Influence of Interpersonal Communication Partner on Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male circumcision among Married Men in Kenya An Evaluation Study of Information Source attributes

Main Article Content

Omukule Emojong'

Abstract

Background


Studies have shown that male circumcision offers partial “vaccine” against heterosexually acquired HIV as a result WHO recommended it as one of the strategies to fight the AIDS scourge. Married and older men have registered low uptake of the “cut” in the targeted communities in Kenya. Considerable evidence suggests that communication inequality and choice of interpersonal information source are determinants in adoption of healthy behaviours such as adoption of male circumcision. This study aimed to examine how interpersonal communication source attributes (trust, similarity and expertise) may influence uptake of male circumcision among married men in Busia County, Kenya.


Methods


Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programme targets males aged up to 49 years. This study targeted married men aged between 20 and 49 years. Measures included socio-demographic characteristics, sources of VMMC information, perception on interpersonal source attributes of trust, expertise, and similarity between source and recipient. Sources regarded as trusted and expert were also measured including similarity dimensions of ethnicity, gender, age and marital status. A total of 377 participants completed the self-administered questionnaires, giving a response rate of 100%. Descriptive statistics tables such as those showing frequencies, mean and standard deviation of constructs were used. Due to the nature of the data collected, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was computed to measure the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and interpersonal communication source attribute.


Results


The Pearson Correlation computed revealed there existed a significant positive correlation between age and source trustworthiness and negative correlation with expertise. Marriage duration had a significant positive correlation with trustworthiness of source attribute. Trusted source was a friend. A health care provider was regarded as an expert source while similarity between source and recipient dimensions of age and ethnicity were given more weight. Health worker was the most popular source of VMMC information.


Conclusion


This study has revealed fundamental insights and provided evidence that the quality of the message carrier and demographic characteristics are critical factors to consider in implementing VMMC programme especially targeting married and older men who register low uptake. VMMC programmes using interpersonal channels must put more premium on the choice of the messenger as trust and expertise of source including similarity between communication partners is vital in the success of such communication interventions involving adoption of a sensitive cultural and sexual issue especially targeting married men.

Article Details

How to Cite
Emojong’, O. (2020). Influence of Interpersonal Communication Partner on Uptake of Voluntary Medical Male circumcision among Married Men in Kenya. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(7), 825-842. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.77.8659
Section
Articles

References

[1]. AVAC, National Empowerment Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Kenya, Sonke gender Justice Network and Uganda Network of AIDS Service Organisations (2012). A call to action on voluntary medical male circumcision: Implementing a key component of combination HIV prevention. Retrieved from: http://www.avac.org/sites/default/files/resourcefiles/A%20Call%20to%20Action%20on%20Voluntary%20Medical%20Male%20Circumcision%202012.pdf
[2]. Weiss, H. A., Quigley, M. A., & Hayes, R. J. (2000). Male circumcision and risk of HIV infection in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS, 14, 1039-1040.
[3]. Bailey, R., Moses, S., Parker. C., Agot, K, et al. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 369, 643–656.
[4]. Auvert, B., Taljaard, D., Lagarde, E., Sobngwi-Tambekou, J., Sitta, R., & Puren, A. (2005). Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. PLoS Med 2, e298.
[5]. Gray, R., Kigozi, G., Serwadda, D., et al. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in Rakai, Uganda: a randomized trial. Lancet 369(9562), 657-666.
[6]. WHO/UNAIDS (2007). New data male circumcision HIV previous policy programme implications: conclusions recommendations. Retrieved from http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2007/9789241595988_eng.pdf
[7]. Njeuhmeli, E., Forsythe, S., Reed, J., et al. (2011). Voluntary medical male circumcision: modeling the impact and cost of expanding male circumcision for HIV prevention in eastern and southern Africa. PLoS Medicine, 8: e1001132.
[8]. Hallett, T., Alsallaq, R., Baeten, J., Weiss, H., Celum, C., et al. (2011). Will circumcision provide even more protection from HIV to women and men? New estimates of the population impact of circumcision interventions. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 87, 88.
[9]. Hankins, C., Forsythe, S., & Njeuhmeli, E. (2011). Voluntary medical male circumcision: an introduction to the cost, impact, and challenges of accelerated scaling up. PLoS Medicine, 8, e1001127.
[10]. Ally, M., Menon, V., Kioko, U., et al. (2012). Costs and impacts of scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision in Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Tanzanian Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, USAID, HPP & UNAIDS.
[11]. Justman, J., Goldberg, A., Reed, J., Bock, N., Njeuhmeli, E., & Thomas, A. (2013). Adult male circumcision: reflection on successes and challenges. Journal of Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 63(Supplement 2), S140-143.
[12]. McCroskey, J. C. (1970). Measures of communication-bound anxiety. Speech Monographs, 37, 269-277.
[13]. Doyle, D. (2005). Ritual male circumcision: a brief history. Journal of Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, 35(3), 279-285.
[14]. WHO. (2009). Male circumcision: global trends and determinants of prevalence, safety and acceptability. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43749/1/9789241596169_eng.pdf
[15]. Central Bureau of Statistics [Kenya]. Ministry of Health [Kenya], and ORC Macro (2010). Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09. Calverton, Maryland.
[16]. National AIDS and STI Control Programme (2011). Progress Report on Kenya’s Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Programme, 2008-2010. Nairobi: Ministry of Health, Government of Kenya.
[17]. National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP), Ministry of Health, Kenya (2008). Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2007: Final Report. Nairobi: NASCOP.
[18]. National AIDS and STI Control Programme (NASCOP), Kenya (2018). Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey 2017: Preliminary Report. Nairobi: NASCOP.
[19]. Piotrow, P., Kincaid, D., Lawrence, R., Jose, G., & Rinehart, W. (1997). Health communication: lessons from family planning and reproductive health. London: Praeger.
[20]. Rogers. E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations, 4th ed., New York: Free Press.
[21]. Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on Communication for Behavior Change in the 21st Century: Improving the Health of Diverse Populations (2002). Speaking of health: assessing health communication strategies for diverse populations. Washington DC: National Academie Press.
[22]. Kang, S. H. & Bloom, J. R. (1993). Social support and cancer screening among older black Americans. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 85, 737-742.
[23]. Suarez, L., Ramirez, A. G., Villarreal, R., Marti, J., McAlister, A., Talavera, G. A. et al. (2000). Social networks and cancer screening in four U.S. Hispanic groups. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 19, 47-52.
[24]. Snell, J. L., & Buck, E. L. (1996). Increasing cancer screening: a meta-analysis. Preventive Medicine, 25, 702-707.
[25]. Rimer, B. K. (1994). Mammography use in the U.S.: trends and the impact of interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine16, 317-326.
[26]. Weinert, C. & Burman, M. (1994).Rural health and health-seeking behaviors. Annual Review of Nursing Research, 13, 65-92.
[27]. Cruz, TH & Mickalide, AD (2000). The national safe kids’ campaign child safety seat distribution program: a strategy for reaching low-income, underserved, and culturally diverse populations. Health Promotion Practice, 1(20), 148-154.
[28]. Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1955). Personal Influence: The Part played by People in the Flow of Mass Communication. New York: Free Press.
[29]. Ignatius, E., & Kokkonen, M. (2007). Factors contributing to verbal self-disclosure. Nordic Psychology, 59(4), 362-391.
[30]. Biddlecom, A., Hessburg, L., Singh, S., Bankole, A. & Darabi, L. (2007). Protecting the next generation in Sub-Saharan Africa: learning from adolescents to prevent HIV and unintended pregnancy. New York: Guttmacher Institute.
[31]. UNAIDS & WHO (2011). Technical guidance notes for round 11 global fund HIV proposals: prevention, treatment, care and support for young people. Geneva: UNAIDS.
[32]. Pornpitakpan, C. (20004). The persuasiveness of source credibility: a critical review of five decades’ evidence. Journal of applied Social Psychology, 34(2), 243-281.
[33]. Eagle, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The Psychology of Attitudes. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
[34]. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
[35]. Bertrand, J., Njeuhmeli, E., Forsythe, S., Mattison, S., Mahler, H., & Hankins, C. (2011). Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: a qualitative study exploring the challenges of costing demand creation in Eastern and Southern Africa. PLoS One., 6(11).
[36]. Sgaier, S. K., Reed, J. B., Thomas, A., & Njeuhmeli, E. (2014). Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs. PLoS Medicine, 11(5), e1001641. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001641.
[37]. Wouabe, E. (2013). International initiative for impact evaluation: scoping report on interventions for increasing the demand for voluntary medical male circumcision. N.P: 3ie.
[38]. Lissouba, P., Taljaard, D., Rech, D., et al. (2011). Adult male circumcision as an intervention against HIV: An operational study of uptake in a South African community (ANRS 12126). BMC Infectious Diseases, 11(1), 253.
[39]. Westercamp, N., & Bailey, R. C. (2007). Acceptability of Male Circumcision for Prevention of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review. AIDS Behavior, 11(3), 341-355.
[40]. Plotkin, M., Mziray, H., Kuver, J., Prince, J., Mahler, K., & Curran H. (2011). “Embe Halijamenywa: The Unpeeled Mango A Qualitative Assessment of Views and Preferences Concerning Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in Iringa Region, Tanzania.”
[41]. Muhangi, D. (2010). Factors that Influence Decisions to Seek Medical Male Circumcision Services. USAID/JHU Associate Cooperative Agreement no. 617-A-00-07.0005-00.
[42]. Limaye, R., Rimal, R., Mkandawire, G., Roberts, P., Dothi, W., & Brown, J. (2012). Talking about sex in Malawi: toward a better understanding of interpersonal communication for HIV prevention. Journal of Public Health Research, 1:e17.
[43]. Bailey, R., Moses, S., Parker. C., Agot, K, et al. (2007). Male circumcision for HIV prevention in young men in Kisumu, Kenya: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 369, 643–656.
[44]. Ghosh, J. & Kalipeni, E. (2005). Women in Chinsapo, Malawi: Vulnerability and Risk to HIV/AIDS. Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 2(3), 320–332.
[45]. Schatz, E. (2005). Take Your Mat and Go!': Rural Malawian Women's Strategies in the HIV/AIDS Era. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 7(5), 479–92.
[46]. Zulu, E. M., & Chepngeno, G. (2003). Spousal Communication about the Risk of Contracting HIV/AIDS in Rural Malawi. Demographic Research, 1, 247–78.
[47]. Arnott, J., & Kehler, J. (2010). Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: Are Women Ready? Cape Town: AIDS Legal Network. Retrieved from http://www.malecircumcision.org/advocacy/documents/SA_MMC_women_ready.pdf
[48]. Nieuwoudt, S., et al. (2012). Uncovering the “dirt” on demand creation for medical circumcision. Johannesburg: Centre for HIV and AIDS Prevention Studies (CHAPS).
[49]. Chikutsa, A. (2011). Contextualising the adoption of male circumcision as an HIV prevention strategy in Zimbabwe. Harare: Zimbabwe Open University.
[50]. Malawi News Agency. (2012). Ngoni chiefs rise to the challenge, accept male circumcision in Malawi AIDS fight.
[51]. Mwandi, Z., Murphy, A., Reed, J., Chesang, K., Njeuhmeli, E., et al. (2011). Voluntary medical male circumcision: translating research into the rapid expansion of services in kenya, 2008–2011. PLoS Medicine, 8: e1001130.
[52]. Bailey, R. C., Muga, R., Poulussen, R., & Abicht, H. (2012).The acceptability of male circumcision to reduce HIV infections in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care, 14(1), 27-40.
[53]. Kickbusch, I. S. (2001). Health literacy: addressing the health and education divide. Health Promotion International, 6(3), 289-297.
[54]. Kaler, A. (2003). My girlfriends could fill a yanu-yanu bus: rural Malawian men's claims about their own serostatus. Demogr Res., 11, 349-372.
[55]. Kaler A. (2004). AIDS-talk in everyday life: the presence of HIV/AIDS in men's informal conversation in Southern Malawi. Social Science Medicine, 59, 285-97.
[56]. PATH: Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (2008). Interpersonal communication for action on HIV (interact IPC): a guide to dialogue-based communication methods to help key populations put HIV messages into practice in India. New Delhi: PATH.