Do Distance Education students owned their learning? Students’ perceptions of parenting styles and sex role ideologies.

  • Samuel Asare Amoah University of Education, Winneba
Keywords: Parenting Styles, Sex role ideology, Distance Education students



Samuel Asare Amoah1, Francis Owusu-Mensah2, Abena Gyamera3               Gideon Mensah, Ankama4,


Psychology and Education, Department, University of Education, Winneba


Institute of Distance and e-learning, University of Education, Winneba


Psychology and Education, Department, University of Education, Winneba


Municipal Education Office, Ghana Education Service, Koforidua










Students have different ideologies about what they consider appropriate and inappropriate when it comes to learning. In view of this the study sought to find out if DE students own their learning regarding parenting styles and sex role ideologies. Correlational research design was employed in this study. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select 300 participants from a population of 1480. Using an adopted instruments the Pearson-Product Moment Correlation was used to establish association between parenting styles and sex role ideology and regression was used to ascertain the predictions of the variables. It was found that parenting styles do not contribute to sex role ideologies of the participants to foster learning. However, individuals with authoritative parenting style were more likely to form more modern sex role ideology which influences their learning episode, and individuals with authoritarian parenting style were more likely to have more traditional sex role ideology. The study recommends that since parenting styles relates with sex role ideology DE students need to be guided on how they learn through guidance and counselling to develop the best ideology to learning. Again cultural sentiment need to guide DE students who come from varied cultural settings.


Key words: Parenting Styles, Sex role ideology, Distance Education students

Author Biography

Samuel Asare Amoah, University of Education, Winneba

Psychology and Education


Senior Lecturer



Abell, E., Clawson, M., Washington, W. N., Bost, K. K., & Vaughn, B. E. (1996). Parenting values, attitudes, behaviours, and goals of African American mothers from a low-income population in relation to social and societal contexts. Journal of Family Issues, 17, 593-613.

Ampofo, A. A. (2001). When men speak women listen: Gender socialisation and young adolescents’ attitudes to sexual and reproductive issues. African Journal of Reproductive Health. 5(3), 196-212.

Akinade, E. A., & Owolabi, T. (2010). Research methods: A pragmatic approach for social sciences, behavioural sciences and education. Lagos: Connel Publications.

Akotia, C. S., & Anum, A. (2012). The moderating effects of age and education on gender differences on gender role perceptions. Gender and Behaviour, 10(2), 5022-5043.

Amoah, E. (1991). Femaleness, Akan concepts and practices. In J. Becher (Ed.) Women, religion and sexuality, studies on the impact of religious teachings on women. Philadelphia: Trinity Press Int.

Arnold, A. P. (2010). Promoting the understanding of sex differences to enhance equity and excellence in biomedical science. Biology of Sex Differences, 1(1), 1-3.

Bandura, A. (2002). Social cognitive theory in cultural context. Applied Psychology, 51(2), 269-290.

Barry, D. T. & Beitel, M. (2006). Sex role ideology among East Asian immigrants in the United States. American journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 512-517.

Bem, S., (1981). Gender schema theory: A cognitive account of sex‐typing. Psychological Review, 88.

Berk, L.E., (2000). Child Development, 5th Edition. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon Press.

Bornstein, M., (2002). A Handbook of parenting. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Boveja, M. E. (1998). Parenting styles and adolescents’ learning strategies in the urban community. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 26, 110-119.

Brewster, K., & Padavic, I. (2000). Change in gender ideology, 1977-1996: The contributions of intra cohort change and population turnover. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 477-487.

Buri, J. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57(1), 110-119.

Chao, R. (2000). The parenting of immigrant Chinese and European American mothers: Relations between parenting styles, socialization goals, and parental practices. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(2), 233-248.

Chang, L. (1999). Gender egalitarian attitudes in Beijing, Hong Kong, Florida and Michigan. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 30, 722-742.

Chen, X., Dong, Q., & Zhou, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting practices and social and school performance in Chinese children. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 21(4), 855-873.

Cherry, K., (2010). Parenting styles: the four styles of parenting. Applied Psychology, 51(3), 260-290.

Dalton, W., Frick‐Horbury, D., & Kitzmann, K. (2006). Young adults' retrospective reports of parenting by mothers and fathers: Associations with current relationship quality. Journal of General Psychology, 133(1), 5‐18.

Darling, N. (2001). Parenting style and its correlates. Psychological bulletin, 223(4), 487.

Dewar, G. (2010). Parenting Styles: A Guide for the science-minded. Applied Psychology. 51(2), 269-290.

Diekman, A. B., Goodfriend, W., & Goodwin, S. (2004). Dynamic stereotypes of power: Perceived change and stability in gender hierarchies. Sex Roles. 50(4), 201-215.

Dornbusch, S. M., Ritter, P. L., Leiderman, P. H., & Roberts, D. F. (1987). The relation of parenting style to adolescent school performance. Child Development, 58, 1244-1257.

Dornbusch, S., Glasgow, K, Ritter, P. L., Steinberg, L., & Troyer, D. (1997). Parenting styles, adolescents attributions, and educational outcomes in nine heterogeneous high schools. Child development vol. 2, 507 - 529.

Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex Differences in Social Behaviour: A Social-Role Interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Eagly, A. H. Steffen, V.J. (1984). Gender stereotypes stem from the distribution of women and men into social roles. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 46 (4), 735‐754.

Eagly, A. H. & Wood, W. (1991). Explaining sex differences in social behaviour: a meta-analytical perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. 17, 306-315.

Eagly, A. H., Karau, S. J., & Makhijani, M. G. (1995). Gender and the effectiveness of leaders: a meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 117(1), 125.

Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender. 123-174.

Etchezahar, E., & Ungaretti, J. (2013). Women stereotypes and ambivalent sexism in a sample of adolescents from Buenos Aires. Journal of Behaviour, Health and Social Issues. Vol. 6, 87 – 94.

Folbre, N., Christensen, K., Gringeri, C., Matthaei, J., Kornbluh, F., Rose, N. (2001). The Invisible Heart: Economics and Family Values. LA: Sage

Gerson, K. (2002). Moral dilemmas, moral strategies, and the transformation of gender lessons from two generations of work and family change. Gender & Society, 16(1), 8-28.

Greenwood, B. (2014). The Baumrind theory of parenting Styles. Applied Psychology, 55(2).

Hart, C. H., Mandleco, B., Olson, S. F., & Robinson, C. C. (1998). Authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting practices: Development of a new measure. Journal of Psychological Reports, 77, 819-830.

Heilman, M. E., Wallen, A. S., Fuchs, D. & Tamkins, M. M. (2004). Penalties for success: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender-typed tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 416-427.

Helgerson, S. V. (2009). The Psychology of Gender (3rd. Ed.).Upper Saddle River NJ. Prentice Hall.

Helmreich, R. L., Spence, J. T., & Gibson, R. H. (1982). Sex-role attitudes: 1972-1980. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 8(4), 656-663.

Hill, N. E. (1995). The relationship between family environment and parenting style: A preliminary study of African American families. Journal of Black Psychology, 21, 408-423.

Hochschild A, (2003). The second shift: Family & Society Studies Worldwide, Ipswich, MA.

Hoffman, E., (2000). German family structures and parenting practices. Paper presented at German family organization forum. Munich. Journal of Family Issues, 16(5), 34-58.

Hoghughi, M. S., & Long, N. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of parenting: theory and research for practice. LA: Sage Publications.

Hyde, L. (1993). Social Role Theory. Annual Review of Sex Research, 10(1), 70-99.

Keller, H. & Otto, H. (2009). The cultural socialization of emotion regulation during infancy. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40 (6), 996-1011.

Konrad, A. M., Ritchie Jr, J. E., Lieb, P., & Corrigall, E. (2000). Sex differences and similarities in job attribute preferences: a meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 126(4), 593.

Kopko, K., (2007). Parenting styles and adolescents. Cornell Cooperative Extension: Cornell University, U.S.A.

Krejcie, R.V. & Morgan, D.W. 1970. Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 30. 607- 610.

Kroska, A. (2014). The Social Psychology of Gender Inequality. Netherlands: Springer.

Kulik, L. (2002). The impact of social background on gender-role ideology parents' versus children's attitudes. Journal of Family Issues, 23(1), 53-73.

Kusi, H. (2012). Qualitative Research: A guide for researchers. Accra New Town: Accra, Emmpong Presss.

Lamborn, S.D., Mounts, N.S, Steinberg, L., & Dornbusch, S.M. (1991). Patterns of competence and adjustment among adolescents from authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and neglectful families. Child Development, 62 (5), 1049-1065

Leung, K., Lau, S., & Lam, W. L. (1998). Parenting styles and academic achievement: A cross-cultural study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly (1982-), 157-172.

Maslak, M. A., & Singhal, G. (2008). The identity of educated women in India: confluence or divergence? Gender and Education, 20(5), 481-493.

McBroom‚ W. H. (1987). Longitudinal change in sex role orientations: difference s between men and women. Journal of Sex Roles‚ 16‚ 439-452.

McHugh, M. C., & Frieze, I. H. (1997). The measurement of gender-role attitudes: A review and commentary. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 1-16.

Meredith, A. S. (2009). Gender differences in Parenting Styles and Child relationship. San Marcos: Texas

Moss, P. (2008). Beyond quality in early childhood education and care-language of evaluation. New Zealand Journal of Teachers’ work. Vol. 5(1), 03 – 12.

Moya, M., & Exposito, F. (2001). Roles and women’s well-being: Some preliminary findings from Malaysia. Journal of Sex Roles, 41, 123–145.

Myer, S., & Both, A. (2002). Forerunners of change in non-traditional gender ideology. Social Psychology Quarterly, 65, 18-37.

Myranda,G.,(2013). Gender roles and ideology: Crossing the divide. Journal of Sex Roles, 64, 453-469.

Nukunya, G. K. (2003). Tradition and Change in Ghana. An introduction to sociology. (2ndEd.). Accra: Ghana Universities Press.

Opia, M. K. (2010). Changing man attitude: Studies in family planning. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(4), 68.

Owano, D. A., (2010). Perception of secondary school students on effects of parenting styles on their academic performance: A case study of Bongo District, Kenya. Kenya: Egerton University.

Park, B. & Bauer, S. (2002). Correspondence between maternal and paternal parenting style. Child development.65(6), 142-156.

Radziszewska, B., Richardson, J. L., Dent, C. W., & Flay, B. R. (1996). Parenting style and adolescent depressive symptoms, smoking, and academic achievement: Ethnic, gender, and Sex differences. Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 19(3), 289-305.

Ribeiro, L. L., (2009). Construction and validation of a four parenting style scale. California, Arcata: Humboldt State University

Rice, T. W., & Coates, D. L. (1995). Gender role attitudes in the southern United States. Gender & Society, 9(6), 744-756.

Robison-Awana, P., Kehle, T. J., & Jenson, W. R. (1986). But what about smart girls? Adolescent self-esteem and sex role perceptions as a function of academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3), 179.

Rocha-Sánchez, T., & Díaz-Loving, R. (2005). Gender and the social rights of citizenship: The comparative analysis of gender relations and welfare states. American Sociological Review, 58(3), 303-328.

Roopnarine, J. L., Talukder, E., Jain, D., Joshi, P., & Srivastav, P. (1990). Characteristics of holding, patterns of play, and social behaviours between parents and infants in New Delhi, India. Developmental Psychology, 26(4), 667.

Rothbaum, F., & Trommsdorff, G. (2007). Do roots and wings complement or oppose on another: The socialization of relatedness and autonomy in cultural context. New York: Guilford press.

Sefa-Dedeh, A., & Canetto, S. S. (1992). Women, family and suicidal behaviour in Ghana. Journal of Family Issues, 16(5), 383-402.

Slavkin, M., & Stright, A. D. (2000). Gender role differences in college students from one‐ and two‐parent families. Journal of Sex Roles, 42(2), 23‐37.

Steinberg, L., Mounts, S. N. & Elman, D J., (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial Maturity and academic success among adolescents. Journal of society for research in child development.20(5), 566-598.

Swim, J. K., Aikin, K. J., Hall, W. S., & Hunter, B. A. (1995). Sexism and racism: Old-fashioned and modern prejudices. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(2), 199.

Tougas, F., Brown, R., Beaton, A. M., & Joly, S. (1995). Neosexism. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 21(8), 842-849.

Wiley, M. G., & Eskilson, A. (1985). Speech style, gender stereotypes, and corporate success: What if women talk more like men? Sex Roles, 12, 993-1007.

Wilkie, J. R. (1993). Changes in US men's attitudes toward the family provider role, 1972-1989. Gender & Society, 7(2), 261-279.

Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1990). Sex and psyche: Gender and self-viewed cross-culturally. LA: Sage Publications.

Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1982). Measuring sex stereotypes: A thirty-nation study. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.