A Study on the Relationships between Elementary School Principal's Positive Leadership and Teacher's Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Remote Area in Taiwan


  • Chih-Wen FAN a:1:{s:5:"en_US";s:30:"Dong Hwa University /professor";}
  • Wu-Mei Hsieh teacher in Min-Ling elementary school




Principal’s Positive Leadership, Teacher’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior


The aim of this study was to investigate the current state and related situations of the relationship between principal’s positive leadership and teacher’s organizational citizenship behavior of elementary schools in Hualien County.

This study adopted questionnaire survey, using stratified random sampling to select 347 public elementary teachers in Hualien County. The research tool was the “Questionnaire of the Relationship between principal’s positive leadership and Teacher’s organizational citizenship behavior of elementary schools” adapted by the study. A total of 326 valid questionnaires were collected, with the effective recovery rate 93.9%. The data obtained were analyzed and tested with descriptive statistics, t-tests, one-way analysis of variance, product moment correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The following conclusions were reached.


1.The overall current situation of principal’s positive leadership and teacher’s organizational citizenship behavior of elementary schools was good.

2.Principal’s Positive Leadership and Teacher’s organizational citizenship behavior of elementary schools was significantly positively related.

  1. Principal’s Positive Leadership of elementary schools could effectively predict Teacher’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior.


Finally, based on those findings, the study suggests some implications of administrative authorities, elementary school principals, teachers, and further studies as well


Bass, B., & Riggio, R. E., (2006). Transformational leaderhip. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New Jersey.

Bateman, T. S., & Organ, D. W. (1983). Job satisfaction and the good soldier: The relationship between affect and employee "Citizenship". The Academy of Management Journal, 26(4), 587-595.

Batthyany, A., & Russo-Netzer, P.(2014). Meaning in Positive and Existential Psychology. New York: Springer.

Cameron, K. (2008). Positive leadership: Strategies for extraordinary performance. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Cameron, K. S., & Plews, E. (2012). Positive leadership in action: Applications of POS by Jim Mallozzi, CEO, Prudential Real Estate and Relocation. Organizational Dynamics, 41(2), 99-105.

Cameron, K. (2013). Practicing positive leadership: Tools and techniques that create extraordinary results. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.

Cameron, K., Quinn, R.E., &Caldwell, C. (2017).Positive leadership and adding value – a lifelong journey. International Journal of Public Leadership, 13(2), 59-63.

Chung, H. L. (2011). The impact of elementary school principal’s positive leadership and school culture on effectiveness of school innovation management in Taiwan. Department of Educational Management, National Taipei University of Education, Unpublished, doctoral dissertation, Taipei City.

Davis, S., Darling-Hammond, L., LaPointe, M., & Meyerson, D. (2005). School leadership study: Developing successful principals (Review of Research). Stanford, CA: Stanford University, Stanford Educational Leadership Institute.

DiPaola, M. F., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2001). organizational citizenship behavior in schools and its relationship to school climate. Journal of School Leadership, 11, 424-447.

Ehrhart, M. C., Wentd, H., & Emmerik, H.V..(2007).Leadership styles and group organizational citizenship behavior across cultures. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 1035–1057.

Fan, C. W. (2008). Human resource management of schools: Concept and practice. Taipei City: Guan Xue.

Fan, C. W., Chang, W. C. (2015). Elementary School Teachers’ Turnover and Improvement Strategies in Remote Areas of Hualien County. Taiwan Educational Review Monthly, 4 (6), 74-77.

Gurr, D.(1996). On conceptualising school leadership: time to abandon transformational leadership?. Leading and Managing, 2(3), 221–239.

Hallinger, P. & Huber, S. (2012).School leadership that makes a difference: international perspectives. School effectiveness and school improvement, 23 (4), 359-367.

Hsieh, W. C. (2008). Educational administration. Taipei City: Publish Get.

Hsieh, C.C. (2011a). Principal's positive leadership and Its impact on teacher's teaching. Educational Resources and Research, 101, 59-82.

Hsieh, C.C. (2011b). Principals’ Positive Leadership Results in Outstanding Performance of Schools. The Educator Monthly, 529, 51-55.

Hsieh, C.C. (trans) (2011c). Positive Leadership: Strategies for Extraordinary Performance. (Original author: K. Cameron, 2008). Taipei City: Chu Liu Books.

Hsu, W. K. (2015). The Study of the Relationship among the Elementary School Principal’s Knowledge Leadership, School Organizational Learning and Teachers’ organizational citizenship behavior in Hsinchu City. Graduate Institute of Educational Administration and Policy, Unpublished, Master’s Thesis, Taipei City.

Hsu, T. M., & Yeh, C. C. (2015). Challenges of the Achievement Gap Between Urban and Rural Students in Taiwan: Influencing Factors and Relevant Policy Recommendations. NTTU Educational Research Journal, 26 (2), 63-91.

Kuan, Y. K. (2014). A Study of the Relationship among the Principals’ Positive Leadership, Teachers’ Positive Psychological Capital and Teachers’ Organization Citizenship Behaviors in Junior High Schools. Master of Education in School Administration, National Chengchi University, Unpublished, Taipei City.

Leithwood, K., Seashore-Louis, K., Anderson, & Wahlstrom, (2004). Executive summary: How leadership influences student learning. Learning From Leadership Project, The Wallace Foundation.

Netemeyer, R. G., Boles, J. S., McKee, D. O., & McMurrian, R. (1997). An investigation into the antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviors in a personal selling context. Journal of Marketing, 61(3), 85-98.

Organ, D. W. (1994). Personality and Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Management, 20(2), 465-478.

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com.

Peterson, M. W., & White, T. H. (1992). Faculty and administrator perceptions of their environments: Different view or different model of organization? Research in Higher Education, 33(2), 177–204.

Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., Lane, N, & Vorhies, D. W. (2006). Driving Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Salesperson In-Role Behavior Performance: The Role of Management Control and Perceived Organizational Support. Academy of Marketing Science, 34(2), 244-262.

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviors: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of Management, 26(3), 513-563.

Randhawa, G., & Kaur, K. (2015). An empiricial assessment of impact of organizational climate on organizational citizationship behavior. Paradigm, 19(1), 65-78.

Shanker, M. (2018).Organizational citizenship behavior in relation to employees’ intention to stay in Indian organizations. Business Process Management Journal, 24 (6),1355-1366.

Seligmanm, M., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive Psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55 (1), 5-14.

Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: Its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653-663.

Somech, A., & Drach-Zahavy, A. (2000). Understanding extra-role behavior in schools: The relationships between job satisfacation, sense of efficacy, and teachers’ extra-role behavior. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(5-6), 649-659.

Tseng, J. M.,& Fan, C. W. (2019). A Study on the Relationship between Principals' Positive Leadership, and School Effectiveness in Elementary Schools: Teacher Academic Optimism as Mediator. School Administrators, 121, 33-52.

Van Dyne, L., Graham, J. W., & Dienesch, R. M. (1994). Organizational citizenship behavior: Construct redefinition, measurement and validation. The Academy of Management Journal, 37(4), 765-802.

Wang, N. L. (2009). A Study on Principals' Leadership Behavior and Teachers' organizational citizenship behavior in Elementary Schools in Taipei City. Journal of University of Taipei, 40 (1), 136-137.

Wu, C. S. (2013). Positive leadership. Journal of Education Research, 230, 136-137.

Wu, C. S., Lin, T. Y. (2007). Organizational Citizenship Behavior. Journal of Education Research, 162, 134.

Youssef-Morgan, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2013). Positive leadership: Meaning and application across cultures. Organizational Dynamics, 42(3), 198-208.




How to Cite

FAN, C.-W., & Hsieh, W.-M. (2021). A Study on the Relationships between Elementary School Principal’s Positive Leadership and Teacher’s Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Remote Area in Taiwan. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 8(8), 240–250. https://doi.org/10.14738/assrj.88.10641