At the Intersection of Corporate Social Irresponsibility, Gender, and Race: Millennial and Gen Z Consumer Loyalty
Keywords:Corporate social irresponsibility, Corporate social responsibility, Gender, Race, Millennials, Gen Z
Corporations are under increasing scrutiny by stakeholders regarding whether their activities do good or do bad. This study explores perceptions of corporate social irresponsibility (CSiR) at the intersection of race and gender among Millennial and Gen Z women and people of color (POC). It considers the effect these groups’ sentiments exert on consumer behavior and loyalty. Results suggest race is the predominant identity shaping repeated patronage of a company. Intra-racial similarities were more noteworthy than intra-gendered assessments. This research advances literature on CSiR, multiracial marketing, and Millennial and Gen Z consumers, offering guidance regarding firms’ socially responsible actions.
Jones, B., Bowd, R., & Tench, R. (2009). Corporate irresponsibility and corporate social responsibility: Competing realities. Social Responsibility Journal, 5(3), 300-310.
Lin-Hi, N., & Müller, K. (2013). The CSR bottom line: Preventing corporate social irresponsibility. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1928-1936.
Kölbel, J., Busch, T., & Jancso, L. M. (2017). How media coverage of corporate social irresponsibility increases financial risk. Strategic Management Journal,38, 2266–2284.
Zheng, L. (2020). We’re entering the age of corporate social justice. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2020/06/were-entering-the-age-of-corporate-social-justice.
Lee, E. M., Park, S. Y., Rapert, M. I., & Newman, C. L. (2012). Does perceived consumer fit matter in corporate social responsibility issues? Journal of Business Research, 65(11), 1558-1564.
Ormiston, M. E., & Wong, E. M. (2013). License to ill: The effects of corporate social responsibility and CEO moral identity on corporate social irresponsibility. Personnel Psychology, 66, 861–893.
Day, G. S. (1976). A two-dimensional concept of brand loyalty. In Mathematical models in marketing (pp. 89-89). Berlin, Heidelberg, DE: Springer.
Jacoby, J., & Chestnut, R.W. (1978). Brand Loyalty Measurement and Management. New York: Wiley.
Jacoby, J., & Kyner, D. B. (1973). Brand loyalty vs. repeat purchasing behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 10(1), 1-9.
Reichheld, F. F., & Schefter, P. (2000). E-loyalty: your secret weapon on the web. Harvard Business Review, 78(4), 105-113.
Dick, A. S., & Basu, K. (1994). Customer loyalty: toward an integrated conceptual framework. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 22(2), 99-113.
Oliver, R. L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63(4_suppl1), 33-44.
Rose, S., Clark, M., Samouel, P., & Hair, N. (2012). Online customer experience in e-retailing: an empirical model of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Retailing, 88(2), 308-322.
Toufaily, E., Ricard, L., & Perrien, J. (2013). Customer loyalty to a commercial website: Descriptive meta-analysis of the empirical literature and proposal of an integrative model. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1436-1447.
Srivastava, M., & Kaul, D. (2016). Exploring the link between customer experience–loyalty–consumer spend. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 31, 277-286.
Vieceli, J., Georgiou, C., Zubcevic, N., Ciorciari, J., & Mason, C. (2012). Fan loyalty: investigating the emotional and cognitive responses of AFL fans and fanatics. Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy and Ehrenberg-Bass Institute for Marketing Science, Edith Cowan University. Retrieved from http://www.anzmac.org/conference/2012/papers/355ANZMACFINAL.pdf.
Vlachos, Pavlos A. (2012). Corporate social performance and consumer-retailer emotional attachment: The moderating role of individual traits. European Journal of Marketing, 46(11/12), 1559-1580.
Grappi, S., Romani, S., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2013). Consumer response to corporate irresponsible behavior: Moral emotions and virtues. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1814-1821.
Gürlek, M., Düzgün, E., & Uygur, S. M. (2017). How does corporate social responsibility create customer loyalty? The role of corporate image. Social Responsibility Journal 13(3), 409-427.
Xie, C., & Bagozzi, R. P. (2019). Consumer responses to corporate social irresponsibility: The role of moral emotions, evaluations, and social cognitions. Psychology & Marketing, 36(6), 565-586.
Motista, Inc. (2018) Cross–Industry Data from Motista’s Proprietary Retail Data Collected from Consumers and Companies, 2016–18.
Zorfas, A., & Leemon, D. (2016). An emotional connection matters more than customer satisfaction. Harvard Business Review, 29, 2016.
Curtin, R. T. (2019). Consumer expectations: Micro foundations and macro impact. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Palumbo, F., & Herbig, P. (2000). The multicultural context of brand loyalty. European Journal of Innovation Management, September.
Hoffman, D. L., & Novak, T. P. (2009). Flow online: lessons learned and future prospects. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 23-34.
Hoffmann, N. C., Yin, J., & Hoffmann, S. (2020). Chain of blame: A multi-country study of consumer reactions towards supplier hypocrisy in global supply chains. Management International Review, 60, 247–286.
Medina, C. A. G., Martínez-Fiestas, M., Aranda, L. A. C., & Sánchez-Fernández, J. (2021). Is it an error to communicate CSR Strategies? Neural differences among consumers when processing CSR messages. Journal of Business Research, 126, 99-112.
Costa, J. A., & Bamossy, G. J. (Eds.). (1995). Marketing in a multicultural world: Ethnicity, nationalism, and cultural identity. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Burton, D. (2000). Ethnicity, identity and marketing: A critical review. Journal of Marketing Management, 16(8), 853-877.
Jamal, A. (2003). Marketing in a multicultural world: The interplay of marketing, ethnicity and consumption. European Journal of Marketing, 37(11/12), 1599-1620.
Grier, S. A., Thomas, K. D., & Johnson, G. D. (2019). Re-imagining the marketplace: Addressing race in academic marketing research. Consumption Markets & Culture, 22(1), 91-100.
Gil, M., & Rosenberg, S. (2015). The Multicultural Edge: Rising Super-Consumers. New York, NY: Nielsen.
Cone Communications (2017). 2017 Cone Communications CSR Report. Retrieved from https://www.conecomm.com/2017-cone-communications-csr-study-pdf.
Grace, C., McCaskill, A., & Scott-Aime, M. K. (2018). From Consumers to Creators: The Digital Lives of Black Consumers. New York, NY: Nielsen.
Nielsen Insights (2019). It’s in the Bag: Black Consumers' Path to Purchase. Retrieved from https://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/report/2019/its-in-the-bag-black-consumer-path-to-purchase/
Smith, W. J., Wokutch, R. E., Harrington, K. V., & Dennis, B. S. (2001). An examination of the influence of diversity and stakeholder role on corporate social orientation. Business & Society, 40(3), 266-294.
Moisescu, O. I. (2015). Demographics-based differences in the relationship between perceived CSR and customer loyalty in the dairy products market. Management & Marketing, 10(2), 118-131.
Singhapakdi, A. (1999). Perceived importance of ethics and ethical decisions in marketing. Journal of Business Research, 45(1), 89-99.
Ibrahim, N. A., & Angelidis, J. P. (1994). Effect of board members gender on corporate social responsiveness orientation. Journal of Applied Business Research, 10(1), 35-40.
Ibrahim, N. A., & Angelidis, J. P. (1995). The corporate social responsiveness orientation of board members: Are there differences between inside and outside directors? Journal of Business Ethics, 14(5), 405-410.
Jensen, J. M. (2011). Consumer loyalty on the grocery product market: an empirical application of Dick and Basu's framework. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 28(5), 333-343.
Jones III, R. J., Reilly, T. M., Cox, M. Z., & Cole, B. M. (2017). Gender makes a difference: Investigating consumer purchasing behavior and attitudes toward corporate social responsibility policies. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 24(2), 133-144.
Kim, S., & Austin, L. (2019). Effects of CSR initiatives on company perceptions among Millennial and Gen Z consumers. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 25(2) 299-317.
Marar Yacobian, M., Turner, F., & Zaima, J. (2020). The gender effect on millennials’ perception of corporate social irresponsibility and consumer behavior. Journal of Scholastic Inquiry: Business,11(1), 53-87.
Abitbol, A., & Sternadori, M. (2019). Championing women’s empowerment as a catalyst for purchase intentions: Testing the mediating roles of OPRs and brand loyalty in the context of femvertising. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 13(1), 22-41.
Longenecker, J. G., McKinney, J. A., & Moore, C. W. (1989). The generation gap in business ethics. Business Horizons, 32(5), 9-14.
Aupperle, K. E. (1984). An empirical measure of corporate social orientation. Research in Corporate Social Performance and Policy, 6, 27-54.
Porter, M.E., & Hramer, M.R. (2006). Strategy and society: The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard Business Review, 84(12), 78 –92.
Harvey, W. (2014). Defining and connecting CSR, reputation, image, identity, brand, legitimacy, status and diversity. In Corporate Social Responsibility and Human Resource Management. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Bennett, A. M., Hill, R. P., & Oleksiuk, D. (2013). The impact of disparate levels of marketplace inclusion on consumer–brand relationships. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 32(1_suppl), 16-31.
Deloitte Global (n.d.). The Deloitte global millennial survey 2020: Resilient generations hold the key to creating a “better normal.” Retrieved https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/About-Deloitte/deloitte-2020-millennial-survey.pdf
Elstrom, P. (2018). Apple supplier workers describe noxious hazards at China factory. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-01-16/workers-at-apple-supplier-catcher-describe-harsh-conditions.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Frances Turner, Marianne Marar Yacobian, Janis Zaima
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.