Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Still a Force to be Reckoned with

  • Raghavendra Rao M.V Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
  • Kumar Ponnusamy Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
  • Sireesha Bala Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
  • Sripada Pallavi.T Apollo Institute of Medical Science and Research Institute, Jubilee Hills, Hyderabad, Telangana,
  • KrishnaSowmya. M Burjil Hospital, Abu Dhabhi, United Arab Emirates
  • Ramanaiah, C.J Amina Hospital Sharjah,United Arab Emirates
  • Mahendra K. Verma Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Bhopal,India
  • Amin Fateh Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
  • Abraham Nayakanti Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
  • Sateesh Babu. A Avalon University School of Medicine, Curacao, Central America.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, uncomplicated cystitis, , cefaclor

Abstract

Burning pain ,frequent urge to  urinate is the first sign of a UTI. It is due to bacteria in the urethra or bladder.  Frequent urination is another red flag for an infection. Urine produces peculiar even foul odor and smoky, cloudy. Urine appears pinkish or reddish due to the presence of blood.Young women are commonly infected.Prostate hypertrophy is linked to male disease. It is affecting almost 4 million people in US alone. The chance of UTI is more in women.In females, it affects the bladder and urethra. Women who use diaphragms, spermicidal agents are more at risk. Menopause women are more vulnerable to infection. Infection of upper urinary tract,consisting of the kidney and pelvis ,is known as pyelonephritis.Infection of the lower tract may involve the bladder (Cystitis),urethra (Urethritis) or prostate (Prostatitis) Intercourse is common association of UTI. Catheters increase the risk.Obstruction of urinary flow increase the risk.Bacterial adherence favors persistence.Fever is usually absent.Enterobacteriaceae and gram positive bacteria appear with complications.Back and perirectal  pain are the signs of UTI.Pyuria suggests UTI but not specific.Chronic disease is the source of cystitis.Kidney infection results in permanent kidney damage. Take plenty of water/fluids to flush out bacteria.Wipe front to back. This helps the spread of bacteria from the anus into the bladder. Decreased estrogen levels during menopause cause changes that make the urinary tract more susceptible to bacteria. Most patients with UTI have uncomplicated cystitis, which is one of the most common infections in the United States, especially in sexually active women. Escherichia coli is the most common cause of urinary tract infection. Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a frequent cause of cystitis in women, probably related to its occurrence as a part of normal vaginal flora. Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Serratia are the primary opportunistic and often nosocomial pathogens. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen and a major cause of hospital-acquired infections.

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Published
2018-09-07
How to Cite
Rao M.V, R., Ponnusamy, K., Bala, S., Pallavi.T, S., M, K., C.J, R., Verma, M. K., Fateh, A., Nayakanti, A., & Babu. A, S. (2018). Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) Still a Force to be Reckoned with. Journal of Biomedical Engineering and Medical Imaging, 5(4), 23. https://doi.org/10.14738/jbemi.54.5121

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