Deployment of an Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Operating in a Resource Constrained Environment

  • Agbotiname Lucky Imoize Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, USA
  • Taiwo R Oyedare Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
  • Chibuike Gerald Ezekafor Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Lagos, Akoka Lagos, Nigeria
  • Sachin Shetty Virginia, Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA
Keywords: Wireless networks, Communications and services, Distributed Computing,


Wireless Sensor Networks often exist in a resource constrained environment and the most critical limitation is energy or battery life. In most cases, the batteries cannot be recharged during operation and cannot be replaced during transmission without interfering with the quality of service. An efficient routing protocol that can prolong the life span of the energy source for mobile wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed in this paper. Hierarchical routing protocol
improved the life span by more than six times compared to direct techniques. Sets of varied parameters were used to obtain simulation results. A sample typical of a hospital layout was used in this paper. Wards were assigned varied sensor range which depicts number of patients that fall into these banded regions of clusters. Service centers were created to ensure that random mobilization of sensors/patient per round is achieved for one of the simulation option. Simulation rounds were carried out for non-hierarchical (direct) and lowenergy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) based routing protocols. Model validation was done by setting up a real life test using Wi-Fi sensor node module ESP8266 properly distributed, and this was done without mobility. Effect of base station location was also investigated and results tabulated.
With improved battery and network life span from both simulation and live validation for hierarchical routing, quality of service is greatly improved in health-care deliveries; cost of replacing energy sources is reduced. Results were also compared with other similar works to support our conclusion.
Though results were not exact when compared, parameters used could cause tolerable difference. Furthermore, same result could not be achieved for different locations, varied number of wards, varied number of sensor nodes per wards as well as variations in other modeling parameters.


(1) D. Shinghal, N. Srivastava, et al., “Wireless sensor networks in agriculture: for potato farming,” 2017.

(2) B. Wang, X. Gu, L. Ma, and S. Yan, “Temperature error correction based on bp neural network in meteorological wireless sensor network,” International Journal of Sensor Networks, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 265–278,

(3) Gauravpaliwal and Pankajkasar, “Article: Wireless body area net- work for ubiquitous mhealth mobile patient monitoring systems: Architecture, opportunities and challenges,” IJCA Proceedings on National Conference on Emerging Trends in Computer Technology, vol. NCETCT, pp. 1–6, December 2014.

(4) M. H. Anisi, G. Abdul-Salaam, M. Y. I. Idris, A. W. A. Wahab, and Ahmedy, “Energy harvesting and battery power based routing in wireless sensor networks,” Wireless Networks, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 249–266, 2017.

(5) K. Fang, C. Liu, and J. Teng, “Cluster-based optimal wireless sensor deployment for structural health monitoring,” Structural Health Monitoring, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 266–278, 2018.

(6) B. Lo and G.-Z. Yang, “Body sensor networks-research challenges and opportunities,” 2007.

(7) C. Umamaheswari, J. Gnanambigai, et al., “Energy optimization in wireless sensor network using sleep mode transceiver,” Global Journal of Research In Engineering, vol. 11, no. 3, 2011.

(8) J. Stankovic, Q. Cao, T. Doan, L. Fang, Z. He, R. Kiran, S. Lin, S. Son, R. Stoleru, and A. Wood, “Wireless sensor networks for in- home healthcare: Potential and challenges,” in High confidence med- ical device software and systems (HCMDSS) workshop, vol. 2005, 2005.

(9) V. Gupta and M. Doja, “H-leach: Modified and efficient leach protocol for hybrid clustering scenario in wireless sensor networks,” in Next-Generation Networks, pp. 399–408, Springer, 2018.

(10) J. Kulik, W. Heinzelman, and H. Balakrishnan, “Negotiation-based protocols for disseminating information in wireless sensor net- works,” Wireless networks, vol. 8, no. 2/3, pp. 169–185, 2002.

(11) W. R. Heinzelman, A. Chandrakasan, and H. Balakrishnan, “Energy-efficient communication protocol for wireless microsensor networks,” in System sciences, 2000. Proceedings of the 33rd annual Hawaii international conference on, pp. 10–pp, IEEE, 2000.

(12) D. Braginsky and D. Estrin, “Rumor routing algorthim for sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless sensor networks and applications, pp. 22–31, ACM, 2002.

(13) F. Zabin, S. Misra, I. Woungang, H. F. Rashvand, N.-W. Ma, and M. A. Ali, “Reep: data-centric, energy-efficient and reliable routing protocol for wireless sensor networks,” IET communications, vol. 2, no. 8, pp.

–1008, 2008.

(14) L. Yadav and C. Sunitha, “Low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy in wireless sensor network (leach),” International journal of com- puter science and information technologies, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 4661– 4664, 2014.

(15) R. S. Istepanian, E. Jovanov, and Y. Zhang, “Guest editorial introduction to the special section on m-health: Beyond seamless mobility and global wireless health-care connectivity,” IEEE Trans- actions on information technology in biomedicine, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 405–414, 2004.

(16) R. C. Shah and J. M. Rabaey, “Energy aware routing for low energy ad hoc sensor networks,” in Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2002. WCNC2002. 2002 IEEE, vol. 1,pp. 350–355, IEEE, 2002.

(17) J. N. Al-Karaki and A. E. Kamal, “Routing techniques in wireless sensor networks: a survey,” IEEE wireless communications, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 6–28, 2004.

(18) K. Akkaya and M. Younis, “A survey on routing protocols for wireless sensor networks,” Ad hoc networks, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 325– 349, 2005.

(19) S. Dai, X. Jing, and L. Li, “Research and analysis on routing pro- tocols for wireless sensor networks,” in Communications, Circuits and Systems, 2005. Proceedings. 2005 International Conference on, vol. 1, pp. 407–411, IEEE, 2005.

(20) W. R. Heinzelman, J. Kulik, and H. Balakrishnan, “Adaptive proto- cols for information dissemination in wireless sensor networks,” in Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on Mobile computing and networking, pp. 174–185, ACM, 1999.