Main Article Content
Adolescence is a somewhat turbulent phase of life to many. This paper explores the challenges of 6 Malaysian adolescents aged between 13 and 17 from low socioeconomic background in developing their identities. In depth semi-structured interviews were carried out. Family problems, peer pressure, and learning difficulties were among the main issues encountered. This study revealed that although the respondents’ families’ socio-economic status had affected them, it is not the determinant to their success nor failure. This study also suggests that a sound identity development and academic outcome could be achieved with relatively good parental involvement, well perceived expectations, fitting in with group of friends as well as a healthy surrounding
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
. Badrul, M. (2014, October 16). Young and certainly getting dangerous: The rise of juvenile criminals. Malaysian Digest..
. Bergh, S. & Erling, A. (2005). Adolescent identity formation: A Swedish study of identity status using the EOM-EIS-II. Adolescence, 40(158), 377-396.
. Berzonsky, M.D. (2008). Identity formation: The role of identity processing style and cognitive processes. Personality and Individual Differences 44, 645–655.
. Berzonsky, M. D., & Kuk, L. S. (2000). Identity status, identity processing style, and transition to university. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(1), 81-98.
. Kroger, J. (2007). Identity development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
. Blackmore, A. (1990). Adolescent Identity Development: Communication Patterns of Problem Versus Nonproblem Adolescents. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Education in Counseling Psychology, University of Alberta.
. Bond, M. H., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Cross-cultural social and organizational psychology. Annual review of Psychology, 47, 205-235
. Cakir, S. G. & Aydin, G. (2005). Parental attitudes and ego identity status of Turkish adolescents. Adolescence, 40(160), 847-860.
. Campbell, J. (2007). Adolescent Identity Development: The Relationship with Leisure Lifestyle and Motivation. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Arts, University of Waterloo.
. Carranza, F. D., You, S., Chhuon, V., & Hudley, C. (2009). Mexican American adolescents’ academic achievement and aspirations: The role of perceived parental educational involvement, acculturation, and self-esteem. Adolescence, 44(174), 313-333.
. Chen, J. J. (2005). Relation of academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to Hong Kong Adolescents' academic achievement: The mediating role of academic achievement. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 131(2), 77-127.
. Chen, X., Rubin, K. H., & Li, D. (1997). Relation between academic achievement and social adjustment: Evidence from Chinese children. Developmental Psychology, 33, 518-525.
. Corcoran, M. (1995). Rags to rags: Poverty and mobility in the United States. Annual Review of Sociology, 21, 237–267.
. De Haan, L. G. & MacDermid, S. (1998). The relationship of individual and family factors to the psychological well-being of junior high school students living in urban poverty. Adolescence, 33(129), 73-89.
. Dombeck, M. (2006). Self Identity Problems. Retrieved February, 17, 2015, from http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=9697
. Dubendris, H. (2014). Investigating differences in risk behaviors among rural, suburban, and urban adolescents. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in Public Health in Epidemology, University of South Carolina.
. Eisele, H., Zand, D. H., & Thomson, N. R. (2009). The role of sex, self-perception, and school bonding in predicting academic achievement among middle class African American early adolescents. Adolescence, 44(176), 773-796.
. Erikson, E. H. (1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York: Norton.
. Faircloth, B. S. (2012). “Wearing a mask” vs. connecting identity with learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 1866-194.
. Flum, H. & Kaplan, A. (2012). Identity formation in educational settings: A contextualized view of theory and research in practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 240-245.
. Flum, H. & Kaplan, A. (2012). Identity formation in educational settings: A critical focus for education in the 21st century. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 171-175.
. Fuligni, A. J. (1998). Authority, autonomy, and parent-adolescent conflict and cohesion: A study of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, Filipino, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 782-792.
. Gibson, D. M. & Jefferson, R. N. (2006). The effect of perceived parental involvement and the use of growth-fostering relationships on self-concept in adolescents participating in fear up. Adolescence, 41(161), 111-125.
. Graf, S. G., Mullis, R. L., & Mullis, A. K. (2008). Identity formation of United States American and Asian Indian adolescents. Adolescence, 43(169), 57-69.
. Grey (2014). Deep Lyrical Analysis: Cool Kids by Echosmith. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from http://thecentipedeblog.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/deep-lyrical-analysis-cool-kids-by-echosmith/
. Grotevant, H. D. (1987). Toward a process model of identity formation. Journal of Adolescent Research, 2, 203-222.
. Hatcher, J. W. (2011). The African-American Adolescent Male Identity Development Crisis: A Mixed-Methods Design Exploring the Relationship Between Ethnic Identity
. Development Status and Student Achievement. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education, Ragent University.
. Jordyn, M. & Byrd M. (2003). The relationship between the living arrangements of University students and their identity development. Adolescence, 38(50), 267-278.
. Juvenile crime on the rise. (2014, April 14). The Star Online.
. Lunine, P. J. (2004). Identity Development Among Low-literacy Haitian Adolescent Newcomers: A Case Study. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education, University of Massachusetts Boston.
. Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (pp. 159-187). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
. Marcia, J. E. (1989). Identity and intervention. Journal of Adolescence, 12,401-410.
. Makros, J., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Relationships between identity and self-representations during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(5), 623-639.
. Mercado, C. (2012). “We can change the paradigm": An Exploration of Latino Adolescent Identity Development and Educational Aspirations. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Education and Psychology, University of Michigan.
. Miller, M. T. & Tuttle, C. C. (2006). Rural community colleges developing perceptions of self-identity. The College Community Enterprise, 12(2), 55-68.
. Mine, L. C. & Lancaster, S. (2001). Predictors of depression in female adolescents. Adolescence, 36(142), 207-223.
. Moustakas, C. E. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Sage Publications, Inc.
. Phillips, T. M. (2003). Identity Formation in Poor Adolescents: Exploring the Relationship between the Developmental Milieu of Poverty and the Primary Task of Adolescence. Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Auburn University.
. Ramirez, W. (2012). How Self-identity Influence Chicanas/os to Obtain a Higher Education and to Improve their Communities: a Qualitative Study. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Arts in Education, California State University.
. Rich, Y. & Schachter, E. P. (2012). High school identity climate and student identity development. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37, 218-228.
. Romano, J. J. (2004). Dimensions of Parenting and Identity Development in Late Adolescence. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science, Polytechnic Institute and State University.
. Samuolis, J., Layburn, K., & Schiaffino, K. M. (2001). Identity development and attachment to parents in college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 373-384.
. Sartor, C. E., & Youniss, J. (2002). The relationship between positive parental involvement and identity achievement during adolescence. Adolescence,37(146), 221-234.
. Schiavone, D. B. (2009). The effects of exposure to community violence on aspects of adolescent identity development. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 22(2), 99-105.
. Shukla, M. (1994). India. In K. Hurrelmann (Ed.), International handbook of adolescence (pp. 191-206). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
. Simhadri, Y. C. (1989). Youth in the contemporary world. Delhi: Mittal.
. Stanton, B., Cuthill, S. & Amador, C. (2001). Adolescence and poverty. Adoescent Medicine, 12(3), 525-537.
. Stegarud, L., Solheini, B., Karlsen, M., & Kroger, J. (1999). Ego identity status in cross-cultural context: A replication study. Psychological Reports, 85, 457-61.
. Tanti, C., Stukas, A. A., Halloran, M. J., & Foddy, M. (2011). Social identity change: shifts in social identity during adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 34, 555-567.
. Wickrama, K. A. S. (2012). The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education. Journal Youth Adolescence, 41, 1472-1487.
. Wise, D. L. (n.d.) Identity Theory: A Literature Review. Thesis Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master, University of Colorado, Denver.