Smartphone User’s Traffic Characteristics and Modelling
AbstractThe proliferation of smartphones and the demand for all-day connectivity has brought exponential growth of global mobile data traffic. To survive the explosive progression and best serve their customers, mobile network operators need to have a better understanding of the nature of traffic carried by cellular networks. Understanding the characteristics of this traffic is important for network design, traffic modelling, resource planning, and network control. In this work we investigate the basic characteristics of smartphone traffic, identifying and understanding the impact of context (location, time, physical interface) on smartphone usage for calls, messages and data traffic. In order to identify and characterize patterns in the user traffic generated by smartphone devices in the mobile networks, we employ naturalistic logging methodology based on non-obtrusive background data collection while aiming for a highly diverse study participants backdrop. Our statistical results present a comprehensive analysis on user habits while using their smartphones on a daily or weekly basis. By taking advantage of the gathered user logs and the statistical analysis of the traffic characteristics, we attempt to design a mobile traffic generator that will create synthetic voice, message and data traffic according to the observed real life traffic characteristics. The generated mobile traffic scenarios can be used not only for modelling the mobile operators’ network (such as 3G and 4G), but also WiFi, mobile ad hoc and sensor networks.
Erricson, “On the pulse of the networked society,” Traffic and market report, (2012)
AT&T. AT&T SXSWPress Release, www.att.com/Common/docs/SXSW_Network%20Fact_Sheet.doc, (2011)
H. Verkasalo, C. Lapez-Nicola, F. Molina-Castillo, and H. Bouwman, “Analysis of users and non-users of smartphone applications,” Telematics and Informatics, 27(3):242-255, (2010)
ITU reports, http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/material/FactsFigures2010.pdf, (2010)
H. Falaki, R. Mahajan, S. Kandula, D. Lymberopoulos, R. Govindan, D. Estrin, “Diversity in smartphone usage,” ACM Proceedings of MobiSys’10, USA, (2010)
Q. Xu, J. Erman, A. Gerber, Z. M. Mao, J. Pang, S. Venkataraman, “Identifying diverse usage behaviors of smartphone apps,” ACM Proceedings of IMC’11, Germany, (2011)
Y. Zing, A. Arvidsson, “Understanding the characteristics of cellular data traffic,” ACM Proceedings of CellNet’12, Finland, (2012)
J. Erman, A. Gerber, and S. Sen, “HTTP in the home: it is not just about pc's,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., 41(1):90-95, (2011)
S. Kaisar, “Smartphone traffic characteristics and context dependencies,” University of Saskatchewan, Canada, (2012).
R. Becker, R. Caceres, K. Hanson, S. Isaacman, “Human mobility characterization from cellular network data,” Communications of the ACM, (2013).
C C. Tossell, P. Kortum, C. W. Shepard, A. Rahmati and L. Zhong, “Getting Real: A Naturalistic Methodology for Using Smartphones to Collect Mediated Communications, “Advances in Human-Computer Interaction, (2012).
H. Falaki, D. Lymberopoulos, R. Mahajan, S. Kandula, and D. Estrin, “A first look at traffic on smartphones,” Proceedings of the 10th Annual Conference on Internet Measurement, IMC '10, Australia, 281-287, (2010)
H. Pucha, S.M. Das and Y.C. Hu, “The performance impact of traffic patterns on routing protocols in mobile ad hoc networks,” Computer Networks 51, 3595–3616, (2007).
R. Ling, The Mobile Connection, Elsevier, Dresden, Germany, (2004)
D. C. Ramírez, “Smartphone traffic patterns,” KTH Information and Communication Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, (2011).
T. Neame, “Characterisation and modelling of internet traffic streams,” Doctoral dissertation, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Melbourne, (2003)
National Agency for Electronic Communication, www.aek.mk, public reports, http://www.aec.mk/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=54&Itemid=123&lang=mk
3GPP TS 26.090: "Transcoding functions".