A COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATIVENESS IN THE ATTRACTIVENESS OF A TOURIST DESTINATION
Case Study - Tourist Destination Oltenia
Competitiveness together with innovation are printed on all components of a tourist destination, from the tourist product to the elements of attraction, infrastructure, entertainment, human resources, image and character, not forgetting the price that can launch or restrict it on a dynamic tourist market where quality overtakes in recent years and meets dynamic tourist demand. This article aims to analyze the two imperative components in the sustainable functionality of a tourist destination, inseparable binomial, competitiveness and innovation as the only viable ways of halting the decline in the lifecycle of a tourist destination Oltenia. The article also attempts to apply for the Oltenia region the criteria for denominate a tourist destination in the optics of regional competitiveness and more, a tourist destination which is unfortunately currently not competitive, although it has the necessary parameters for identifying competitiveness (natural and cultural resources, customs and traditions, unique local products, tourist identity, etc.). Through specific geographical methods (diagnosis, prospective, documentary, graphical representation, and also Butler's TALC model) the article sets out a complex theoretical and methodological framework, with factual determinations in promoting the destination Oltenia as a destination of excellence in Romania (The Danube Gorge may be considered as the region's visiting card, being thus awarded the title of "European Destination of Excellence" in 2008).
2. Crouch, G.I and Ritchie, J.R.B., Tourism, competitiveness, and societal prosperity, Journal of Business Research 44, 137–52, 1999.
3. Ritchie, J.R. Brent and Crouch, G.I. - The competitive destination: A sustainability perspective. Tourism Management 21 (1), 1–7, 2000.
4. Hassan - "Determinants of Market competitiveness in an environmentally sustainable tourism Industry,"Journal ofTravel Research, 38(February), 239-45, 2000.
5. Dupeyras & MacCallum, - Indicators for Measuring Competitiveness in Tourism,OECD,2013 Author 1, A.B. (University, City, State, Country); Author 2, C. (Institute, City, State, Country). Personal communication, 2012.
6. Poon A - Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies, University of Arizona Press, 1230 North Park Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719, 1993, p. 352.
7. Mihalič, T., Environmental management of a tourist destination: A factor of tourism competitiveness, Tourism Management 21, Pergamon, 2000, p. 65
8. Ritchie, J.R. and Crouch, G.I. - Competitiveness in international tourism: A framework for understanding and analysis. Proceedings of the 43rd Congress of Association Internationale d’Experts Scientifique de Tourisme. San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina, 17–23 October. 1993.
9. Candea M, Stancioiu F, Mazilu M, Marinescu R, The Competitiveness of the tourist destination on the future Market, Wseas Transactions on Business and Economics, Issue 7, volume 6, july 2009, p.374-384. http://www.wseas.us/e-library/transactions/economics/2009/29-592.pdf.
10. Cocean Pompei, Geografia Generală a Turismului (capitolul Resurse turistice), Editura Meteor Press, Cluj Napoca,1996.
11. Popescu L., Băloi I., Mazilu Mirela, A. Bădiță. Competitiv, durabil, inovativ si identitar in conturarea destinatiei turistice Oltenia, Ed Universitaria, Craiova, 2015, ISBN:978-606-14-0926-6, p.132.
12. Bădiţă A., Mazilu M., Popescu L., Challenges for human capital and sustainable development of rural areas. A case study on Craiova Metropolitan Area, 22nd Annual Colloquium Commission on the Sustainability of Rural Systems, International Geographical Union ”Rural life and rural systems between tradition and integrated urban-rural development”, 24 August – 03 September 2014, Bucharest and Sibiu, Romania, 2014, http://www.cicadit.ro/en/events1.html.
13. Butler, R., Tourism Area Life Cycle: Contemporary Tourism Reviews. Oxford: Goodfellow., and "Tourism and the environment: a geographical perspective,"Tourism Geographies, 2 (3), 337-58, 2011.
14. Paul, H., “Marketing für Fremdenverkehr: Leitlinien für die Dienstleistungs- und Absatzpolitik im Herstellerbereich der Fremdenverkehrswirtschaft”, RKW Rationalisierungs- Kuratorium der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Frankfurt, 1977, p-18.
15. Koutoulas - Understanding The Tourist Product, Interim symposium of the Research Committee on International Tourism (RC 50) of the International Sociological Association (ISA) on the topic: “Understanding Tourism - Theoretical Advances”, 14-16 May 2004, University of the Aegean, Mytilini, Greece, p. 473, 2004.
16. Jovicic - A plea for tourismological theory and methodology, December 1988, Tourism Review 43(3):2-5, DOI: 10.1108/eb057997, 1988.
17. Cristureanu, Factors Influencing Touristic Demand and its Modelling Possibilities, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences,Volume 62, 24 October 2012, Pages 1184-1189.
18. Mazilu Mirela Elena, Turism şi Dezvoltare Durabilă, Editura Universitaria Craiova, 2011.
19. Leiper, - Tourist attractions systems, Annals of Tourism Research,Volume 17, Issue 3, 1990, Pages 367-384, p. 96.
20. Dweyer & Kim, Destination Competitiveness: Determinants and Indicators, Routledge, Current Issues in Tourism 6(5), 2003.
21. Y. Venkat, R., Destination Planning and Development, Paper Code : MBTM 3004, MBA - TOURISM, III Semester, ISBN No. 978-93-81932-09-4
22. ADR Oltenia, 2010 - Studiu privind dezvoltarea turismului la nivel regional, https://www.adroltenia.ro/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/STUDIU-TURISM-FINAL.pdf.
23. Mazilu M, Dumitrescu D, Bădiță A, Towards sustainable tourism development. Strategica. Opportunities and Risks in the Contemporary Business Environment: 1017-1029, Editura Tritonic, București, 2016
24. Mazilu, M., Sustainable Tourism of Destination, Imperative Triangle Among: Competitiveness, Effective Management and Proper Financing. 10.5772/28062, Sustainable Development - Policy and Urban Development - Tourism, Life Science, Management and Environment, 2012
25. Buhalis, D., Marketing the competitive destination in the future. Tourism Management 21 (1), 97–116, 2000.
26. Formica; "Measuring Destination Attractiveness: A proposed Framework" in International Business Conference. Miami, Florida: TTRA, 2001.
27. Hu and Ritchie - Measuring destination attractiveness: A contextual approach,"Journal of Travel Research, Fall, 25-34, 1993.
28. Kozak and Rimmington - Measuring tourist destination competitiveness: Conceptual considerations and empirical findings, September 1999, International Journal of Hospitality Management 18(3):273-283, DOI: 10.1016/S0278-4319(99)00034-1, 1999.
29. Vengesayi - A conceptual model of tourism destination competitiveness and attractiveness, 2003.
30. Crompton, J. L., Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research,6(4), 1979, p.408-424
31. Mitroi (Gheorgheci), S., Identitate,Competitivitate Și Durabilitate În Conturarea Microregiunii Turistice Clisura Dunării, teză de doctorat, 2017
32. Mazilu Mirela Elena, Popescu Liliana, Amalia Bădiță, ”Ingredients” for an attractive Tourism market”, participare la Conferința Internațională Turism și Dezvoltare Durabilă, organizată de Fac de Marketing Turistic, Dimitrie Cantemir, Timișoara, publicat în Revista QUAESTUS, Editura Eurostampa, Timișoara, ISSN-L 2285-424X, 2014, p.38-40.
33. Mazilu Mirela Elena. Innovation,tradition and cooperation in tourism according to the EU Stategy of the Danube Region, Proceedings of International Conference Serbia in the Danube Region in 21-st Century,ISBN:978-86-7067-200-0, Publisher Institute of International Politics and Economics, Belgrad, 2014, p.73-94.
34. Mazilu, M., Nedelcu, A., The Romania-Bulgaria-Serbia Cross-Border Touristic Potential Specific for the South-West Oltenia Region According to the Danube Strategy Approach, : Environment and Ecology at the Beginning of 21st Century, Chapter 52, ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI UNIVERSITY PRESS SOFIA, 2015
35. Mirela Mazilu, Loredana Dragomir, Andrei Băbăț, Carlo Dragomir, Innovative / Competitive Tourist Product In Revitalizing A Tourist Destination. Case Study: The Danube Cluster, publicat în Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Doctoral Students and Young Researchers, ISBN 978-606-10-2011-9, Oradea, No. 6, December 2018, p. 161 - 164
36. Crouch, G.I and Ritchie, J.R.B, The Competitive Destination: A Sustainable Tourism Perspective, CABI Publishing, 2003, p.63
37. Baker, M. J.. Critical success factors in destination marketing, in Tourism and Hospitality Research, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, Vol. 8, No. 2 p. 79-97.
38. Cater, E.. Environmental contradictions in sustainable tourism. Geographical Journal 161 (1), 1995, p. 21-28.
39. Edgell D.L.. Managing Sustainable Tourism: A Legacy for the Future, Routledge, 2006, p.135.
40. Gartner, W.C.. Image Formation Process, in Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 2(2/3), 2009, p.191-215.
41. Grgona, J.. Tourism and Ecology, Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings, 2009.
42. Jafari, J., Wall G.. Sustainable tourism. Annals of Tourism Research 21(3): 667-669, 1994.
43. Mazilu, M.E.. Les stratégies pour un tourisme durable et ses effets, Problems of Geography, nr. 1-2, Bulgarian Academy of Science, 2006.
44. Mirela Mazilu, Daniela Dumitrescu, Mădălina Andrei, Roxana Marinescu, Tasks of a New Sustainable Romanian Model Destination, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT, Vol.11, 2017, p.26-31-44.
45. Mirela Mazilu. Sustainable Tourism of Destination, Imperative Triangle Among: Competitiveness, Effective Management and Proper Financing, Sustainable Development - Policy and Urban Development - Tourism, Life Science, Management and Environment, Chaouki Ghenai (Ed.), 2012, ISBN: 978-953-51-0100-0, InTech, DOI:10.5772/28062
46. Lagiewski, R., The Application of the Talc model: a literature survey., Aspects of Tourism: The Tourism Area Life Cycle Vol.1, Applications and Modifications. Ed. Richard Butler. Great Britain: Cromwell Press, 2006. 27-50
47. Mirela Mazilu, Cipriana Sava, Amalia Niţă, Sabina Gheorgheci,A Green and Competitiveness Model Development- Danube Bend-Eco-Friendly Destination, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMS APPLICATIONS, ENGINEERING & DEVELOPMENT,Vol.11,2017,p.32-ISSN: 2074-1308 44, 2017, http://www.naun.org/main/UPress/saed/2017/a142014-032.pdf
48. Mazilu Mirela, Roxana Marinescu, Bălă Dumitru, Loredana Dragomir, Aspects regarding the competitiveness and innovativeness of the tourist destination,Proceedings ISSD, Proceediings of the Internatiionall Conference“Informatiion Sociiety and Sustaiinablle Devellopment”ISSD 2019VIth Edition, May 10-11, 2019 Targu-Jiu, Gorj County, Romania, , „ACADEMICA BRÂNCUŞI” PUBLISHER, ISBN 978-973-144-889-3 ,2019, p.147-152
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.