Pursuit of a sustainable tourism policy by connecting historical sites and ancient conventions in Seoul

  • LEE JONG OH Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, South Korea
Keywords: : historical content; sustainability; Seoul; Smart Seoul Map; GIS


Gyeongbokgung Palace is the most visited historical site in Seoul. With Gyeongbokgung Palace in the middle, Jongmyo Shrine is located to the left on Jongno 5-ga and Sajikdan Altar to the right in Sajik-dong. Currently, two events take place here—changing of the guards at Gyeongbokgung Palace and a memorial rite at Jongmyo Shrine—buttheyare conducted separately, whichindicates the lack of focus in explaining the connection between Seoul’s historical sites and history. Historical content that can be used to address this includes the procession of the king of Joseon and jikso activities by Joseon’s people. Jiksois a way to appeal directly to the king instead of a state agency about the people’s problems. The king’s ceremonial walk from the palace can be linked to Jongmyo Shrine, Sajikdan Altar, and the Cheonggyecheon Stream,Joseon’s busiest areas. Moreover, historical scenes of communication between the king and people can be recreated in spaces between the palace, Jongmyo Shrine, Sajikdan Altar, and Cheonggyecheon. This example will serve the history and sustainability of the city’s capital. Therefore, the present study utilized the Smart Seoul Map operated by the Seoul Metropolitan Government to identify the locations of Seoul’s important historical sites and analyze their distribution and scopes of influence and, consequently, identify places that can be utilized as new historical content. Determining how to link the king of Joseon’s ceremonial walk and jibs to historical places will help develop historical content to connect historical sites and small cities. This will enable the development of large-scale historical content that links the unit areas outside small cities as well as creation of a new type of urban culture while preserving Seoul’s historical nature.

Author Biography

LEE JONG OH, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, South Korea
Dr./Prof. Graduate School, Global Culture & Contents


[1]. Myung Sook Chun, Min Eui Jung, A Study on Urban Tourism Resources Development in Seoul City, The Academy of Korea Tourism Policy, vol.9 No.1, 2003.
[2]. Mi-Hyeon Park, Hee-Jeong Yun, Spatiotemporal Movement Density and Staying Characteristics of Walking Tourists in Bukchon Using GPS-based Smart Phone Application and QGIS, Journal of Tourism Sciences, vol.38, No.9, 2014.
[3]. NaYeon Kim, YoungOk Kang, JuYoon Lee, Dong Eun Kim, YeRim Park, Tourists hot spot analysis in Seoul using geotagged photos, Seoul Studies, vol. 20, No. 1, 2019.
[4]. Hoo-Suk Lee, Tourists' Authenticity Perception and its Relationship with Tourism Experience: A Sample of Foreign Tourists Visiting Seoul Buckchon Traditional Village, Journal of Tourism Sciences, vol.35, No.2, 2011.
[5]. Ji-Sun Kim, Hoon Lee, An Evaluation of the Quality and Level of Satisfaction on Royal Palace Tourism - Focusing on Authentic Experience and HISTOQUAL -, Journal of Tourism Sciences, vol.33, No.6, 2009.
[6]. Seol Min Yoon, Jin Ah Park, Choong Ki Lee, Examining the Relationships among Attractive Attribute, Satisfaction, and Loyalty of Ancient Palace as Cultural Tourism Resource : A Case of Visitors to Gyeongbok Palace, Seoul Studies, vol. 13, No. 1, 2012.
[7]. Hyun-ju, Lee, Online Review Analysis on Gyeongbokgung :Using data on tripadvisor.com, International Journal of Tourism Management and Sciences, , vol. 32, No. 2, 2017.
[8]. Nam-Hee Lee, Nam-Jo Kim, The Effects of Residents’ Perceived Crowding on the Emotion and Coping Behavior in Tourism Destination, International Journal of Tourism Management and Sciences, vol. 30, No. 4, 2015.
[9]. Beomsoo Han, Hee-Young Kim, Sanghun Park, Strengthening the Placeness by Networks of Cultural Tourism Contents Focused on the Themed Street, Seoul Studies, vol. 9, No. 4, 2008.
[10]. Eunhye Choung, A Study on Urban Tourism through Urban Regeneration: Focusing on the Case of Seoullo 7017, Journal of the Korean Urban Geographical Society, vol. 21, No.1, 2018.
[11]. Giddings, B., Hopwood, B. and O’Brien, G, Environment, economy and society: Fitting them together into sustainable development, Sustain 10, 2002.
[12]. Alvarez-Sousa, A, The problems of tourist sustainability in cultural cities: socio-political perceptions and interests management, Sustainability, vol. 10, No. 2, 2018.
[13]. Butlin, R.A., Historical geography: Through the Gates of Space and Time, London: Arnold, 1993.
[14]. Knowles, A.K. ed., Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History, California: ESRI Press, 2002.
[15]. Ian N. Gregory, Paul S. Ell, Historical GIS - Technologies, Methodologies and Scholarship, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
[16]. Myungjin Hong, A Study on the Present Condition and Utilization of the Historical Geography Information System in Japan -Examples of Space Restoration in Japan’s Historical Area-, Journal of the Korean Geographical Society 52(6), 2017, pp. 847-849.
[17]. Jong-hyuk Kim, The Digitalized Cultural Atlas As a New Research Method for the Humanities in the Era of Digital, Korean Studies 12, 2008.
[18]. Jonghyuk Kim, On the Reconstruction of the Historical-Geographical Environment for the Compilation of the Historical Maps, Journal of the Korean Cartographic Association vol. 12, No 2, 2013.
[19]. Yo-KeunJeong, Cartography of Goryeo Historical Atlas Based on GIS, The Journa of Korean Medieval History (37), 2013.
[20]. Yo-KeunJeong, Restoration of Territories of a County Surrounded by Other Counties in the Late Joseon Period through Use of the GIS Method, The Korean Historical Review 224, 2014.
[21]. Hang-seob Bae, Direct Appeal and Political Culture of ‘Early Modern’ East Asia, Critical Review of History(no, 124), Aut, 2018, pp. 153--154.
[22]. Sejo-Sillok, vol. 32, Sejo 10th, Lunar calendar of March 24th, first record.
[23]. Sejo-Sillok, vol. 37, Sejo 11th, Lunar calendar of October 12th, second record.
[24]. Seongjong-Sillok, vol. 143, Seongjong 13th, Lunar calendar of July 25th, fourth record.
[25]. Seongjong-Sillok, vol. 143, Seongjong 13th, Lunar calendar of July 26th, third record.
[26]. Jungjong-Sillok, vol. 44, Jungjong 17th, Lunar calendar of April 19th, third record.
[27]. Seonjo-Sillok, vol. 14, Seonjo 13th, Lunar calendar of June 1st, first record.
[28]. Yungjo-Sillok, vol. 91, Yungjo 34th, Lunar calendar of January 28th, first record.
[29]. THE ACADEMY OF KOREAN STUDIES, Living as the King of the Joseon Dynasty, Dolbegae, 2011, pp. 83-89.
[30]. Jiyoung Kim, The Royal Processions of the Kings, and the paths that were taken, during the latter half period of Joseon dynasty, The Institute of Seoul Studies(no. 30), 2008, pp. 43-44.
[31]. Jiyoung Kim, Ibid., 2008, pp. 44--45.
[32]. Hang-seob Bae, Direct Appeal and Political Culture of ‘Early Modern’ East Asia, Critical Review of History(no, 124), Aut, 2018, p. 157.
[33]. Hang-seob Bae, Ibid., 2018, pp. 157-158.
[34]. Shinwook Son, Sanghun Park, Nahyun Lee, Exploratory Study of National Policy Measures on overtourism and sustainable tourism industry, Journal of Tourism Management Research Vol 22, No 4, 2018, pp. 334-338.
[35]. Doxey, G, A Causation Theory of Visitor-Resident Irritants, Methodology and Research Inferences. The Impact of Tourism, Sixth Annual Conference Proceedings of the Travel Research Association. September 8-11, San Diego, California. San Diego: Travel Research Association, 1975.
[36]. Alexis, P, Over-Tourism and Anti-Tourist Sentiment: An Exploratory Analysis and Discussion. Ovidius University Annals. Economic Sciences Series, vol. 17, No. 2, 2017, pp.288-292.
[37]. Seraphin, H., Sheeran, P., & Pilato, M., Over-tourism and the fall of Venice as a destination, Journal of Destination Marketing & Management, 2018.
[38]. Liang, Z. X. and Bao, J. G, Tourism gentrification in Shenzhen, China: causes and socio-spatial consequences, Tourism Geographies, vol. 17, No 3, 2015.
[39]. Routledge, P, 'Selling the rain', resisting the sale: Resistant identities and the conflict over tourism in Goa, Social & Cultural Geography, vol. 2, No 2, 2001.
[40]. Seohyeon Lee, Pre-Overtourism Phenomena and Warning : Looking Back on the Lives of Jeju Residents as Reported by Local Media, Korean Journal of Communication & Information 88, 2018, pp.78-79.
[41]. Smart Seoul Map(http://map.seoul.go.kr).
[42]. Great Britain GIS(http://www.gbhgis.org).
[43]. https://worldmap.harvard.edu/maps/china-history/Kkj.
[44]. Yano, K., et al. Creating Virtual Time-Space of Kyoto, E-journal GEO. Vol. 1, 2006, pp.12-21.; Y. Takase etc, VIRTUAL KYOTO: VISUALIZATION OF HISTORICAL CITY WITH 4DGIS, VIRTUAL REALITY AND WEB TECHNOLOGIES, The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. Vol. XXXVII. Beijing. 2008.
[45]. Kie-JooHyong, Colonial Nature of Seoul Modernization under Japanese Rule, The Journal of Applied Geography,vol. 20, 1997, pp.5-8.
[46]. Jong-Geun Kim, A critical assessment on the colonial duality of Kyungsung(Keijō), The Journal of Seoul Studies (38), 2010, pp.36-38.
[47]. Sun-Hak BAE, Urban Change Analysis using the 1:50,000 Topographical Map which is Produced at 1910's, Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies, vol. 10, no. 3, 2007.
[48]. Chang-Woo Kang, Seung-Woo Yang, A Study on the process of urban tissue change in northeast Gyungseong during the Japanese colonial era: focused on Hyehwa-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul, Korea, The Journal of Seoul Studies (57), 2014.
[49]. Seul-Ki Yu, Kyung-Min Kim, The commercialization process in the Eastern areas within city wall of Seoul during Joseon Dynasty, The Journal of Seoul studies (67), 2017.
[50]. Seul-Ki Yu, Kyung-Min Kim, The process of being a middle-upper class town of Northeastern areas within Seoul city wall during the Japanese colonization period, Seoul and History vol. 97. 2017.
[51]. Jong-geun Kim, The Legal Formation of the Red-Light Districts and their Locational Characteristics during the Early Colonial Times of Korea, Journal of the Association of Korean Geographers, vol. 6, No. 2, 2017.
[52]. Sun-Hak Bae, Eui-Han Lee, Sung-Hoon Jung, An Analysis on the Distribution of Road Networks and Buildings in Jeju-Island in the 1910s, Journal of the Association of Korean Photo-Geographers, vol. 22, No. 3, 2012.
[53]. http://gis-heritage.go.kr/information/informationGisG.do.
[54]. https://map.seoul.go.kr/smgis/webs/main/main.do.