Social Changes And Conflicts In Orang Sekaum In The North Halmahera Peace Zone


  • Abubakar Muhammad Nur University of Muhammadiyah North Maluku



The civilization of "orang sekaum" (ethnic Tobelo) in its development, follows the dynamics of social change that leads to social conflict. Conflict and violence between brothers in "orang sekaum" gave birth to two different poles in a vulgar way (Islam vs. Christian). The process of social change and the development of "orang sekaum" is characterized by a climate of social life that previously lived in a harmonious and peaceful state, turned into conflict between brothers in the peace zone. Communities are provoked and powerless over the presence of migration in North Halmahera, from various regions as victims of previous conflicts and violence. The impact of this violent incident is directly proportional to the instability of the social control castle embodied in the cultural values of "Hibua Lamo" as the social glue and kinship of “orang sekaum” Therefore, horizontal riots soon take place with the same reason and language, each maintaining self-esteem on the basis of beliefs and religions it embraces


Acemoglu, D. (2003). Why Not A Political Coase Theorem? Social Conflict, Commitment, and Politics. Journal of Comparative Economics, 31, 620-652.

Burrows, K., & Kinney. P. (2016). Exploring the Climate Change, Migration and Conflict Nexus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 1-17.

Coser, L. A. (1956). The Functios of Social Conflict, New York: Free Press.

Coser, L., & Rosenberg. (1969). Sociological Theory: A Book of Reading, Third Edition, The Macmillan Company. London.

Dahrendorf, R. (1958). Toward a Theory of Social Conflict. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2(2), 170-183.

Dahrendorf, R. (1959). Class and class conflict in industrial society. USA. Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press.

Doucey, M. (2011). Understanding The Root Causes of Conflicts: Why it Matters for International Crisis Management. International Affairs Review, 20(2), 1-12.

Duncan, C. R. (2008). Where Do We Go from Here? The Politics of Ending Displacement in Post-Conflict North Maluku.” In Conflict, Violence, and Displacement in Southeast Asia: Patterns, Dynamics, and Experience, edited by Eva-Lotta Hedman, 207–230. Ithaca: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.

Duncan, C. R. (2009a). “Monuments and Martyrdom in the Aftermath of Communal Violence in North Maluku.” Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 165(4), 429-458.

Duncan, C. R. (2013). Violence and Vengeance: Religious Conflict and Its Aftermath in Eastern Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Duncan, C. R. (2016). Coexistence not Reconciliation: From Communal Violence to Non-Violence in North Maluku, Eastern Indonesia. The Asia Pacific Journal of Anthropology, 17(5), 460-474.

Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural Pathways Through Universal Development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461-90.

Hamim, T. (2007). Resolusi Konflik Islam Indonesia,LSAS dan IAIN Sunan Ampel Press.

Kanto, S. (2011). Perspektif Modernisasi Dan Perubahan Sosial. Malang: UB Press.

Lauer & Lauer, 1991. The Long-Term Relational Consequences of Problematic Family Backgrounds. Family Relations, 40(3), 286-290.

Leasa, M., & Batlolona, J. R. (2017). Full Day School dalam Pembentukan Karakter Siswa SMKN 13 Kota Malan [Full Day School in Student Character Formation SMKN 13 Malang]. Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora, 6(1), 73-82.

Leasa, M., & Samallo, R. (2014). Learning Motivation of Students in Ambon Child-Friendly School, Moluccas. Education, 4(2), 41-51.

Leasa, M., Corebima, A. D., Ibrohim., & Suwono, H. (2017). Emotional Intelligence among Auditory, Reading, and Kinesthetic Learning Styles of Elementary School Students in Ambon-Indonesia. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 10(1), 83-91.

Macionis, J. (1987). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Mele, C., Pels, J., & Polese, F. (2010). A Brief Review of Systems Theories and Their Managerial Applications. Service Science, 2(1/2), 126-135.

Merril, W. L. (1986). Religion and Culture: God’s Saviours in the Sierra Madre, dalam buku: Conformity and Conflict. Reading in Cultural Anthropology Six, Little, Brown.

Mikkelsen, E. N., & Clegg, S. (2017). Conceptions of Conflict in Organizational Conflict Research: Toward Critical Reflexivity. Journal of Management Inquiry, 1-14.

Muhammad Nur, Abubakar. (2013b). Merajut Damai Di Maluku Utara: Telaah Konstrukstif Konflik Malifut 1999-2000 [Knitting Peace In North Maluku: Constructive Studies Malfut Conflict 1999-2000]. Ternate: UMMU Press.

Opiyo, F. E.O, Oliver, V. W., Janpeter, S., & Stephen, M. M. (2012). Resource-based conflicts in drought-prone Northwestern Kenya: The drivers and mitigation mechanisms. Wudpecker Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(11), 442-453.

Papilaya, E. J. (2011). Kharisma Hibua Lamo, Tutur Kearifan Kepemimpinan Budaya, Tobelo [Kharisma Hibua Lamo, Tutur Wisdom of Cultural Leadership, Tobelo]: Pemda Halut.

Raho, B. (2014). Sosiologi, Yogyakarta: IKAPI.

Surwandono & Ahmadi, S. (2011). Resolusi Konflik di Dunia Islam [Conflict Resolution in the Islamic World], Yogyakarta, Grahayu Ilmu.

Tindage, R. (2006). Damai yang sejati: Rekonsiliasi di Tobelo, kajian teologi dan komunikasi [True peace: Reconciliation in Tobelo, theological and communications studies].Jakarta: YAKOMA-PGI.

Uprety, D. R. (2006). Conflicts in natural resource management –Examples from community forestry, Published 2006 in the Jahrbuch der.

Van den Berghe, P. L. (1967). Race and Racism: A Comparative Perspective. New York: Wiley.

Yelyang, A. (2016). Conflict Prevention Strategies in Northern Ghana: A Case Study of the Ethnic Conflicts in Kpemale. Journal of Conflict Transformation & Security, 5(1), 76-94.


Additional Files



How to Cite

Nur, A. M. (2018). Social Changes And Conflicts In Orang Sekaum In The North Halmahera Peace Zone. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(8).