Main Article Content
Self –handicapping has been conceptualized by the majority of the authors as a motivational strategy reflecting the efforts of the individual who anticipates failure in dealing with some significant goal-oriented activity to defend one’s sensitive ego.The objective of this research was to substantiate a conceptualization of self-handicapping as a maladaptive proactive coping strategy that opposes a set of other proactive coping strategies , singled out by now, all of which result in positive outcomes, such as preventive, strategic, anticipatory and other forms of constructive proactive coping. Using the statistical methods of correlation and factor analysis, it was found on a sample of 135 university undergraduates, that the personality precursors of self-handicapping and adaptive forms of proactive coping appeared to be orthogonal. While self –handicapping is determined by the high level of neuroticism, low level of ego-involvement (strive to self-evolution), low ego-identity (belief in self-efficacy), the proactiive adaptive coping strategies have shown strong positive correlations with ego-identity (self- esteem, belief in self-efficacy) and ego-involvement, and negative correlation with neuroticism. This proves that self-handicapping complements the system of proactive forms of coping strategies .
Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.
2. Arkin, R. M. & Oleson, K. C. (1998). Self-handicapping. In J. M. Darley & J. Cooper (Eds.) Attribution and social interaction: The legacy of Edward E. Jones (pp. 313 - 347). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
3. Arshava, I., Nosenko, E., Nosenko, D. (2013). Personality-mediated differences in coping behavior as precursors of the subjective well-being. European Scientific Journal, Special Edition, Vol. 2. 548-558.
4. Berglas, S., & Jones, E.E. (1978). Drug choice as a self-handicapping strategy in response to noncontingent success. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36,405-417
5. Carver, C.S., & Scheier, M.F. (1996) Self-regulation and its failures. Psychology Inquiry, 7, 32
6. Colman, A. M. (2009). A Dictionary of Psychology (3 Ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p.682.
7. Costa, P.T., McCrae, R. (1992). Normal personality assessment in clinical practice: The NEO Personality Inventory. Psychological Assessment, Vol 4 (1), 5-13.
8. Cramer, P., & Brilliant, M.A. (2001). Defense Use and Defense Understanding in Children. Journal of Personality, Vol. 69, Iss. 2, p.297-322
9. Diener, E., Emmons, R.A., Larsen, R.J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
10. Endler, N.S., Parker, J.D. Multidimensional assessment of coping: A critical evaluation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 58 (5), May 1990, 844-854.
11. Endler, N.S., & Parker, J.D.A. (1999). Coping inventory for stressful situations (CISS): Manual (2nd Ed.). Toronto: Multi-Health Systems.
12. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R.S. et al. Dynamics of Stressful Encounter: Cognitive Appraisal, Coping, and Encounter Outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1986). Vol. 50, No 5, 992-1003.
13. Greenglass, E. (with R. Schwarzer). (1998).The Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI). In R. Schwarzer (Ed.), Advances in health psychology research (CD-ROM). Berlin: Free University of Berlin. Institut for Arbeits, Organizations-und Gesundheitspsychologie.
14. Greenglass, E. (2002). Chapter 3. Proactive coping. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, vision, and challenges. London: Oxford University Press, p.37-62.
15. Higgins, J.E., Endler, N.S. (1995) Coping, life stress, and psychological and somatic distress, European Journal of Personality, Vol 9, Issue 4, p.253-270.
16. Higgins, R.L., Snyder, C.R., & Berglas, S. (1990). Self-handicapping: The paradox that isn’t. New York: Plenum.
17. Hirt, E.R., McCrea, S.M., & Kimble, C.E. (2000). Public self-focus and sex differences in behavioral self-handicapping: Does increasing self-threat still make it “just a man’s game?”. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1131-1141.
18. Hirt E.R., McCrea, S.M., & Boris, H.I. (2003) “I know you self-handicapped last exam”: Gender differences in Reactions to Self-Handicapping. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 84, No. 1, p. 177-193.
19. Jones, E.E., & Berglas, S. (1978). Control of attributions about the self through self-handicapping strategies: The appeal of alcohol and the role of underachievement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 200-206.
20. Keyes, C.L.M. (2006). Mental health in adolescence: Is America’s youth flourishing? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 76, 395-402.
21. Koloditz, T.A., & Arkin, R.M. (1982). An impression management interpretation of the self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 492-502.
22. Kusikova, S. (2012). Psychological fundamentals of the development of the personality self-evolution over youth. Sumy: MacDen Publishing.
23. Lazarus, R.S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process, New York:McGraw-Hill
24. McCrea, S.M., & Hirt, E.R. (2001). The role of ability judgments in self-handicapping. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1378-1389.
25. McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R., Hendrix, K. L., Milner, B. J., & Steele, N. L. (2008).The worker scale: Developing a measure to explain gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping. Journal of Research in Personality.949-970
26. McCrea, S. M., Hirt, E. R., & Milner, B. J. (2008).She works hard for the money: Valuing effort underlies gender differences in behavioral self-handicapping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.292-311
27. McCrea, S.M. (2008) Self-handicapping, excuse making, and counterfactual thinking: Consequences for self-esteem and future motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 95 (2), 274-292.
28. Osin, E. (2012). The measurement of positive and negative emotions: Development of the Russian version of PANAS. Psichologia, Journal of Vishei Shkoli Ekonomiki, Vol 9, No. 4, p. 91-110.
29. Peacock, E.J. & Wong, P.T.P. (1993). Relations Between Appraisals and Coping Schemas: Support for the Congruence Model. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 25:1, 64-80.
30. Pyszczynski, T. & Greenberg, J. (1983). Determinants of reduction in intended effort as a strategy for coping with anticipated failure. Journal of research in Personality, 17, 412-422.
31. Rhodewalt, F., Saltzman, A.T., & Wittmer, J. (1984). Self-handicapping among competitive athletes: The role of practice in self-esteem protection. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 5, 197-209.
32. Rhodewalt, F., Morf, C., Hazlett, S., & Fairfield, M. (1991). Self-handicapping: The Role of discounting and augmentation in the preservation of self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 122-131.
33. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton
34. Schaufelli, W.B., Bakker, A.B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25, 293-315
35. Schwarzer, R., Jerusalem, M., & Romek, V. (1996). Russian version of the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Foreign Psychology (Moscow), 7, p. 71-77.
36. Schwarzer, R., & Taubert, S. (2002). Tenacious goal pursuits and striving toward personal growth: Proactive Coping. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, vision, and challenges. London: Oxford University Press, p.19-35
37. Smith, T. W., Snyder, C.R., & Handelsman, M.M. (1982). On the self-serving function of an academic wooden leg: Test anxiety as self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 787-797.
38. Smith, T.W., Snyder, C.R., & Perkins, S.C., (1983). The self-serving function of hypochondriacal complaints: Physical symptoms as self-handicapping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 787-797.
39. Snyder, C.R., & Smith, T.W., (1982). Symptoms as self-handicapping strategies: The virtues of old wine in a new bottle. In G. Weary & H.L. Mirel (Eds.), Integrations of clinical and social psychology (p.104-127). New York: Oxford University Press.
40. Snyder, M.L., Smoller, B., Strenta, A., & Frankel, A. (1981). A comparison of egotism, negativity , and learned helplessness as explanations for poor performance after unsolvable problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 24-30.
41. Spalding, L.R., Hardin, C.D. (1999). Unconscious Unease and Self-Handicapping: Behavioral Consequences of Individual Differences in Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem. Psychological Science vol. 10 no 6.
42. Tice, D.M. (1991). Esteem protection or enhancement? Self-handicapping motives and attributions differ by trait self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 60(5), May 1991, 711-725
43. Tucker, J.A., Vuchinich, R.E., & Sobell, M.B. (1981). Alcohol consumption as a self-handicapping strategy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 220-230.
44. Watson, D., Clark, L.A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 47, 1063-1070.
45. Zuckerman, M., & Tsai, F. F. (2005). Costs of self-handicapping. Journal of Personality, 73(2), 411–442.