Main Article Content
This paper assesses the challenges of voluntary repatriation of Somali refugees in Kenya and the prospects of local integration, if considered. It aims to demonstrate that no one refugee solution is adequate and that all available options ought to be pursued concurrently for optimum results. Based on review of existing literature, the paper traces the trajectory of Somali refugees in Kenya amidst a continually restrictive space for refugees among host states like Kenya.While the tripartite agreement on voluntary repatriation has seen many Somali refugees voluntarilly repatriate, many challenges abound and a majority yet to repatriate.This therefore calls for an assessment of other refugee solution options, like local integration.It concludes that repatriation, resettlement and local integration, all provide options for a comprehensive Somali refugee solution in Kenya.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Amnesty International. (2014). Somalis are scapegoats in Kenya’s counter-terror crackdown https://www.amnesty.be/IMG/pdf/somalis_are_scapegoats_in_kenya_s_counterterror_crackdown.pdf
Anderson, D. M. & McKnight, J. (2014). Kenya at war: Al Shabaab and its enemies in Eastern Africa. African Affairs, 114 (454), pp.1-27.
Beversluis, D., Schoeller-Diaz, D., Anderson, M., Anderson, N., Slaughter, A. & Patel, R.B. (2016).Developing and validating the refugee integration scale in Nairobi, Kenya. Journal of Refugee Studies, 30(1), pp. 106–132.
Campbell, E., Crisp, J. & Kiragu, E. (2011). Navigating Nairobi: A Review of the Implementation of UNHCR’s Urban Refugee Policy in Kenya’s Capital City, UNHCR Policy Development and Evaluation Service (PDES), PDES/2011/01, Geneva: UNHCR, 2011, available at: http://www.unhcr.org/4d5511209.pdf (Accessed 8th May, 2019).
Crisp, J. (2004). The local integration and local settlement of refugees: a conceptual and historical analysis. New Issues in Refugee Research, Working Paper No.102, UNHCR: Geneva.
Fielden, A. (2008). Local integration: an under-reported solution to protracted refugee situations. New Issues in Refugee Research, paper no.158. Policy Development and Evaluation Service, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Geneva.
Gilbert, G. (1999) ‘Rights, legitimate expectations, needs and responsibilities: UNHCR and the New World Order’ International Journal of Refugee Law, 10 (3), pp. 349–388
Horst, C. (2006). Transnational nomads: How Somalis cope with refugee life in the Dadaab camps of Kenya . Oxford: Berghahn Books.
Fujibayashi, H. & Nakayama, M. (2017) .An option to avoid the sudden mass influx of migrants resulting from worldwide environmental threats. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 5(6), pp.1-8.
Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS). (2013). Hasty Repatriation: Kenya’s attempt to send Somali refugees home. Mogadishu: HIPS
Human Rights Watch (2016). Dispatches: Scapegoating Refugees in Kenya. www.hrw.org/news/2016/05/11/dispatches-scapegoating-refugees-kenya
Ikanda, F. N. (2018). Somali refugees in Kenya and social resilience: resettlement imaginings and the longing for Minnesota. African Affairs, 117(469), 569–591.
Jacobsen, K. (2005).The Economic Life of Refugees. USA: Kumarian Press Inc.
KenyaRefugee Act no.13 of 2006.
Kibreab, G. (1989). Local Settlements in Africa: A Misconceived Option? Journal of
Refugee Studies, 2(4), 468-490.
Lind, J., Mutahi, P. and Oosterom, M. (2015) TangledTies: Al-Shabaab and Political Volatility in Kenya, IDS
Evidence Report, No 130, Brighton: IDS.
Lindley, A. (2011). Between a protracted and a crisis situation: Policy responses to Somali refugees in Kenya. Refugee Survey Quarterly, pp.1-36.
Long, K.(2011). Permanent crises? : unlocking the protracted displacement of refugees and
internally displaced persons. Policy overview, Oxford Department of International
Development, Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford, UK.
Menkhaus, K. (2015). Conflict Assessment: Northern Kenya and Somaliland. Danish Demining Group. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2589109.
Menkhaus, K. (2017). Dadaab returnee conflict assessment. Danish Demining Group.
Nairobi Declaration on Durable Solutions for Somali Refugees and Reintegration of Returnees in Somalia, 25th March 2017. Available at https://data2.unhcr.org/en/documents/download/58248
OAU Convention, Governing Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa, 10th September, 1969. Available at: https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%201001/volume-1001-I-14691-English.pdf
O’Callaghan, S. & Sturge, G. (2018). Against the odds: refugee integration in Kenya. HPG Working Paper.
Refugee Consortium Kenya (2015). Myths and truths, livelihoods in Nairobi: the facts about refugee self sufficiency and economic contribution in Nairobi. Nairobi: RCK.
Rutinwa, B. (1999). The End of Asylum? The Changing Nature of Refugee Policies in Africa.
(Working Paper No. 5), UNHCR New Issues in Refugee Research , Geneva. https://www.unhcr.org/research/working/3ae6a0c34/end-asylum-changing-nature-refugee-policies-africa-bonaventure-rutinwa.html
Scharrer, T. (2018). “Ambiguous citizens”: Kenyan Somalis and the question of belonging. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 12(3), 494-513.
Slaughter A. and Crisp J. (2009) A surrogate state? The role of UNHCR in protracted refugee situations.
New issues in refugee research. Research Paper No.168. UNHCR
UNHCR (2011). UNHCR resettlement handbook .Geneva.
UNHCR (2015). UNHCR refugee resettlement trends 2015. Geneva.
UNHCR, Data at a glance. Available https://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html
Whittaker, H. (2012). Forced villagization during the Shifta conflict in Kenya, ca. 1963–1968. International Journal of African Historical Studies, 45(3), 343-364.