Is the policy environment for Zambia supportive of a thriving whole-of-government monitoring and evaluation system?

Main Article Content

Vincent Kanyamuna

Abstract

A whole-of-government monitoring and evaluation system (WoGM&ES) is a robust system that not only provides an integrated and all-encompassing framework of M&E practices, principles and standards to be used throughout government institutional structures, but also functions as an apex-level system for information and draws from the component systems in a framework meant to deliver essential M&E products tailored to satisfy information needs of users [1]. To implement a successful WoGM&ES, a supportive policy environment is crucial for any organisation, governments inclusive. The Zambian government is currently rolling out an ambitious WoGM&ES to strengthen its public sector accountability, feedback and learning functions. It was the objective of this study to investigate the policy environment in Zambia in respect of M&E practice in the public sector. In that regard, particular policy aspects were considered and these included assessing the availability of an M&E plan; whether the difference between M (monitoring) and E (evaluation) was recognised; and if the need for M&E autonomy and impartiality was mentioned. Others were to determine if feedback mechanisms were explicit as well as whether there was integration of M&E results in planning and budgeting processes. The study findings have shown that the policy environment to support a thriving M&E practice in the Zambian public sector was still fragmented and weak. While efforts by government to put policy measures were in place, evidence of transformational shift to implement these measures remained weak. However, it is promising that, in many ways, Zambia was on the right path regarding the introduction and articulation of policy provisions in support of M&E and broadly in promoting a culture of results.     

Article Details

How to Cite
Kanyamuna, V. (2020). Is the policy environment for Zambia supportive of a thriving whole-of-government monitoring and evaluation system?. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 7(1), 542-554. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.71.7678
Section
Articles

References

[1]. Republic of South Africa. Basic Concepts in Monitoring and Evaluation. Public Service Commission, Pretoria, South Africa, 2008.
[2]. Kanyamuna, V., Mubita, A., Ng’andu, E., Mizinga, C. & Mwale, A. 2018. An Assessment of the Demand-Side of the Monitoring and Evaluation System of the Health Sector in Zambia. World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2018. 4(2): p. 75–86.
[3]. Holvoet, N., Inberg, L. & Sekirime, S. Institutional analysis of monitoring and evaluation systems: Comparing M&E systems in Uganda's health and education sectors. Working Paprer, Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp, 2013.
[4]. Tania, A., & Ronette, E. Implementing a government wide monitoring and evaluation system in South Africa, 2010.
[5]. Mackay, K. How to Build M&E Systems to Support Better Government. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and World Bank. The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2007.
[6]. GRZ. Ministry of National Development Planning. 2015 Annual Progress Report for the Revised Sixth National Development Plan 2013-2016: People Centred Economic Growth and Development. Lusaka: Ministry of National Development Planning, 2016.
[7]. Kanyamuna, V. Sector Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in the context of Poverty Reduction Strategies: A comparative case study of Zambia’s Health and Agriculture sectors. MSc–dissertation, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2013.
[8]. Valadez, J. & Bamberger. M. Organizational and Management Issues in Programme Evaluation. In Monitoring and Evaluating Social Programmes in Developing Countries: A Handbook for Policymakers, Managers and Researchers. J. Valadez & M. Bamberger (Eds.). Washington D.C., 1994. The World Bank: pp. 403–441.
[9]. Kanyamuna, V., Kotzé, D. A. & Phiri, M. “Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: The Missing Strand in the African Transformational Development Agenda.” World Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities, 2019. 5(3): 160-175.
[10]. GRZ. Ministry of Finance and National Planning. Fifth National Development Plan 2006-2010: Broad based wealth and job creation through citizenry participation and technological advancement, Lusaka: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, 2006.
[11]. Mackay, K. Evaluation Capacity Development: A Diagnostic Guide and Action Framework, ECD Working Paper Series No. 6. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1999.
[12]. GRZ. Ministry of Finance and National Planning. Fifth National Development Plan 2010 Annual Progress Review: Broad Based Wealth and Job Creation through Citizenry Participation and Technological Advancement. Lusaka: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, 2011.
[13]. GRZ. Ministry of Finance and National Planning. 2012 Annual Progress Report for the Sixth National Development Plan 2011-2015: Sustainable Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Lusaka: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, 2013.
[14]. Mulonda, M., Kanyamuna, V. & Kanenga, H. State–Civil Society relationship in Zambia, International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies, 2018. 3(4): p. 17-26.
[15]. GRZ. Ministry of National Development Planning. 2013 Annual Progress Report for the Sixth National Development Plan 2011-2015: Sustainable Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction. Lusaka: Ministry of National Development Planning, 2014.
[16]. GRZ. Ministry of National Development Planning. Seventh National Development Plan (7NDP 2017-2021), Accelerating Development Efforts towards Vision 2030 without Leaving Anyone Behind (Vol. 1). Lusaka: Ministry of National Development Planning, 2017.
[17]. GRZ. Ministry of Finance and National Planning. National Planning and Budgeting Policy: Responsive, transparent, accountable and results-oriented Development Planning and Budgeting processes. Lusaka: Ministry of Finance and National Planning, 2014.
[18]. GRZ. Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives (MAL - Zambia). Agriculture Strategic Plan: 2006-2010, Lusaka: Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, 2006.
[19]. GRZ. Ministry of National Development Planning. 2015 Annual Progress Report for the Revised Sixth National Development Plan 2013-2016: People Centred Economic Growth and Development. Lusaka: Ministry of National Development Planning, 2006.
[20]. Kanyamuna, V., Mulonda, M. & Mulele, C.S. Monitoring and Evaluation Legislation in Zambia–Gap Analysis. International Journal of Humanities, Art and Social Studies, 2019. 4(1): 15-25.
[21]. Kusek, J. Z. & Rist, R. C. Ten Steps to a Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation Systems. A Handbook for Development Practitioners. The World Bank. Washington D.C., 2004.
[22]. Lahey, R. The Canadian Monitoring and Evaluation System. Prem Notes, Special series on the Nuts and Bolts of M&E systems. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2011.
[23]. Leftwich, A. Developmental states, effective states and poverty reduction: The primacy of politics–UNRISD Project on Poverty Reduction and Policy Regimes. University of York, 2008.
[24]. Mackay, K. Institutionalizing of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems to Improve Public Sector Management, ECD Working Paper Series No. 15. IEG World Bank, Washington D.C., 2006.
[25]. Kusek, J.Z. Assessing Country Readiness for Results-Based Monitoring and Evaluation to support Results Informed Budgeting. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2011.
[26]. Manning, R. Using indicators to encourage development: lessons from the millennium development goals (IDS Bulletin No.1)., 2009.
[27]. May, E., Shand, D., Mackay, K., Rojas, F. & Saavedra, J. (Eds.). Towards the Institutionalization of Monitoring and Evaluation Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Proceedings of a World Bank Conference. The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2006.
[28]. Naidoo, I. Monitoring and Evaluation in South Africa. Many purposes, multiple systems. In M. Sergone (Ed.). From Policies to Results: Developing capacities for country monitoring and evaluation systems, 2010. New York: UNICEF: pp. 303–320.
[29]. Segone, M. (Ed.). Country-led Monitoring and Evaluation Systems: Better evidence, better policies, better development results. UNICEF, Geneva, 2009.
[30]. Holvoet, N. & Renard, R. Putting the New Aid Paradigm to Work, Challenges for Monitoring and Evaluation, Discussion Paper No. 2. Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, 2005.
[31]. World Bank. Participation in Monitoring and evaluation of PRSPs. A document review of trends and approaches emerging from 21 full PRSPs. Washington, D.C., The World Bank, Social Development Department, The participation and civic engagement group. The World Bank, Washington D.C., 2003.
[32]. Trucano, M. (ed.). Monitoring and Evaluation of ICT in Education projects: A Handbook for Developing Countries. The World Bank, Washington, D.C., 2005.
[33]. Kanyamuna, V. Analysis of Zambia’s Whole-of-Government Monitoring and Evaluation System in the context of National Development Plans. Doctorate Thesis. University of South Africa, 2019.
[34]. Mubita, A., Mulonda, M., Libati, M., Mwale, N. & Kanyamuna, V. Urban Informality and Small Scale Enterprise (SME) Development in Zambia: An Exploration of Theory and Practice, Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport, 2017. 5(1): p.19-29.
[35]. Holvoet, N., Inberg, L. & Sekirime, S. Institutional analysis of monitoring and evaluation systems: Comparing M&E systems in Uganda's health and education sectors. Working Paprer, Institute of Development Policy and Management, University of Antwerp, 2013.