Crisis, Otherness and Integration. Local policies in South Eastern Europe: The case of Rhodes island


  • Panagiotis Kimourtzis University of the Aegean
  • Georgios Kokkinos University of the Aegean
  • Ioannis V Papageorgiou University of Edinburgh
  • Dimitris Kypriotis University of the Aegean



Otherness, Immigration, Integration policies, Rhodes, Europe


The density of the refugees and migrants wave in South Eastern Europe, along with the socioeconomic situation within and beyond Europe, shape the context and the agenda of the debate regarding the presence of Others in the European societies. The premises of that debate range from the practical considerations, such as the economic impact of securing the provision of essential necessities to the population in movement, to questions regarding the management of the integration of the current mixed migration flows. The conjuncture in which this debate occurs in the European level, namely the combination of economic crisis along with the emergence of centrifugal and xenophobe tendencies in many countries, render this debate significantly important. In an attempt to overcome the condensation of contradictions of the debate, innovative solutions could focus on researching and analysing the qualitative characteristics of the harmonic symbiosis between culturally diverse social groups at the local level. This article discusses the characteristics of the “embedded diversity” of the Muslim community on Rhodes island and its relations with the dominant Christian population and the new cultural diversity of refugees and immigrants. Based on that, the article analyses the significance of the local social conditions that could facilitate the integration of Others. The article concludes with indicative policy recommendations that base integration attempts on the particularly local social conditions. 

Author Biographies

Panagiotis Kimourtzis, University of the Aegean

Department of Primary Education, Associate Professor

Georgios Kokkinos, University of the Aegean

Department of Primary Education, Professor

Ioannis V Papageorgiou, University of Edinburgh

Law School, PhD

Dimitris Kypriotis, University of the Aegean

Department of Primary Education, PhD


Anderson, B. (1997) Φαντασιακές Κοινότητες: Στοχασμοί για τις Απαρχές και τη Διάδοση του Εθνικισμού [Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism], Nefeli, Athens.

Andriotis, N. (2004) ‘Χριστιανοί και Μουσουλμάνοι στην Κρήτη 1821-1924: Ένας αιώνας συνεχούς αναμέτρησης εντός και εκτός του πεδίου της μάχης [Christians and Muslims in Crete 1821-1924: A century of continuous confrontation within and outside of the battlefield], Mnimon, vol. 26, pp. 63-94.

Appiah, K.A. (2016) Η Ηθική της Ταυτότητας [The Ethics of identity], Polis, Athens.

Balibar, E. (2011) ‘Our European incapacity’, Open Democracy, 16 May 2011. Available online at

Balibar, E. (2003), We, the People of Europe? Reflections on Transnational Citizenship, Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Barnavi, E. (2008) Les Religions Meurtrières, Flammarion, Paris.

Bauman, Z. (2010) Living on Borrowed Time: Conversations with Citlali Rovirosa-Madrazo, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Bellais, R. (2016) ‘The European refugee and migrant crisis as an asymmetric conflict? What border management can learn from military operations’, paper presented at the conference “Borders, Walls and Violence: Costs and Alternatives to Border Fencing”, Montreal, 2-3 June.

Cassin, B. (2015) Η Νοσταλγία: Πότε λοιπόν είναι κανείς σπίτι του; [La Nostalgie: Quand Donc Est-on Chez Soi?], Melani, Athens.

Chapman, M., McDonald, M. & Tonkin, E. (1989) ‘Introduction’ in History and Ethnicity, eds M. Chapman, M. McDonald, & E. Tonkin, Routledge and Kegan, London, pp. 1-21.

Chiotakis, S. (1997) ‘Σχολική εκπαίδευση και κοινωνική ενσωμάτωση των Μουσουλμάνων της Ρόδου [Education and Social Integration of the Rhodian Muslims]’, Synhrona Themata, vol. 63, pp. 79-83.

Cowan, J. K. & Brown, K. S. (2000) ‘Introduction’ in Macedonia: The Politics of Identity and Difference eds J. K. Cowan, Pluto Press, London, pp. 3-27.

Dimitropoulos, D. (2004) ‘Μαρτυρίες για τον πληθυσμό των νησιών του Αιγαίου, 15ος – αρχές του 19ου αιώνα [Evidence for the population of the Aegean islands, 15th – beginning of 19th century]’, Tetradia Ergasias Kentrou Neoellinikon Ereunon/EIE, vol. 27, pp. 9-360.

Dirlik, A. (2007) ‘Global South: Predicament and Promise’, The Global South, vol. 1, no. 1, pp 12-23.

Efthimiou, M. (1992) ‘Ομοιότητες και διαφορές στη διοίκηση μιας νησιωτικής περιοχής. Οι Ιωαννίτες Ιππότες και οι Οθωμανοί στα νησιά του νοτιοανατολικού Αιγαίου [Similarities and differences in the administration of an island region. The St John Knights and the Ottomans on the islands in the southeastern Aegean]’, Mnimon, vol. 14, pp. 21-48.

Georgallidou, M., Kaili, H. & Celtek, A. (2013) 'Code alternation patterns in bilingual family conversations: implications for an integrated model of analysis', in Language Variation-European Perspectives IV, eds P. Aurer, J. Caro & G. Kaufman, John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp. 117-128.

Georgallidou, M., Kaili Η. & Celtek A. (2006) ‘Γλωσσικά ρεπερτόρια και ζητήματα ταυτότητας: Η δίγλωσση στα Ελληνικά και Τουρκικά κοινότητα των Μουσουλμάνων της Ρόδου’ [Linguistic repertoires and identity issues: The bilingual in Greek and Turkish community of the Muslims in Rhodes]’ paper presented at the conference Διεπιστημονικές προσεγγίσεις του μειονοτικού και μεταναστευτικού φαινομένου: Η ελληνική συγκυρία μετά το τέλος του ψυχρού πολέμου [Multidisciplinary approaches at the minority and migration phenomena: The Greek conjunction after the end of the cold war], Athens, 15-17 December.

Georgallidou, Μ. (2004) ‘Η αφήγηση: Η συνομιλιακή διαπραγμάτευση ζητημάτων ταυτότητας στο πλαίσιο της δίγλωσσης γλωσσικής κοινότητας των Μουσουλμάνων της Ρόδου [The narration: The discoursive negotiation of identity issues in the framework of the bilingual community of the Muslims of Rhodes]’, in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Greek Linguistics, e-book available online at:, Rethymno.

Greek Ombudsman. (2013) ‘Ειδική έκθεση: Το φαινόμενο της ρατσιστικής βίας στην Ελλάδα και η αντιμετώπισή του’ [Special report: The phenomenon of racist violence in Greece and its addressing]’, available at:

Gole, N. (2013) 'Islam, European Public Space and Civility', in Religion in the New Europe, ed K. Michalski, CEU, Budapest.

Hai, Y. (2008) ‘Revenge of young Muslims', The Sunday Times, 6 April.

Halikiopoulou, D. (2007) ‘The changing dynamics of religion and national identity: Greece and Ireland in a comparative perspective’, PhD Thesis, London School of Economics.

Held, D., Goldblatt, D., McGrew, A. & Perraton, J. (1999) Global Transformations, Polity Press, Cambridge.

Karamouzis, P. (2015) Η Κοινωνιολογία της Θρησκείας: Μεταξύ Εκπαίδευσης και Κοινωνίας [The Sociology of Religion: Between Education and Society], Ellinika Akadimaika Syggrammata Kallipos, Athens.

Kaurinkoski, K. (2012) ‘The Muslim communities in Kos and Rhodes: Reflections on social organization and collective identities in contemporary Greece’, in Balkan Encounters, Old and New Identities in South-Eastern Europe. Slavica Helsingiensia 41, eds J. Lindstedt & M. Wahlstrom, University of Helsinki, Helsinki. pp. 47-69.

Kokkinos, G., Kimourtzis, P. Karamouzis, Papageorgiou, F. I., Kypriotis, D., Trantas, P., Papageorgiou V. I., Papamichail, M. & Athanasiou, S. (2016) ‘Ιστορική και κοινωνιολογική μελέτη για τη Μουσουλμανική κοινότητα και τη μετανάστευση στη Ρόδο [Historical and Sociological Study of the Muslim Community and Migration in Rhodes]’, Unpublished report of the Understanding Diversity in Rhodes: Traditional and New Others (UnDRho) research project.

Kokkinos, G., Kimourtzis, P. Karamouzis, Leros, A., Papageorgiou, F. I., Kypriotis, D., Trantas, P., Papageorgiou V. I., Papamichail, M. & Athanasiou, S. (2016) ‘Μελέτη ανάλυσης πολιτικής [Policy Analysis Study]’, Unpublished report of the Understanding Diversity in Rhodes: Traditional and New Others (UnDRho) research project.

Krumbacher, K. (1994) Ελληνικό Ταξίδι: Φύλλα από το Ημερολόγιο ενός Ταξιδιού στην Ελλάδα και στην Τουρκία [Greek Voyage: Excerpts from the log of a Journey in Greece and Turkey], Katoptro-Istoritis, Athens.

Kurth. J. (2007) ‘Religion and National Identity in America and Europe’, Society, vol. 44, no. 6, pp. 120–125.

Lantza, E. (2011) ‘The Muslims of the Dodecanese islands: A non-officially recognised minority’, MSc Thesis, Istanbul Bilgi University.

Manis, T (2008) ‘Lecturer of Turkish language in Rhodes breaks old stereotypes’, Turquie Europeenne, 19 March. Available online at:

Manzoor, S. (2005) ‘We've ditched race for religion’, The Guardian, 11 January.

Mitchell, C. (2013) Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief, Ashgate, Oxford.

Papataxiarchis, E. (2016) ‘Μια μεγάλη ανατροπή; Η “ευρωπαϊκή προσφυγική κρίση” και ο νέος πατριωτισμός της “αλληλεγγύης”’ [A great reversal? the “European refugee crisis” and the new patriotism of “solidarity”]’, Synhrona Themata, vol. 132-133, pp. 7-28.

Peri, Y. (2012) ‘The “Religionization” of Israeli Society: Introduction’, Israel Studies Review, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 1-3.

Putnam, R. (1993) Making Democracy Work: Civic Tradition in Modern Italy, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Roy, O. (2013) 'Islam in Europe: Clash of Religions or Convergence of Religiosities?', in Michalski in Religion in the New Europe, ed K. Michalski, CEU, Budapest.

Savorianakis, P. (2000) Νησιωτικές Κοινωνίες στο Αιγαίο: Η Περίπτωση των Ελλήνων της Ρόδου και της Κω (18ος-19ος Αιώνας) [Island Societies in the Aegean: The Case of the Greeks of Rhodes and Kos (18th-19th Century)], Trohalia, Athens.

Souryal, S. (1987) ‘The Religionization of a Society: The Continuing Application of Shariah Law in Saudi Arabia’, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 429-449.

Sutton, E. D. (1998) Memories Cast in Stone: The Relevance of the Past in Everyday Life, Berg, Oxford.

Taras, R. (2009) Europe Old and New: Transnationalism, Belonging, Xenophobia, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Lanham.

Taylor, C. (2007) A Secular Age, Harvard University Press, Massachusetts.

Tsirpanlis, Z. (1998) Ιταλοκρατία στα Δωδεκάνησα, 1912-1943 [Italian Administration in the Dodecanese, 1912-1943], Municipality of Rhodes, Rhodes.

Tsitselikis, K. (2011) Old and New Islam in Greece. From Historical Minorities to Immigrant Newcomers, Martinus Nighoff, Leiden.

Tsitselikis, K. (2006), 'Μουσουλμανικές κοινότητες στην Ελλάδα πριν και μετά το 1923: Νομικές συνέχεις και ιδεολογικές ασυνέχειες [Muslim Communities in Greece before and after 1923: Judicial Continuations and Ideological Discontinuities]', in Η Ελληνοτουρκική Ανταλλαγή Πληθυσμών – Πτυχές μιας Εθνικής Σύγκρουσης [The Greek-Turkish Population Exchange: Aspects of a National Conflict], Research Centre for Minority Groups, Athens, pp. 368–387.

Ventura, L. (2011) ‘Εισαγωγή [Introduction]’, in Μετανάστευση και Κοινωνικά Σύνορα: Διαδικασίες Αφομοίωσης, Ενσωμάτωση ή Αποκλεισμού [Migration and Social Borders: Processes of Assimilation, Integration or Exclusion], ed L. Ventura, Nissos, Athens, pp 1-17.




How to Cite

Kimourtzis, P., Kokkinos, G., Papageorgiou, I. V., & Kypriotis, D. (2017). Crisis, Otherness and Integration. Local policies in South Eastern Europe: The case of Rhodes island. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 4(5).