‘’An update on Brain organoids Generation and the Advancements made in the Context of a Human Model of Neurological Disorders-A systematic review’’


  • Kulvinder Kochar Kaur
  • Gautam Allahbadia
  • Mandeep Singh




Stem Cells ;3D cultures; Brain organoids; NDD; modeling   of diseases


Neurological conditions , represent a group of disorders that are responsible for   the commonest etiologies of death all over  the world  which account practically for  total cases of initiation of dementia in the   aged ,besides their capacity ofhavinga negative impact  on the motor capacity,mental  and cognitive  abilities andhaving a sense of total well being, besides happiness.At present maximum Neurological  disorders(ND) remain without any appropriate treatment. In view of the absence of any  effectivetherapeutic   method.The cause for this is the existence  of lack of insight with regards to the disorders,mainly  due to thepresence of  research models which do not possessthe capacity of translation   into the human  in vivo system.Thus here we conducted a systematic review utilizing search engine pubmed,google scholar ;web of science &others utilizing  the MeSH terms  like ND; NDG ;NDD; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s  diseases; ASD ;TTH; viral infections; Induced  pluripotent Stem Cells(iPSCs); Crisper/Cas genetic  editing methods; 2D mono cell layer models   ;3D organoid models; embryonic Stem Cells(ESCs);vascularization;neuroectodermal constituents;gas exchange;microglia role;mesodermal parts;cellular  diversity; cellular interconnectivity;assembloids;cerebral organoids;evolutionary study;consciousness study; role in traumatic brain injury from  1980 till 2021 till date.We found a total of 1500 articles out of which we selected  102 articles for this review.No meta-analysis was done. The existent models for investigation of ND, Neurodevelopment(NDD) and drug crosstalk in the central  nervous system(CNS), are inclusive of in vitro mono cell layer culture and  in vivo  animal models.There are limitations   of these  models with regards to  translation of the research in the context of pathology of thedisorder, generation and treatment to humans. Brain organoids represent three dimensional(3D) cultures of  Stem Cell obtained  neural cells  which simulate the generation of  the in vivo  humans brain,possessing high precision.Already the investigators have started the construction  of these mini brains with the idea of modeling    a wide variety of ND that are inclusive of the complicatedNDD, NDG.Here we have tried to detail the generation and   theadvancements in this field.




How to Cite

Kaur, K. K., Allahbadia, G., & Singh, M. (2021). ‘’An update on Brain organoids Generation and the Advancements made in the Context of a Human Model of Neurological Disorders-A systematic review’’. British Journal of Healthcare and Medical Research, 8(6), 31–63. https://doi.org/10.14738/jbemi.86.11266