

D. P. Skarlicki and R. Folger, “Retaliation in the workplace: The roles of distributive, procedural, and interactional justice.,” Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 434–443, 1997.

H. T. Uysal, “The mediation role of toxic leadership in the effect of job stress on job satisfaction,” International Journal of Business, vol. 24, no.1, pp. 55-73, 2019.

B. Schyns and J. Schilling, “How bad are the effects of bad leaders? A meta-analysis of destructive leadership and its outcomes,” The Leadership Quarterly, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 138–158, 2013.

S. Zivnuska, K. M. Kacmar, L. A. Witt, D. S. Carlson, and V. K. Bratton, “Interactive effects of impression management and organizational politics on job performance,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 627–640, 2004.

B. B. Lahey, “Public health significance of neuroticism.,” American Psychologist, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 241–256, 2009.

J. Debusscher et al., “The curvilinear relationship between state neuroticism and momentary task performance,” PloS One, e106989, vol. 9, no. 9, 2014.

J. C. Chen and C. Silverthorne, “The impact of locus of control on job stress, job performance and job satisfaction in Taiwan,” Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 572–582, 2008.

N. Yavuz and A. Kayhan, “Presenteeism: a research on type a and type b personality and demographic features,” İstanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, vol. 19, no. 37, pp. 77-89, 2019.

Y. Guo and B. Ling, “Effects of leader motivating language on employee task and contextual performance: The mediating role of Feedback Quality,” Psychological Reports, vol. 123, no. 6, pp. 2501–2518, 2019.

H. Zeinabadi, “Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as antecedents of Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) of teachers,” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, vol. 5, pp. 998–1003, 2010.

D. W. Organ, “Organizational citizenship behavior: the good soldier syndrome,” Lexington Books/DC Heath and Com. 1988.

S. Tambe and M. Shanker, “A study of organizational citizenship behaviour (ocb) and its dimensions: a literature review,” International Research Journal of Business and Management, vol. 1, pp. 67-73, 2014.

G. Hemakumara, “Dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior: a review of literature,” International Journal of Science Arts and Commerce, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 260-265, 2020

R. F. Baumeister, “The pursuit of meaningfulness in life,” in Handbook of positive psychology, NY, USA: OUP. 2002, ch. 44, pp. 608-618.

T. W. Lee, “Toward the development and validation of a measure of job boredom,” Manhattan College Journal of Business, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 22-28, 1986.

B. Bakker, M. van Veldhoven, and D. Xanthopoulou, “Beyond the demand-control model,” Journal of Personnel Psychology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 3–16, 2010.

Shang, D. Li, and Y. Diao, “How career growth relates to organizational citizenship behavior directed at individuals and the organization,” Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, vol. 49, no. 10, pp. 1–9, 2021.

K. B. Klingsieck, “Procrastination,” European Psychologist, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 24–34, 2013.

J. Burka and L. M. Yuen, Procrastination: why you do it, what to do about it now, Hachette, UK, 2007.

H. C. Wan, L. A. Downey, and C. Stough, “Understanding non-work presenteeism: Relationships between emotional intelligence, boredom, procrastination and job stress,” Personality and Individual Differences, vol. 65, pp. 86–90, 2014.

J. Vitak, J. Crouse, and R. LaRose, “Personal internet use at work: Understanding cyberslacking,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1751–1759, 2011.

D. S. Ackerman and B. L. Gross, “My instructor made me do it: Task characteristics of procrastination,” Journal of Marketing Education, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 5–13, 2005.

R. F. Baumeister and K. D. Vohs, “The pursuit of meaningfulness in life,” in Handbook of positive psychology, NY, USA: OUP. 2002, ch. 44, pp. 608-618.

Morgeson et al., “Selecting individuals in team settings: theimportance of social skills, personality characte-ristics, and teamwork knowledge,” Personnel Psychology, vol. 58, pp. 583-611, 2005.

Tuckman, B. W. (1991) The development and concurrent validity of the Procrastination Scale . Educational and Psychological Measurement, 51 , 473 - 480 .

O. I. Çetin and I. Kumkale, “The relation between procrastination and task performance,” Journal of Current Researches on Business and Economics, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 192-206, 2017.




How to Cite

Al-Mashadani, H. (2022). An Empirical Research on the Relationship Between Employee Boreout and Performance: Mediating Role of Procrastination. Archives of Business Research, 10(11), 44–68.