Main Article Content
The study was conducted in Bam in 2019 to develop an index to quantify sustainability of cropping systems in the region. The studied cropping systems included single-cropping systems (palm trees) and multi-cropping systems (citrus, palm trees and alfalfa). The studied indices included economic, social, agricultural indices, as well as, personal features, market access, features of communication, education-extension activities, sustainable agricultural knowledge, attitude towards sustainable agriculture, and obstacles facing sustainable agriculture. The results indicated that the amount of sustainability index was lower than the mean value in 0.56% of the farms and this index was higher than the mean value in 0.44% of the others. Comparison of the mean value of sustainability indices in the studied cropping systems indicated that the mean indices of the type of cropping system, attitude towards sustainable agriculture and extension training activities in multi-cropping systems were more than single crops. The mean indices in social participation and the obstacles facing sustainable agriculture in single cropping systems was more than the multi-cropping ones. Some indices including social participation, sustainable agricultural knowledge and education-extension activities in multivariate regression model remained in the final model as variables that had the largest contribution in the rate of change in the dependent variable (sustainability) and explained = 60% of the changes in the dependent variable. The study showed that the sustainability of multi-cropping systems was more than the single-cropping ones.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
 Food and agriculture organization., The future of food and agriculture, Trends and challenges. Available at www.fao.org/ag/ca/.2018. (verified 13 november-2018)
 Scherer.L.A., Verburg. Ph., and Schulp.C. J. E., Opportunities for sustainable agriculture intensification in European agriculture, Global Environmental Change.,2018. 48 (1):pp 43- 55
 Kamkar. B., and Mahdavi Damghani. Fundamentals of sustainable agriculture. Jahad University of Mashhad Press.2008,10-35.
Zolfiqar.F., and Thapa. GB., Agricultural sustainability assessment at provincial level in Pakistan . Land use policy, 2017. 68 , 492 – 502.
Tatlidil, FF., Boz. I., & Tatlidil. H. Farmers’ perception of sustainable agriculture and its determinants: a case study in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey, Environ Dev Sustain11, 2009.1091–1106.
Gafsi, M., Legagneux, B., Nguyen, G., Robin, P., Towards Sustainable farming systems: Effectiveness and deficiency of the French Procedure of sustainable agriculture., Journal of Agricultural Systems.,2006. 90, pp 226-242.
 Zahedi. Sh., Challenges of sustainable development from perspective of ecotourism. Quarterly Journal of Modares, 2003. 3, pp. 89-103.
Kalantari .Kh, Asadi. A., and Choobchian. Sh. Development and validation of indices of sustainable development in rural areas. Quarterly Journal of Urban and Regional Studies and Research. 2009. 2, 69-86.
 Cirella. G.T., & Tao. L., (2010). The index of sustainable functionality: an application for measuring sustainability. International journal of human and social sciences. 2010. 5, 279- 285.
Rezaei Moghaddam, K; Karami. A., Agriculture extension, Poverty and Sustainable Agriculture: Application of Path Analysis. Iranian Agricultural Extension and Education Journal. Volume 2. number 1. 2006. 55 to 75.
 Woodcraft. S., Social sustainability and new communities: Moving from concept to practice in the UK, Procedia -Social and Behavioral Sciences.2012. 68, 29-42.
 Ommani. AR., Chizari Salmanzadeh. C., Farj Allah Hosseini. J. Predicting adoption behavior of farms regarding on-farm sustainable water resources management (SWRM):comparison of models. Journal of sustainable agriculture . 2009. 33. 595-616.
 Beshagh. M., Taghdisi. A., Tousi. R., Evaluation of sustainability determinants in agricultural systems. Journal of Rural Research and Planning, 2012. 2.
Mirzaei. M. M., Ardakani. Z., Affecting factors on sustainability of wheat cropping system in Gorgan. Journal of Crop Ecology,2019. 15(1), 1-11.
Akbarian Ronizi, Agricultural sustainability and its influencing factors in rural areas. Quarterly Journal of Regional Planning; 2018, 8(31),1-19.
 Durandish. A., Ramezani. M. R., and Aminizadeh M., 2020. Assessing farmers' attitudes toward sustainable agriculture and its impact on productivity of all factors of production. Saffron Agriculture and Technology, 2020, 8 (1). 99-117.
 Sanaei Moghadam. S., Basak. S., and Sajedi. S., (2017). Evaluation of factors affecting sustainability of agricultural systems in rural regions. Quarterly Journal of Environmental Science Studies. 2017, 2(2). 372-386.
 Sarmadnia Z Bazargan Ali, Hejazi A, methods of research in science and technology, 13 ed, Agah pub: Tehran 2006, 1-109.
 Qamar. M., Global trends in agricultural Extension: challenges facing Asia and the pacific region. Keynote paper presented at FAO regional Expert consultation on agricultural extension Bangkok, 2002,16 -19 July.
 Kouchaki A. Sustainable agriculture and environment. Final report of the future food plan. Academy of Sciences of the Islamic Republic of Iran.2003,1-23.
 Irvani, H. Darban Astan, A., Measuring, analyzing and explaining the stability of exploitation units (the case study of wheat farmers in Tehran province). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 2004, 35, 52-39.
 Hayati. D., and Karami., Affecting structures on sustainable agricultural knowledge and sustainability of agricultural systems (Case study of wheat farmers in Fars province). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology and Natural Resources. 2020, 3 (2). 21-33.
Seddighi. H., Rousta. K., Investigating of affecting factors on sustainable agricultural knowledge of great corn farmers in Fars province. Iranian Agricultural Sciences Journal. 2003, 34 (4). 913 to 924.
Cristoiu. A., Lucena. B., and Caceres. F., Farm-level determinations of conversion to sustainable farming practice in the new members states. Paper Prepared for Presentation at the Joint IAAE Budapest, Hungary, 2007,1-42.
 Vakil Heidari Sarban. Assessing and prioritizing of factors affecting sustainable agriculture from the perspective of promoters of Ardabil Agricultural Jihad Organization. Quarterly Journal of Man and Environment; 2019; 17(1); 77-65.
 Rousta. K., The effect of sustainable technical and agricultural knowledge on corn yield and crop sustainability. Master Thesis in Agricultural Extension and Education, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University.,1999, 1-115.
 Mousavi. A. A.,. Investigating the factors affecting the acceptance of sustainable agriculture of low-input wheat farmers in Sistan and Baluchestan province. Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, 2005,1-76.