Having Used Self-Control Increases Criminality
Ample work demonstrates that poor self-control is a major contributor to criminality. Other work indicates that self-control is impaired or fatigued following use. Self-control fatigue therefore might increase criminal tendencies. Participants either did or did not use self-control by controlling their attention. They later indicated perceptions of their likelihood to engage in criminal acts (e.g., stealing, buying illegal drugs). Participants who had used (v did not use) self-control indicated a greater perceived likelihood of committing crimes. This effect did not appear attributable to general risk taking, mood or arousal, or socially desirable responding.
Baumeister, R.F. (2005). The cultural animal: Human nature, meaning, and social life. New York: Oxford University Press.
Baumeister, R.F., Gailliot, M., DeWall, C.N., & Oaten, M. (2006). Self-regulation and personality: How interventions increase regulatory success, and how depletion moderates the effects of traits on behavior. Journal of Personality, 74, 1773-1801.
Baumeister, R.F., Vohs, K.D., & Tice, D.M. (2007). Strength model of self-control. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16, 351-355.
Cohen, S., & Spacapan, S. (1978). The aftereffects of stress: An attentional interpretation. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 3, 43-57.
Dawkins, R. (1976). The selfish gene. London: Oxford University Press.
DeWall, C. N., Baumeister, R. F., Gailliot, M. T., & Maner, J. K. (2008). Depletion makes the heart grow less helpful: Helping as a function of self-regulatory energy and genetic relatedness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1653-1662.
DeWall, C.N., Baumeister, R.F., Stillman, T.F., & Gailliot, M.T. (2007). Violence restrained: Effects of self-regulation and its depletion on aggression. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 62-76.
DeWall, C.N., Gailliot, M.T., Deckman, T., & Bushman, B.J. (2009). Sweetened blood cools hot tempers: Physiological self-control and aggression. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Finkel, E. J., & Campbell, W. K. (2001). Self-control and accommodation in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81, 263-277.
Finkel, E.J., Campbell, K.W., Brunell, A.B., Dalton, A.N., Scarbeck, S.J., & Chartrand, T.L. (2006). High-maintenance interaction : Inefficient social coordination impairs self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 456-475.
Gailliot, M.T. (2008). Unlocking the energy dynamics of executive functioning: Linking executive functioning to brain glycogen. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 245-263.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009a). The effects of glucose drinks on self-control are not due to the taste of the drink: Glucose drinks replenish self-control. Manuscript under review.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009b). An increased correspondence bias with low blood-glucose: Low glucose increases heuristic thought. Manuscript under review.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009c). Effortful outgroup interactions impair self-control via the depletion of glucose: The control of stereotypical thought and prejudice as metabolically expensive. Submitted.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009d). Improved self-control associated with using relatively large amounts of glucose: Learning self-control is metabolically expensive. Submitted.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009e). Alcohol consumption reduces effortful fatigue after sleep: Testing a theory of metabolite depletion and subsequent supercompensation. Submitted.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009f). Hunger impairs and food improves self-control in the laboratory and across the world: Reducing world hunger as a self-control panacea. Submitted.
Gailliot, M.T. (2009g). The effortful and energy-demanding nature of prosocial behavior. In Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (Eds.) Prosocial motives, feelings, and behavior – The better angels of our nature. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gailliot, M.T., & Baumeister, R.F. (2007). The physiology of willpower: Linking blood glucose to self-control. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11, 303-327.
Gailliot, M.T., Baumeister, R.F., DeWall, C.N., Maner, J.K., Plant, E.A., Tice, D.M., Brewer, L.E., & Schmeichel, B.J. (2007). Self-Control relies on glucose as a limited energy source: Willpower is more than a metaphor. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92, 325-336.
Gailliot, M.T., Hildebrandt, B., Eckel, L.A., & Baumeister, R.F. (2009). A theory of limited metabolic energy and premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms – Increased metabolic demands during the luteal phase divert metabolic resources from and impair self-control. Under review.
Gailliot, M.T., Peruche, B. M., Plant., E. A., & Baumeister, R. F. (2009). Stereotypes and prejudice in the blood: Sucrose drinks reduce prejudice and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 288-290.
Gailliot, M.T., Plant, E.A., Butz, D.A., & Baumeister, R.F. (2007). Increasing self-regulatory strength can reduce the depleting effect of suppressing stereotypes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 281-294.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
Hockey, R.H. (1983). Stress and fatigue in human performance. New York: Wiley.
Kleiber, M. (1961). The fire of life: An introduction to animal energetics. New York: Krieger.
Masicampo, E. J., & Baumeister, R. F. (2008). Toward a physiology of dual-process reasoning and judgment: Lemonade, willpower, and expensive rule-based analysis. Psychological Science, 19, 255-260.
Muraven, M., & Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Self-regulation and depletion of limited resources: Does self-control resemble a muscle? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 247-259.
Muraven, M., Baumeister, R.F., & Tice, D.M. (1999). Longitudinal improvement of self-regulation through practice: Building self-control through repeated exercise. Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 446-457.
Muraven, M., Collins, R. L., Neinhaus, K. (2002). Self-control and alcohol restraint: An initial application of the Self-Control Strength Model. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 113-120.
Muraven, M., Collins, R.L., Shiffman, S., & Paty, J.A. (2005). Daily fluctuations in self-control demands and alcohol intake. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 19, 140-147.
Muraven, M., Pogarsky, G., & Shmueli, D. (2006). Self-control depletion and the general theory of crime. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 22, 263-277.
Muraven, M., & Shmueli, D. (2006). The self-control costs of fighting the temptation to drink. Psychology of Addictive Behavior, 20, 154-160.
Muraven, M., Shmueli, D., & Burkley, E. (2006). Conserving self-control strength. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 524-537.
Muraven, M., & Slessareva, E. (2003). Mechanisms of self-control failure: Motivation and Limited Resources. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 894-906.
Oaten, M., & Cheng, K. (2006a). Longitudinal gains in self-regulation from regular physical exercise. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 717-733.
Oaten, M., & Cheng, K. (2006b). Improvements in self-control from financial monitoring. Journal of Economic Psychology, 28, 487-501.
Oaten, M., & Cheng, K. (2006c). Improved self-control: The benefits of a regular program of academic study. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 28, 1-16.
Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38, 931-964.
Ryan, A.H., & Warner, M. (1936). The effect of automobile driving on the reactions of the driver. The American Journal of Psychology, 48, 3, 403-421.
Schmeichel, B. J. (2007). Attention control, memory updating, and emotion regulation temporarily reduce the capacity for executive control. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 241-255.
Schmeichel, B. J., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 33-46.
Schmeichel, B. J., Volokhov, R., & Demaree, H. A. (2008). Working memory capacity and the self-regulation of emotional expression and experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95, 1526-1540.
Sherrod, D.R., & Downs, R. (1974). Environmental determinants of altruism: The effects of stimulus overload and perceived control on helping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 468-479.
Stucke, T. S., & Baumeister, R. F. (2006). Ego depletion and aggressive behavior: Is the inhibition of aggression a limited resource? European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 1-13.
Weber, E. U., Blais, A.-R., & Betz, N. (2002). A domain-specific risk-attitude scale: Measuring risk perceptions and risk behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15, 263-290.
How to Cite
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.