# DEVELOPING MULTIPLICATION FACT FLUENCY

## DOI:

https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.28.1396## Keywords:

Multiplication, Fact Fluency, Student Achievement, Cognition## Abstract

Using specific components of three broad learning theories—cognitive, social-interactional, and behavioral—students in 3^{rd}, 4^{th} and 5^{th} grade classrooms were given multiplication fact fluency instruction over a period of five weeks for 10-15 minutes each day. Two different approaches were utilized with two distinct groups of students for the purpose of comparing different approaches to fluency development. Results indicate that students using a *strategy-based* *approach* for fluency development by means of instructional tasks emphasizing social-interactional and cognitive theories (particularly Bruner’s theory of Modes of Representation) increased multiplication fact fluency, with a greater degree of consistency, than students using a *drill-based approach* emphasizing behavioristic techniques such as repetition and memorization.

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