Strength-based parenting and life satisfaction in teenagers
Two studies demonstrated the positive associations that authoritative parenting and strength-based parenting have with life satisfaction in adolescents. In Study 1, teenagers’ (N = 689; Mage = 15.20, SD = 3.80; 52% male) reports of the degree to which their parents demonstrated authoritative and strength-based parenting (SBP) explained over a third of the variance in life satisfaction scores (Adj. R2 = 35%). SBP explained 19% of variation in life satisfaction scores above and beyond the effects of authoritative parenting. Furthermore, SBP prospectively and significantly predicted 5% of life satisfaction in teenagers 12 months later. Study 2 recruited 127 adolescent-parent dyads (Adolescent Mage 15.30, SD = 2.30; 58% female; Parent Mage = 46.01, SD = 11.02; 67% mothers) and found that parent-reports of the degree to which they are aware of their son/daughter’s strengths and the degree to which they encouraged their son/daughter to use their strengths explained additional variance in life satisfaction in adolescents beyond their adolescent son/daughter’s own strengths-knowledge and strengths-use. It was concluded that strength-based parenting is a significant contributor to life satisfaction during adolescence.
Andersen, S. L., & Teicher, M. H. (2008). Stress, sensitive periods and maturational events in adolescent depression. Trends in Neurosciences, 31(4), 183–191. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2008.01.004
Aquilino, W. S., & Supple, a. J. (2001). Long-Term Effects of Parenting Practices During Adolescence on Well-Being Outcomes in Young Adulthood. Journal of Family Issues, 22(3), 289–308. http://doi.org/10.1177/019251301022003002
Austin, D. B. (2005). The effects of a strengths development intervention program upon the self-perceptions of students’ academic abilities. Dissertation Abstracts International Section A: Humanities and Social Sciences. http://doi.org/3175080
Bateson, P., Barker, D., Clutton-Brock, T., Deb, D., D’Udine, B., Foley, R. a, … Sultan, S. E. (2004). Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature, 430(6998), 419–421. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature02725
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529.
Biswas-Diener, R. (2012). The courage quotient: How science can make you braver. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Biswas-Diener, R., Kashdan, T. B., & Minhas, G. (2011). A dynamic approach to psychological strength development and intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(2), 106–118. http://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2010.545429
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss, Volume 1: Attachment. New York: Basic Books.
Calkins, S. D., & Bell, K. L. (1999). Developmental transitions as windows to parental socialization of emotion. Psychological Inquiry, 10, 368-372.
Chang, L., McBride-Chang, C., Stewart, S., & Au, E. (2003). Life satisfaction, self-concept, and family relations in Chinese adolescents and children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(2), 182–189. http://doi.org/10.1080/01650250244000182
Cimpian, A., Arce, H. M. C., Markman, E. M., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Subtle linguistic cues affect children’s motivation. Psychological Science, 18(4), 314–316. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01896.x
Clifton, D. O., & Anderson, E. (2002). StrengthsQuest: Discover and develop your strengths in academics, career, and beyond. Washington, D.C.: The Gallup Organization.
Coakes, S. J. (2005). SPSS: Analysis without Anguish: Version 12.0 for Windows. Milton, Qld.: Wiley.
Conoley, C., & Conoley, J. (2009). Positive psychology and family therapy. John Wiley & Sons: New Jersey.
Diener, E., & Diener, M. (1995). Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68(4), 653–663. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243
Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessmemt, 49(1), 71–75.
Drigotas, S. M., Rusbult, C. E., Wieselquist, J., & Whitton, S. W. (1999). Close partner as sculptor of the ideal self: behavioral affirmation and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2), 293–323. http://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1993
Eshel, N., Daelmans, B., Cabral De Mello, M., & Martines, J. (2006). Responsive parenting: Interventions and outcomes. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. http://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.06.030163
Froh, J. J., Sefick, W. J., & Emmons, R. a. (2008). Counting blessings in early adolescents: an experimental study of gratitude and subjective well-being. Journal of School Psychology, 46(2), 213–33. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2007.03.005
Gaté, M. A., Watkins, E. R., Simmons, J. G., Byrne, M. L., Schwartz, O. S., Whittle, S., … Allen, N. B. (2013). Maternal Parenting Behaviors and Adolescent Depression: The Mediating Role of Rumination. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 42(3), 348–357. http://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2012.755927
Gilman, R., Easterbrooks, S. R., & Frey, M. (2004). A preliminary study of multidimensional life satisfaction among deaf/hard of hearing youth across environmental settings. Social Indicators Research, 66, 143–164
Govindji, R., & Linley, A. (2007). Strengths use, self-concordance and well-being: Implications for Strengths Coaching and Coaching Psychologists. International Coaching Psychology Review, 2(2), 143–153. http://doi.org/10.1037/t01038-000
Gray, M. R., & Steinberg, L. (1999). Unpacking Authoritative Parenting: Reassessing a Multidimensional Construct. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61(3), 574–587. http://doi.org/10.2307/353561
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Multivariate Data Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hetherington, E. M., & Martin, B. (1986). Family factors and psychopathology in children. In H. C. Quay & B. Martin (Eds.), Psychopathological disorders of childhood (3rd ed., pp. 332–339). New York: Wiley.
Hill, J. (2001). How well do we know our strengths? In Paper presented at the British Psychological Society Centenary Conference, Glasgow.
Holmbeck, G. N., Paikoff, R. L., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (1995). Parenting adolescents. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, Vol. 1, Children and parenting (pp. 91–118). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Huebner, E. S., Funk, B. A., & Gilman, R. (2000). Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Life Satisfaction Reports. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 16(1), 53–64.
Huebner, E. S., Suldo, S. M., Smith, L. C., & McKnight, C. G. (2004). Life satisfaction in children and youth: Empirical foundations and implications for school psychologists. Psychology in the Schools, 41(1), 81–93. http://doi.org/10.1002/pits.10140
Jackson, C., Henriksen, L., & Foshee, V. a. (1998). The Authoritative Parenting Index: predicting health risk behaviors among children and adolescents. Health Education & Behavior : The Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education, 25(3), 319–337. http://doi.org/10.1177/109019819802500307
Kern, M. L., Waters, L. E., Adler, A., & White, M. A. (2015). A multidimensional approach to measuring well-being in students: Application of the PERMA framework. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(3), 262–271. http://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.936962
Lavy, S., Littman-Ovadia, H., & Bareli, Y. (2014). Strengths deployment as a mood-repair mechanism: Evidence from a diary study with a relationship exercise group. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(6), 547–558. http://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2014.936963
Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of adolescent psychology, volume 2: Contextual influences on adolescent development. Hoboken New Jersey: Wiley.
Leung, C. Y.-W., McBride-Chang, C., & Lai, B. P.-Y. (2004). Relations among Maternal Parenting Style, Academic Competence, and Life Satisfaction in Chinese Early Adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 24(2), 113–143. http://doi.org/10.1177/0272431603262678
Madden, W., Green, S., & Grant, A. M. (2011). A pilot study evaluating strengths-based coaching for primary school students: Enhancing engagement and hope. International Coaching Psychology Review, 6(1), 71–83. Retrieved from http://ezproxy.umsl.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=59578546&site=ehost-live&scope=site
Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Pais-Ribeiro, J. L. (2011). “Building Hope for the Future”: A Program to Foster Strengths in Middle-School Students. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 139–152. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-009-9180-3
Masten, A. S. (2004). Regulatory processes, risk, and resilience in adolescent development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 310–319. http://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1308.036
Nowak, C., & Heinrichs, N. (2008). A comprehensive meta-analysis of triple P-positive parenting program using hierarchical linear modeling: Effectiveness and moderating variables. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 11(3), 114–144. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10567-008-0033-0
Park, N. (2005). Life Satisfaction Among Korean Children and Youth: A Developmental Perspective. School Psychology International, 26(2), 209–223. http://doi.org/10.1177/0143034305052914
Peterson, A. C., Kennedy, R. E., & Sullivan, P. (1991). Coping with adolescence. In M. E. Colten & S. Gore (Eds.), Adolescent stress: Causes and consequences (pp. 93–110). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://doi.org/313971759
Peterson, G. W., Bush, K. R., & Supple, A. (1999).
Predicting Adolescent Autonomy from Parents: Relationship Connectedness and Restrictiveness. Sociological Inquiry, 69(3), 431–457. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1999.tb00880.x
Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583–630. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-008-9110-9
Proctor, C., Tsukayama, E., Wood, A. M., Maltby, J., Eades, J. F., & Linley, P. A. (2011). Strengths Gym: The impact of a character strengths-based intervention on the life satisfaction and well-being of adolescents. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(5), 377–388. http://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.594079
Rindfuss, R. R. (1991). The Young Adult Years: Diversity, Structural Change, and Fertility. Demography, 28(4), 493–512. http://doi.org/10.2307/2061419
Rusbult, C. E., Kumashiro, M., Kubacka, K. E., & Finkel, E. J. (2009). “The part of me that you bring out”: ideal similarity and the Michelangelo phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 96(1), 61–82. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0014016
Sanders, Matthew R. and Kirby, James N. (2014) A public-health approach to improving parenting and promoting children's well-being. Child Development Perspectives, 8 4: 250-257.
Schwartz, O. S., Byrne, M. L., Simmons, J. G., Whittle, S., Dudgeon, P., Yap, M. B. H., … Allen, N. B. (2014). Parenting During Early Adolescence and Adolescent-Onset Major Depression: A 6-Year Prospective Longitudinal Study. Clinical Psychological Science, 1(4), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1177/2167702613505531
Schwartz, O. S., Dudgeon, P., Sheeber, L. B., Yap, M. B. H., Simmons, J. G., & Allen, N. B. (2012). Parental behaviors during family interactions predict changes in depression and anxiety symptoms during adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(1), 59–71. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-011-9542-2
Schwartz, O. S., Sheeber, L. B., Dudgeon, P., & Allen, N. B. (2012). Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 447–453. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2012.05.002
Seibel, F. L., & Johnson, W. B. (2001). Parental control, trait anxiety, and satisfaction with life in college students. Psychological Reports, 88(2), 473–80. http://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.88.2.473-480
Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.
Seligman, M. E. P., Ernst, R. M., Gillham, J., Reivich, K., & Linkins, M. (2009). Positive education: positive psychology and classroom interventions. Oxford Review of Education, 35(3), 293–311. http://doi.org/10.1080/03054980902934563
Sheeber, L., Hops, H., Alpert, A., Davis, B., & Andrews, J. (1997). Family support and conflict: Prospective relations to adolescent depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25(4), 333–344. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1025768504415
Sheely-Moore, A. I., & Bratton, S. C. (2010). A strengths-based parenting intervention with low-income African American families. Professional School Counseling, 13, 175–183. http://doi.org/10.5330/PSC.n.2010-13.175
Sheridan, S. M., & Burt, J. D. (2009). Family-Centered Positive Psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 551–559). Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780195187243.013.0052
Spreitzer, G., Stephens, J. P., & Sweetman, D. (2009). The Reflected Best Self field experiment with adolescent leaders: exploring the psychological resources associated with feedback source and valence. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(5), 331–348. http://doi.org/10.1080/17439760902992340
Steinberg, L. (2014) the Age of Opportunity. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt: New York
Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2001). Adolescent development. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 83–110. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.83
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004a). Does life satisfaction moderate the effects of stressful events on psychopathological behaviour during adolescence? School Psychology Quarterly, 19, 93–105.
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2004b). The role of life satisfaction in the relationship between authoritative parenting dimensions and adolescent problem behavior. Social Indicators Research, 66, 165–195.
Suldo, S. M., & Huebner, E. S. (2006). Is extremely high life satisfaction during adolescence advantageous? Social Indicators Research, 78(2), 179–203.http://doi.org/10.2307/27522605
Suldo, S. M., Savage, J. A., & Mercer, S. H. (2013). Increasing Middle School Students’ Life Satisfaction: Efficacy of a Positive Psychology Group Intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(1), 19–42. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-013-9414-2
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2014). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education Limited.
Ullman, C., & Tatar, M. (2001). Psychological adjustment among Israeli adolescent immigrants: A report on life satisfaction, self-concept, and self-esteem. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(4), 449–463. http://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010445200081
Waters, L. (2015). The relationship between strength-based parenting with children’s stress levels and strength-based coping approaches. Psychology, 6, 689–699. http://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2015.66067
World Health Organization (2014). Health for the World’s Adolescents. http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/second-decade/en/
Wilson, K., Havighurts, S., & Harley, A. (2014). Dads tuning in to kids: Piloting a new parenting program targeting fathers' emotion coaching skills. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 162–168.
Wilson, K., Havighurts, S., & Harley, A. (2014). Improving parenting of toddlers' emotions using an emotion coaching parenting program: A pilot study of tuning in to toddlers. Journal of Community Psychology, 42, 169-175.
Yap, M., Allen, N., & Ladouceur, C. (2008). Maternal Socialization of Positive Affect: The Impact of Invalidation on Adolescent Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptomatology. Child Development, 79, 1415-1431
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
All authors of manuscripts accepted for publication in the journal Transactions on Networks and Communications are required to license the Scholar Publishing to publish the manuscript. Each author should sign one of the following forms, as appropriate:
License to publish; to be used by most authors. This grants the publisher a license of copyright. Download forms (MS Word formats) - (doc)
Publication agreement — Crown copyright; to be used by authors who are public servants in a Commonwealth country, such as Canada, U.K., Australia. Download forms (Adobe or MS Word formats) - (doc)
License to publish — U.S. official; to be used by authors who are officials of the U.S. government. Download forms (Adobe or MS Word formats) – (doc)
The preferred method to submit a completed, signed copyright form is to upload it within the task assigned to you in the Manuscript submission system, after the submission of your manuscript. Alternatively, you can submit it by email email@example.com