Main Article Content
Strengthening the Institutional Corrections for Effective Rehabilitation in Kenya
Department of Sociology and Social Work
Globally, Institutional Corrections continue to play a critical role in the rehabilitation of the offenders. It is estimated that there are more than 10.2 million offenders in prison including sentenced and pretrial prisoners. Statistics also show that 144 out of every 100,000 people are in prison. Similarly, in the last fifteen years the estimated world prison has increased by 25-35% hence the need to strengthen institutional corrections for better rehabilitation. In Kenya, the total prison population is about 53,841. This includes the pretrial detainees and remand prisoners. Additionally, there are 92 institutional corrections in Kenya. However, the prison system struggles with overcrowding, poor governance, insufficient coordination with other criminal justice systems and inadequate resources. As a result, the institutions have become breeding grounds for recidivism. This paper examines the development of the prison system, the evolution of the challenges and abuse of human rights. It will also examine how institutions can be strengthened. The paper recommends the need for more research to unearth more innovative ways of dealing with the challenges. There is need for inbuilt mechanisms to ensure good governance and accountability, re-integration and allocation of resources. In essence, a multisectoral approach need to be adopted for sustainable solutions.
Key Words; Strengthening, Institutional Corrections, Rehabilitation, Prison, Kenya.
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
Achieng C, (2007). Effective resettlement of offenders by strengthening community reintegration factors; Kenya’s experience’, Resource material serial No. 82, 145th International training course participants and observer’ paper,
Agasa E, (2015). ‘Effects of Imprisonment on Inmates at Industrial Area Remand and Lang’ata Women Prisons in Kenya’, Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 30(1)11-20.
Amanda D, (2012). ‘Good practice principles in reducing reoffending: a review of the literature’.
Amnesty International, (2000). Kenya Prisons: Deaths due to torture and cruel, inhuman and degrading conditions,
Baldry, E., McDonnel et all, (2006) Ex-Prisoners , homelessness and the state in Australia . Australia and New Zealand journal of Criminology , 39(1) 20-33
Bonda, J. (2007) The Risk-Need Responsivity model of Assesment and Human Service in Prevention and Corrections : Crime Prevention Jurisprudence – The Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 49(4)439-464.
Christian, J . (2005). Riding the Bus ; Barriers to Prison Visitation and Family Management Strategies . Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice , 21 (1) 31-48.
Cullen, F.T. et al (2011) Prisons Do not reduce Recidivism behaviour. The high cost of ignoring Science Dris J93 :485-655
Clear, T.R (2007) Imprisoning Communities . How Mass Incarceration makes disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Oxford University Press.
Davis, L, Robert, B., Jennifer, L., Jessica, S.,Jeremy, N. (2012)Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Education . A meta analysis of Programs that provide Education to Incarcerated Adults . Sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Assistance , Washington DC.
Durose, et all (2014) Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 30 states in 2005: Patterns from 2005-2010 , Bureau of Justice Statistics Special Report, NCJ 244205
Giordano, P.C et al, (2002) Gender, Crime and Desistance: Towards a theory of cognitive transformation, American Journal of Sociology, 107(4), 990-1064.
Gideon, L (2007) . Family role in the reintegration process of recovering drug addicts. A qualitative review of Israeli offenders. International journal of offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 51 (2)212-226.
Graffam, J., & Hardcastle , L. (2007). Ex-Prisoners and ex-offenders and the employment connection : Assistance plus acceptance . In Dawe, susan(ed.) Vocational education and training for adult prisoners and offenders in Australia (pp 47-48) Adelaide, Australia.
Johnson, C.L.(2010) The impact of Imprisonment on reoffending . A meta analysis . Unpublished doctoral thesis , University of Cincinatti.
Human Rights Council (2016). Genocide in Rwanda – accessed June 2016 http://www.humanrighs.org/genocide/in_rwanda_html
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (2012) Government of Kenya Press, Nairobi.
Kimani. P. (2006) Administration of the Kenya Prisons Organization’ resource material series no .98
Ministry of Justice (2013) Proven Reoffending Statistics Quarterly Bulletin, July-June 2011, England and Wales ‘,Statistics Bulletin 25th April p.7and 20
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime( 2012). Introductory Handbook on Prevention of Recidivism and Social Reintegration of Offenders ( Criminal Justice Handbook Series) New York: United Nations
Mackenzie,D.L (2006) What works in corrections : Reducing the criminal activities of the offenders and delinquents: New York: Cambridge University Press
Maruna, S. (2001) Making good: How ex-convicts reform and rebuild their lives. Washington, D.C:American Psychological Association.
Nasiloli, M. (2015) Factors affecting recidivism among convicted prisoners , A case of Langata Women Prison in Nairobi County, Kenya. Published paper , University of Nairobi.
Nyaura J and Njeri M, (2014). ‘A Critical Overview of the Kenyan Prisons System: Understanding the Challenges of Correctional Practice’, Volume 12, International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research,
Nagin,D.S et al (2009) Imprisonment and Reoffending , Crime and Justice Vol 38 pp115-200
University of Chicago Press
Omboto , J. (2010) The challenges facing rehabilitation of prisoners in Kenya . Mitigation and Strategies
Omboto J, (2013). ‘The challenges facing rehabilitation of prisoners in Kenya and the mitigation strategies’, volume 2, International journal of research in social science
Onyango L, (2005). ‘Overview of the Kenyan criminal justice system (Corrections)’, 153rd International Senior Seminar Participants’Papers.
Onyango P, (2008). ‘Correctional systems in Kenya’, Resource material serial No. 94, 157th International training course participants paper,
Owino B, Egesah O, Akong’a J, (2015). ‘Looking in the mirror; reflection on implementation of the principles of penal systems in Kenya’s prisons’, volume 3, journal of international academic research for multidisciplinary.
Welch, M. (2006) Corrections . A critical approach, New York . McGraw Hill
Silverman, I.J (2001) Corrections: A Comprehensive view (2nded) Belmont, CA:Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Stevens, S.(1994) A Prison Library . In Williford (Ed), Higher Education in Prison(pp75-90) Phoenix: American Council of Education and the Oryx Press.
Slate , R., Well,T,.&Johnson , W,.(2003)Opening the Manager’s door: State Probation Officer Stress and Perceptions of Participation in workplace decision making . Crime and Delinquency 49, 519-541.
United States of America Census Bureau 2006
The Community Service Order Act (No. 10 of 1998) Laws of Kenya.
The Probation of Offenders Act (Cap 64) Laws of Kenya
Wilson, D. B., Gallagher, C. A., & MacKenzie, D. L. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education, vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347–368.
United States Of America Census Bureau 2006